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6 MAI? 1907 


Security Building 


President Vice President Manager 

O. W. BODLER, Secretary CH AS. A. BLAKE, Asst. Secretary 

MAHAM H. HAIG, Managing Editor B. W. BENEDICT, Editor 

Index to Volume XXX 

January to December, 1906 

Issue Pages 

January ..,...' i to 32 

February 33 to 70 

March 71 to 104 

Issue Pages 

April 105 to 134 

May 135 to 168 

June 169 to 210 

Issue Pages 

July 211 to 252 

August 253 to 286 

September 287 to 320 

Issue Pages 

October 321 to 354 

November 355 to 468 

December 469 to 514 

Illustrated Articles Indicated by Asterisk 

*Acme Rotary Thread Rolling Machine 62 

*A. C— D. C. Locomotive for the N. Y. N. H. & H. Ry. ...150 

*Adreon-Morse Ratchet Wrench 350 

Advantages of the Mallet Compound 113 

Advertising, Important Movement In 64 

Advisory Committee Meeting 132 

Advisory Committee Meeting, Comments on 165 

Air-Braked Cars 346 

*Air, Emptying Barrels with Compressed 54 

Air Power in the Union Shops at Omaha 14 

Albree, Chester B., Iron Works Co 61 

Alcohol, Denatured 249 

*A11-Steel Passenger Coach — Southern Pacific Ry 372. 

Allen, E. 0., on Height of Couplers 41 

* American Balance Valve Co.— The Semi-Plug Piston Valve. 315 
*American Palace Car "Columbia" 53 

American versus Foreign Locomotives 34 

An "All-Sorts" Letter ...68 

* Angus Shops, Canadian Pacific Ry 289, 323, 357 

*An American Manufacturers' Observations in Germany. . . .276 

Antiquated Shop Tools t>3 

* Application of Card Index System to a Motive Power Office. 46 
Apprentices, Special, Wanted 288, 321 

*Arch Bar Drill, Standard 201 

* Armstrong Bolt Driver 63 

*Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., New Plant of the 24 

Asphaltum — Some of its History and Characteristics 103 

Atlantic City Conventions i, 211 219 

A., T. & S. F. Ry — Four-cylinder Balanced Locomotive 483 

A., T. & S. F. Ry. — Prairie Type Balanced Compound Loco- 



* Atlantic Type Balanced Compound — Union Pacific R R 336 

* Automatic Hose Coupler, The Joy 25 

Automatic Oil Cup, The Bangs 95 

Balanced Compound Locomotives 120 

*Balanced Compound, Baldwin — Seoul Fusan R. R 112 

^Baldwin Balanced Compound, Seoul Fusan R. R 112 

^Baldwin Freight Engine— Deepwater Railroad Co , , , . 4 

*Baldwin 12-Wheeler, Ferro-Cartil Yaguajay 121 

*Baltimore & Ohio Railroad — Motive Power Types 259 

^Baltimore & Ohio Simple Consolidation Engine 11 

Barnum, M. K. on Height of Couplers 40 

*Bangs Automatic Oil Cup 95 

Beardsley, A. L., President of the Traveling Engineers' 

Assn 331 

Beardsley, A. L. — The President's Address 330 

*Bell Ringer, Simplicity 507 

Benedict, E. N., on Height of Couplers 74 

*Bent Flexible Staybolt 342 

Billingham, R. A., on Height of Couplers 76 

Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of America. . 99 

Blacksmith Shop, Discipline and Results in the Railroad 505 

*B!ue Printing Machine, Continuous Electric 389 

Boiler Design 288 

Boiler Design, Locomotive 71 

*Boiler Design, Locomotive, Some of the Essentials in 87 

Boiler Practice, Established, Departures from 322 

Boiler Pressures, Low ' 274 

*Boiler, The Brotan Locomotive 116 

*Boilers, Large Locomotive 173 

Boilers, Prevention of Corrosion in 186 

*Bolt Driver, The Armstrong 63 

Bolts, Expansion 393 

*Bolt Turning Machine, Lassister Straight and Taper 10 

*Boring and Turning Machine, Forty-Two Inch 27 

*Boring and Turning Machine, Special, for the Lima Loco. 

& Mach. Co 387 

Boutet, H., on Height of Couplers 40 

Brake Staff, A Standard 172 

Brass Finish 163, 285 

Brazier, W. F., on Height of Couplers 36 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit System Shops in South Brooklyn. 

Keeping its Cars Bright and Clean .250 

*Brotan Locomotive Boiler 1 16 

Buchanan, W. J., on Height of Couplers 41 

/^Buffalo Forged Steel Fulcrum ,-.,,,,,,,..,., 276 


'"Bull Dog Lock-Nut 198 

Calcium Steel 201 

*Camel System of Refrigeration 508 

-""Canadian Pacific Railway — Angus Shops 289, 323, 357 

Canadian Pacific, Superheated Steam on the 135 

♦Canadian Pacific Superheater 147 

Carbon 100 

*Car & Locomotive Works, Hicks 279 

*Car De Luxe — Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean 146 

Car Builders' Dictionary, New- '. . .270 

Car Company, The Railway Auto 247 

*Car — C, M. & St. P. Ry. — Special of 100 Tons Capacity for 

AlHs-Chalmers Co 140 

Car Equipment Renewals, Immense 309 

Car, Freight, Painting 512 

Car, Freight, Repair Facililies 472 

*Car, Hospital, for the Southern Pacific 8 

*Car, Private, for the Western Union Telegraph Company. .383 

Car Lighting System, The Marsh 57 

Car, Steel Passenger 1 

*Car, Special Flat — 100 tons Capacity 140 

♦Car, 40-Foot Furniture, C, M. & St. P. Ry • 50 

*Car, The American Palace Car 53 

*Car, The First King-Lawson Dump 55 

Cars, Air-P> raked . . . 346 

Cars, Electric. Safety Devices at Front of 120 

Cars, Inspection of, at Interchange Points 190 

Cars, Journals and Bearings for 72 

Cars, Passenger, Harmony on the Interior Finishing of... 251 

Cars, Passenger, Preventing Foul Odors in 207 

Cars, Railroad, New Numbers for 250,000. 513 

♦Cars, Steel, for Suburban Service, New York Central 3 

"Cars, Stock, with Steel Underf raining 499 

Cars, Suburban Motor 117 

Cars, Treatment of, in General Repairs 283 

Care of Flues '. 287 

'"Card Index System, Application of, to a Motive Power 

Office 46 

'"Cardwell Friction Draft Gear 200 

'"Cardwell Rocker Side Bearing 200 

Cary Automatic Car and Train Pipe Coupling 199 

Case-Hardening Compound, The National 313 

Castings, Stores 285 

Cast-Steel Cylinders, New York Central 184 

'"Cast Steel Frame Section at Front Driver 342 

*C. R. R. of N. J., Heavy Eight-Wheel Passenger Engine. ... 58 
*C. R. R. of N. J. — Welding Broken Locomotive Frames by 

the Thermic Process 2>77 

""Central Railroad of New Jersey; Some Shop Kinks on the. .337 

Chains, Safety 496 

:|! C. G. W. Locomotive, Wheaton Variable Exhaust and drifter 

on a 127 

*C, P- & St. L. Ry.— Knuckle Rack 155 

*C, R. I. & P. Ry., Simple Consolidation Locomotive 186 

Chief Joint Car Inspectors and Car Foremen's Associa- 
tion .61, 394 

*C1ark, H. A 250 

Climate Conditions on Paint and Varnish, the Variable 

Effect of ' 166 

*C , M. & St. P. Ry., 40-Foot Furniture Car 50 

Coach Painting for Southern Climates 164 

'"Coach, Steam Motor — Great Northern of Scotland Ry 88 

'"Coach, Steam Motor, The Kobusch-Wagenhals 385 

'"Coal and Coke Furnace, A New 316 

Coal Compound Locomotive, Nor. Pac. Ry....: 478 

*Coates Flexible Power Transmission 126 

*Coes, Mr. Loring 7 

College Tests 105 

'"Collin wood Shop, A Few Specialties of the 473 

Collinwood Shop, A Visit rd the 29 

Colors Kill Germs 163 

*"Columbia" The American Palace Car 53 

Comments on the Advisory Committee Meeting 165 

Combined Steel & Trolley Service 154 

♦Combustion Chamber, Locomotive Boiler with — Northern 

Pacific Ry 341 

♦Combustion of Fuel in Relation to Locomotive Firing. .371, 488 

Comparative Test of Large Locomotive Air Pumps 196 

Compound, Advantages of Mallet 113 

Compound, Wear on De Glehn 105 

Compound Balanced Locomotives 120 

Concerning Roundhouse Equipment 144 

*Consolidation Locomotives — Delaware & Hudson Company. .374 

♦Consolidation Locomotive, New York Central 139 

♦Continuous Electric Blue Print Machine 389 

Conventions at Atlantic City 1, 211, ^73 

'"Convention, Fourteenth Annual, of the International Rail- 
way Master Blacksmiths' Association •. . . .31 t 

Convention, Master Blacksmiths' 271 

Copper Staybolts 191 

*Copper Staybolts — Western Railway of France no 

Corbett, W. PL, on Drop Grates 367 

Corrosion in Boilers, a Preventive of 186 

Cost of Locomotive Operation ; 509 

♦Crane, Portable, for Erecting Shop 502 

*Crane Service, Round House with 488 

♦Countershaft, The Improved Friction 93 

Couplers, Increase in Variation in Height of 35, 73 

Curtis, T. H., on Height of Couplers 74 

Cyclopedia of Drawing 99 

Cylinders, New York Central Cast-Steel 184 

Dangerous Varnish Remover 320 

♦Deepwater R. R. Co., Baldwin Freight Engine 4 

De Glehn Compound, Wear on 105 

*D. L. & W. Car Shops— Oil House 363 

*D. L. & W. R. R., Kingsland Shops 107 

♦Delaware & Hudson Company — Consolidation Locomotive. .374 

D. & H. Co.'s Mines, Fire Fighting at 376 

Denatured Alcohol 249 

♦D. & R. G. Round House with Crane Service .491 

Departures from Established Boiler Practice 322 

Design, Boiler 288 

Designers, Difference in 218 

Detroit Graphite Co., Building in Addition 25 

Dictionary, New Car Builders' • 270 

Difference in Designers 218 

Discipline and Results in the Railroad Blacksmith Shop.... 505 

Dislodge Snow from Front Cab Window 471 

Dow, G. N, on Height of Couplers •; 36 

Draft Gears 149 

♦Draft Gear, Cardwell Friction 200 

*Drafting Locomotives 344 

*Dri!l, Multiple, Pedrick & Aver 25 

♦Drill Press, The Rich Arch Bar. 52 

♦Drill, Standard Arch Bar 201 

'"Driving Box Straight Edge 376 

'"Driving Box Squares 145 

' ^Driving Wheel Lathe, Ridgway Heavy 5 

Drop Grates 172, 256, 367 

Drop Grate, Location of 136 

Drury, M. J., on Height of Couplers 74 

Dunn, J. F.. on Height of Couplers 74 

Education, Railway 258 

Effect of Overstraining Iron 278 

• Elasticity of Metals, Limit of .297 

Electric and Steam Locomotives, Large 170 

Electric Corporation, A New 206 

Electric Lighting of Trains in India, Experience in the.... 118 

Electric Light Wiring for Round Houses 255 

♦Electric Switching Locomotive 501 

Electric Train. Trial Run of, on (he New York Central. .. .380 
Electrical Action on Paint Scaling from Zinc and Gal- 
vanized Iron 5 12 

Electrical Machinery, Management of 348 

Electricty versus Steam as a Motive Power 210 

Electrification of a part of the Erie Railroad 269 

Elements of Gas Engine Design 5°9 

"Elliott Flange-Oiling System 262 

Eminent Engineers x °3 

♦Emmert Mfg. Co.'s Vises • • 392 

♦Empty Barrels with Compressed Air 54 

*Engine, Baldwin Freight. Deepwater R. R. Co 4 

♦Engine, Baltimore and Ohio Simple Consolidation 11 

Engine Crew. The 472 

Engine Failures • n " 

Engines, Pooling 287, 295, 368 

Engineering Departments, Growth of the, of Purdine Uni- 
versity 20 4 

Equipment, Car, Immense Renewals 3°9 

Equipment, Concerning Roundhouse J 44 

Equipment, Motor, for the Hudson Companies ..313 

Equipment, Railway Shop 34 

♦Equipment, Roundhouse, Seme Convenient 335 

'"Equipment, Steel and Stockroom 14 2 

Equipment, Safety Devices on Freight • • -356 

♦Erecting Shop, Portable Crane for 5 02 

Erie Railroad, Electrification of a part of the 269 

Erie R. R. Locomotive — Mallet Compound 487 

♦Erie Railroad — Mallet Compound Locomotive ■■■3&7 

♦Erwood Swing-Gate Valve 5°8 

Exhaust and Drifter, Wheaton Variable, on a C. G. W. Loco- 
motive l 

Expansion Bolts 393 

♦Experiment, Locomotive for — Pennsylvania R. R 42 

Factory Accounts . . . .' 247 

Failures, Engine 1 16 

Failure and Specification — Firebox Steel ' 271 

Failures, Stybolt, Why ? 106 

Falls Hollow Staybolt Test 203 

♦Fay & Eagan Moulder, New 23 

♦Ferro-Carril Yaguajay, Baldwin 12-Wheeler 121 

Ferguson, G. M., on Height of Couplers 41 

Firebox Maintenance . . .297 

Firebox Steel — Failure and Specification 271 

. Firebox Water Spaces, Volume of 169 

Fire Fighting at D. & H. Co.'s Mines 376 

Fireman, Instructions for 329 

♦Firebox Staybolt Threads ' 7 

♦First King-Lawson Dump Car 55 

Fisher, E., on Height of Couplers 41 

*Fisher Slack Adjuster 245 

Flory, B. P., on Height of Couplers 37 

♦Flue Cleaning Machine, A New 92 

Flues, Care of : . . .287 

Flues, Prescription for Care of 297 

Flue Spacing 355 

♦Flange Oiling System, Elliott 262 

Flexible Staybolts 203, 253 

Fogg. J- W., on Height of Couplers 73 

Foote, Burt & Company 129 

Foque, T. A., on Height of Couplers 36 

♦Forty-Two Inch Boring and Turning Machine 27 

Forced Lubrication 127 

Foreign vs. American Locomotives 34 

Foul Odors in Passenger Cars, Preventing 207 

Four-Cylinder Balanced Locomotive — A., T. & S. F. Ry. .483 
♦Four-Cylinder Compound Locomotives — Some Interesting 

Types in the Development of 478 

Four-Cylinder Balanced Simple Locomotive — L. S. & M. S..298 
*Four-Spindle Staybolt Drill 391 

1 Fourteenth Annual Convention of the International Railway 

Master Blacksmiths' Association 3 11 

♦Four-Cylinder Compound Passenger Engine— Paris, Lyons 

& Mediterranean 77 

Fowler, W. E., on Height of Couplers 74 

*Frames, Broken Locomotive, Welding Without Removal. .342 

♦Frame Section, Cast Steel, at Front Driver 342 

.♦Freight Engine, Baldwin — Deepwater R. ~R 4 

Freight Car Repair Facilities 47 2 

Freight Equipment, Safety Devices on 356 

Freight Painting 3 1 

Freight Car Painting 5 12 

♦Freight Locomotive, Prairie Type — Great Northern Ry 343 

Friese, N. L., on Height of Couplers 38 

From the View Point of a Practical Mechanic. .171, 256, 368, 497 

Front Cab Window, To Dislodge Snow from 471 

♦Fuel, Combustion of, in Relation to Locomotive Firing. .. .371 

Fuel Consumption and Grafe Area 185 

Fuel Saving Smoke Stack 304 

Fulcrum, The Buffalo Forged Steel 276 

♦Furnace, A New Coal and Coke 316 

Furnaces, Novo Gas Blast 393 

♦Furnace, The Steele-Harvey Crucible Melting, for Brass 

Foundry Work : 316 

Galvonized Iron 210 

♦Garvin Milling Machine, New 203 

♦Gas Burning Heater with Fan System for Roundhouses. .. .305 

Gasoline Propulsion ' 194 

Gibbs, A. W, on Height of Couplers 36 

♦Gisholt 52-in. Vertical Mill 265 

Globe Ventilator, The '. 205 

Gold Leaf Printing. New Method which Does Not Require 

Making of a Metallic Die 252 

Government Supervision of Traffic 121 

Graduates, Retaining Technical 496 

Graham, J. F., on Height of Couplers - 41 

♦Grain Door 120 

Grate Area and Fuel Consumption 185 

♦Great North of Scotland Ry.— Steam Motor Coach 88 

♦Great Northern Ry., Mallet Compound Locomotive 300, 370 

♦Great Northern Ry. — Pacific Type Locomotive 263 

♦Prairie Northern Ry. — Prairie Type Freight Locomotive. .. .343 
Growth of the Engineering Department of Purdue Uni- 
versity 204 

Hall, W. H., on Height of Couplers 38 

♦Hand Car Wheel, Pressed Steel, Kalamazoo Improved 246 

Harmony on the Interior Finishing of Passenger Cars 251 

Haymen, W. J., on Height of Couplers 75 

♦Headling Patterns 208 

♦Heater, Gas Burning, with Fan System for Roundhouse. .. .305 

■♦Heating, Car, New Combination Valve for 392 

♦Heaviest Six-Wheel Switcher 308 

♦Heavy Eight-Wheel Passenger Engine, C. R. R. of N. J... 58 

♦Hicks Locomotive & Car Works 279 

Higgins, S., on Height of Couplers 38 

High Duty Metal .- 392 

High Plane of American Machine Tools 195 

High Steam Pressure in Locomotive Service 472 

High Train Speed . 106 

♦Hose Coupler, The Joy Automatic 25 

♦Hospital Car for the Southern Pacific 8 

Hudson Companies, Motor Equipment for the 313 

Huf smith, F., on Height of Couplers 75 

Hunt-Spiller Iron 125 

♦Hydraulic Presses, Portable 95 

♦Hydro-Pneumatic Pipe Bending Machine .■ 127 

Ideal Stock Room 133 

Immense Car Equipment Renewals .309 

♦Improved Friction Countershaft 93 

Important Movement in Advertising , . 64 

Improvement, Permanent 321 

Increasing the Output of Machine Tools 356 

Indications, Steam Gauge 254 

Increase in Variation in Height of Couplers 35, 73 

Inspection of Cars at Interchange Points 190 

Instructions for Firemen 329 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Test' Subway En- 
gines 96 

Interior Finishing 164 

Iron, Galvanized, Protecting 353 

Iron, Galvanized 210 

Iron, The Effect of Overstraining 278 

Iron, Wrought', versus Steel, Uses of . .159, 201 

Irwin, J. E., en Height of Couplers 74 

♦Isthmian Canal Commission, Moguls for the 266 

Johnson Automatic Wrench 158 

Journal Bearings, Lead Lined 253 

Journals and Bearings for Cars 72 

♦Joy Automatic Coupler 25 

*Kalamazoo Improved Pressed Steel Hand Car Wheel.... 246 

Kent, W. W., on Height of Couplers 75 

♦Kelly, W. A. 68 

Kelsey, J. C, on Simultaneous Telephoning and Telegraphy 

Nor. Pac. Ry 76 

Kelsey, J. C, on The Telephone and the Railroads 183 

♦King-Lawson Dump Car, The First 55 

*Kingsland Shops, D. L. & W. R. R 107 

♦Knuckle Rack, C. P. & St. L. Ry., 155 

♦Kobusch-Wagenhals Steam Motor Coach 385 

♦Krus Chicago Lathe Dog 158 

L. S. & M. S. Ry., Four Cylinder Balanced Simple Loco- 
motive 298 

♦L. S. & M. S. Ry., New Prairie Type Locomotive 193 

L. S. & M. S., Collinwood Shop, A Few Specialties of.... 473 

Lace, T. C, Welding Broken Locomotive Frames 346 

Landon, W B., on Sanitation 477 

Large Electric and Steam Locomotives ■ 170 

♦Large Locomotive Boilers 173 

*Lassiter Straight and Taper Bolt Turning Machine 10 

Lathes, Pond, Output of, on Steel-Tired Car Wheels. .. .276 

*Lathe, Ridgway Heavy Driving Wheel '. 5. 

Lawrence Bros., Artificial Limbs 22 

♦Lathe Dog, The Krus Chicago 158 

Lead Lined Journal Bearings 253 

Lewis, H. L., on Height of Couplers 41 

Lighting, Electric, of Trains in India, Experience in the.... 118 

Lighting System, The Marsh Car 57 

♦Lima Loco. & Mach. Co., Special Boring and Turning 

Machines for the 387 

Limit of Elasticity of Metals 297 

Lincoln Variable Speed Motor 503 

Lining up Shoes and Wedges 258 

Link Motion 163 

Lippert, F. C, on Copper Stapbolts 191 

Liquid that Defies Time 100 

Location of Drop Grate 136 

Locomotive Adhesion 1 

*Locomotive Air Pumps, Comparative Test of Large 196 

Locomotive, A. T. & S. F. Ry., Four Cylinder Balanced. .483 

Locomotive Boiler Design 71 

Locomotive Boiler, The Brotan 116 

Locomotives, American versus Foreign 34 

♦Locomotives, A. C.-D. C, for the N. Y. N. H. & H. Ry..i50 

Locomotives, Balanced Compound 120 

♦Locomotive, Atlantic Type Balanced, Union Pacific R. R...336 

♦Locomotive Boilers, Large 173 

♦Locomotive Boiler with Combustion Chamber, Northern Pa- 
cific Ry 341 

Locomotive, Coal Compound, Nor. Pac. Ry 478 

♦Locomotives, Consolidation, Delaware & Hudson Co 374 

♦Locomotive, Consolidation, New York Central 139 

♦Locomotive Boiler Design, Some Essentials in 87 

♦Locomotive Development, Some Interesting Types of 298 

♦Locomotives, Drafting, 344 

♦Locomotive, Electric Switching, 501 

Locomotive, Erie_ R. R., Mallei Compound 487 

♦Locomotive Firing, Combustion in Relation to 371, 488 

♦Locomotives for Experiment, Pennsylvania R. R 42 

Locomotive, Four Cylinder Balanced Simple Loco, L. S. 
& M. S 298 

♦Locomotive Firebox Staybolt Threads 7 

♦Locomotives, Four Cylinder Compound, Some Interesting 

Types in the Development of 478 

Locomotive Frames, Broken. Welding 346 

♦Locomotive Frames, Welding Broken, Without Removal. .302 

♦Locomotive, Freight, Prairie Type, Great Northern RV....343 

Locomotives, Large Electric and Steam 170 

Locomotive, Mallet, Advantages of 113 

♦Locomotive, Mallet Compound, Great Northern Ry. .300, 370 

♦Locomotive, New Prairie Type, L. S. & M. S. Ry. . 193 

Locomotive, N. P., Mikado Type with Combustion Chamber 299 
Locomotive, N. P., Pacific Type with Combustion Chamber 299 
Locomotive, N. P., Prairie Type with Combustion Chamber 299 

♦Locomotive, Pacific Type, Southern Ry 148 

Locomotive, N. P., Coal Compound -478 

♦Locomotive, Pacific Type, Great Northern Ry 263 

♦Locomotives, Pacific Type Passenger 187 

Locomotives, Prairie Type Balanced Compound, A. T. & S. 
F. Ry 335 

♦Locomotive, Rack Rail, Manitou & Pikes Peak Railway.. 267 
Locomotive Service, High Steam Pressure in 472 

♦Locomotive, Simple Consolidation, C. R. I. & P. Ry 186 

Locomotives, Simple and Compound 135 

Locomotive Tests and Exhibits 99 

Locomotive Tests, Pennsylvania R. R 269 

Locomotives, The Walschaert Valve Gear as Applied to 356 

♦Locomotive Turn Table Device 63 

Loading of Explosions 382 

♦Lock-Nut, The Bull Dog 198 

Lovejay, E. L., on Height of Couplers 75 

Low Boiler Pressures 274 

Lowering Repair Costs 307 

♦L. & N. Shops at South Louisville 17 

♦Lubrication and Water Glass Shield, Mears Improved.... 23 

Lubrication, Forced 127 

Lubrication Test at Purdue 158 

Lye Vats ". 355 

Lynch, John M., on Pooling Engines. : 295 

Lynch, John M., on Instructions for Firemen 329 

Lynch, John M., on Safety Chains * 496 

♦Machine, Lassister Straight and Taper Bolt Turning 10 

♦Machine, New Flue Cleaning 92 

Machine Shop Arithmetic 163 

Machine Shop Practice of Today 192 

Machine Shop- Tools and Methods 99 

Machine Tools, High Plane of American 195 

Machine Tools, Increasing the Output of 356 

♦Machinists' Bench Vise 245 

Maintenance, Firebox 297 

Maintenance of Way Painters Convention 351 

♦Mallet Compound Formative, Erie R. R 487 

Mallet Compound, Advantages of the •. 113 

Mallet Compound Locomotive, Erie R. R ' 487 

♦Mallet Compound Locomotive, Great Northery Ry 370 

Management of Electrical Machinery 348 

Mandeville, H., on Height of Couplers -75 

Man in Charge of the Roundhouse 269 

Manning, J. H., on Height of Couplers 36 

Man Who Sells Things is Entitled to a Degree 60 

♦Manitou & Pikes Peak Railway, Rack Rail Locomotive. .. .267 

Marsh Car Lighting System 57 

Master Blacksmiths Convention .271 

Master Car Builders' Convention 213 

Master Car & Locomotive Painters Association, Thirty-sev- 
enth Annual Convention , 423 

Master Car Painters Convention 351 

Master Mechanics Convention 216 

M. M. & M. C. B. Associations, Meeting Place of the.... 12 
McCaslin, A. W., on Discipline in the Railroad Blacksmith 

Shop 505 

McCuen, J. P., on Height of Couplers 41 

♦McKeon, Mr. Robert 206, 284 

McKee, G. S. on Height of Couplers 39 

McCrosky Adjustable Reamer 24 

McKeen, W. R., on Height of Couplers 73 

Mcintosh, Wm, on Height of Couplers . . . 37 

Mechanical Engineers, Meeting of the American Society of. . 14 
Mechanical Graduate, What Inducements do Railroads Offer 

to The 72 

♦Mears Improved Water and Lubrication Glass Shield.... 23 

Mechanic, From the View Point of a Practical 171, 256 

Meeting of the Railway Club of Pittsburg 194 

Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . 14 

Meeting Place of the M. M. & M. C. B. Associations 12 

Metal, High Duty : 392 

Metals, Limit of Elasticity of 297 

Methods of Testing the Protective Power of Paints used 

on Metallic Structures 318 

Miller, Geo. A., on Height of Couplers 39 

Miller, Wm., on Height of Couplers 75 

♦Milling Machine, New Garvin 203 

Mileham, C. M., on Height of Couplers 40 

♦Milling Machine, No i l A Universal 25 

♦Milling Machine, Portable 158 

♦Mill, Vertical, Gisholt 52-inch ■ 265 

Mitis Steel 278 

♦Missouri Pacific Shops at Sedalia, Mo 79 

♦Moguls for the Isthmian Canal Commission ; 266 

Mooney, P. T., on Height of Couplers 41 

Morse, C. S., on Height of Couplers 41 

Motive Power. Electricity versus Steam as a 210 

♦Motive Power Offices, Application of Card Index System to. 46 

♦Motive Power Types — -Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 259 

♦Motor, Coach, Steam — Great North of Scotland Ry 88 

Motor Equipment for the Hudson Companies 313 

♦Motor, Lincoln Variable Speed 503 

Motor Cars, Suburban 117 

♦Moulder, New Fay & Egan 23 

♦Multiple Drill, Pedrick & Ayer 25 

National Advisory Board on Fuels and Structural Materials., 

List of 155 

National Case-Hardening Compound .313 

♦Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ten-Wheeler 54 

♦New Blount Wet Tool Grinder 203 

New Car Builders' Dictionary 270 

♦New Coal and Coke Furnace 316 

♦New Combination Valve for Car Heating 392 

' New Electric Corporation 206 

♦New Fay & Egan Moulder 23 

♦New Flexible Staybolt 274 

♦New Flue Cleaning Machine 92 

♦New Freight Car and Door Hanger 59 

♦New Garvin Milling Machine 203 

♦New 90-inch Niles 600 Ton Hydraulic Wheel Press 391 

New Numbers for 250.000 Railroad Cars 513 

♦New Plant of Armstrong Bros. Tool Co 24 

♦New Power Rammer— Tabor Mfg. Co 204 

♦New Prairie Type Locomotive— Lake Shore & Michigan 

Southern Ry 203 

♦New Radial Drill : '390 

♦New Single Enf Tenover 350 

♦New Type of Roundhouse 122 

♦New Westinghouse "K" Triple Valve 169 

♦New York Central Cast-Steel Cylinders 184 

'New York Central Consolidation Locomotive 139 

New York Central, Painting on the 30 

♦New York Central Steel Cars for Suburban Service 3 

1 New York Central, Trial Run of Electric Train on the. .380 
♦N. Y. C. & H. R. Ry.— Some Record Work at the West 

Albany Shops 379 

♦N. Y. N. H. & H. Ry.— A. C— D. C. Locomotive for the.. 150 

♦Niles -New 90-inch 600 Ton Hydraulic Wheel Press 391 

♦Nipple and Pipe Mill Machine 94 

Nix, Ed. A., on Height of Couplers 41 

♦Northern Pacific Ry.— Locomotive Boiler with Combustion 

Chamber 341 

Northern Pacific Ry.— Simultaneous Telephony and Tele- 
graphy on the 76, no 

Nor. Pac. Ry. — Locomotive, Coal Compound 478 

♦Novel Special Turning Tool 15 

Novo Gas Bias Furnaces 393 

♦No. 1V2 Universal Milling Machine 25 

♦No. 4. Plain Milling Machine 125 

Observation in Germany, An American Manufacturers. .276 

Official Announcement 286 

Official Organ, The 351 

Official Organ, To Enlarge the Scope of the 100 

♦Oil and Gasoline Outfits, Self-Measuring and Computing. . 93 

♦Oil Cup, The Bangs Automatic 95 

♦Oil House, D. L. & W. Car Shops 363 

Oil, Test for Linseed 168 

Old Tools and New Conditions 254 

O'Leary, D., on Height of Couplers 76 

Omaha Shop Notes 16 

♦Oregon Short Line, Pacific Type Engine 90 

♦Origin of the "Rubberset" Brush 66 

Output of Pond Lathes on Steel-Tires Car Wheels 276 

♦Pacific Type Engine. Oregon Short Line 90 

♦Pacific Type Locomotive — Great Northern Ry 263 

♦Pacific Type Locomotive, Southern Railway 148 

♦Pacific Type Passenger Locomotives 187 

^Packing Gauge and Cutter 126 

Painters' Convention, Rates to the 270 

Painting, Freight Car 31, 512 

Painting and Beautification, Roadway 208 

Painting on the New York Central 30 

Painting, Railway Coach, for Southern Climates 164 

Paint and Varnish, What is the Minimum Number of Coats 

of, With Which a Car can Durably be Painted 318 

Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean, Four Cylinder Compound 

Passenger Engine jj 

♦Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry., Car De Luxe 146 

♦Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry.— Second Class Passen- 
ger Coach 3 I0 

Parker, T. E., on Height of Couplers 41 

Passenger Cars, Harmony on the Interior Finishing of 251 

Parks, R. H., on Height of Couplers 39 

Passenger Car, Steel T 

♦Passenger Coach, All-Steel— Southern Pacific Ry 372 

♦Passenger Coach, Second Class — Paris, Lyons & Mediter- 
ranean Ry 2,10 

♦Passenger Engine, Heavy Eight-Wheel, C. R. R. of N. J. . 58 
♦Passenger Engine. Four Cylinder Compound, Paris, Lyons 

& Mediterranean 77 

♦Passenger Locomotives, Pacific Type 187 

Passmore, H. E., on Height of Couplers 38 

♦Pedrick & Ayer Multiple Drill 25 

Peiffer, Chas. E., on Height of Couplers 39 

♦Pennsylvania Railroad, Locomotives for Experiment 42 

Pennsylvania Railroad — Locomotive Tests 269 

■ Percy, Wm„ on Height of Couplers 75 

Permanent Improvements 321 

Piece Work too 

*Pipe Bending Machine, Hydrc-Pneumatic 127 

Pipe Coupling. Cary Automatic Car and Train 199 

♦Piston Rod Swab, Smith 23 

*Piston Valve, The Semi-Plug— American Balance Valve Co.. 315 

Pocket Book of Mechanical Engineering 99 

Polish, Star Metal • 96 

Pooling Engines 287, 295, 368 

♦Portable Crane for Erecting Service 502 

♦Portable Hydraulic Presses 95 

♦Portable Milling Machine 15 8 

♦Portable Tool Stand .' '. . .507 

Power, Air, In the Union Pacific Shops at Omaha 14 

♦Power Hack Saw : . . .202 

Power Question, The 184 

♦Power Rammer, New — Tabor Mfg. Co .' 204 

♦Power Saws, Robertson Rapid Cut 26 

*Power Transmission. Coates Flexible 126 

Practical Mechanic, From the View Point of a 368, 497 

Prairie Type Balanced Compound Locomotives — A. T. & 

S. F. Ry 335 

Prairie Type Freight Locomotive — Great Northern Ry 343 

♦Prairie Type Locomotive, New — L. S. & M. S. Ry 193 

Pratt, E. W., on Height of Couplers 4° 

Premature Paling of Varnish Lustre 3° 

Preparation and Painting of Steel Structures 101 

Prescription for Care of Flues 297 

♦Presses, Portable Hydraulic 95 

Preventing Foul Odors in Passenger Cars 207 

Prevention of Rust 3 T 9 

Preventive of Corrosion in Boilers 186 

Priebe, H. C, on Draft Gears 149 

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Convention of the 

Traveling Engineers' Association 99 

Protecting Galvanized Iron 353 

Protective Power of Paints Used on Metallic Structures, 

Methods of Testing 318 

Printing, Gold Leaf. New Method which Does not Re- 
quire Making of a Metallic Die .252 

♦Private Car for the Western Union Telegraph Company. .383 

Psychology of Yellow 250 

*Pumps, Comparative Test of Large Locomotive Air 196 

Purdue University, Growth of the Engineering Departments 

of 204 

Quest's Mr, Circular 103 

*Rack Rail Locomotive— Manitou & Pikes Peak Ry 267 

♦Radial Drill, A New 390 

Railway Auto Car Company • 247 

Railroads and the Telephone 183 

Railway Club of Pittsburg, Meeting of the 194 

Railway Coach Painting for Southern Climates 164 

Railway Education 258 

Railway Shop Equipment 34 

Railway Storekeepers' Association — Third Annual Conven- 
tion " 189 

*Ra'tchet Attachment for Die Stocks 247 

Reamer, The McCrosky Adjustable 24 

♦Record Work at the West Albany Shops— N. Y. C. & H. 

R. Ry 379 

♦Refrigeration, Camel System of .508 

♦Re-inforced Concrete Roundhouse for the Wabash at 

Landers 137 

Repair Costs, Lowering 307 

Repair Facilities, Freight Car 472 

Repairs, General, Treatment of Cars in 283 

Results and Discipline in the Railroad Blacksmith Shop.. 505 

Retaining Technical Graduates . 471, 496 

Retrospection 317 

♦Rich Arch Bar Drill Press 52 

♦Ridgway Heavy Driving Wheel Lathe 5 

Roadway Painting and Beautification 26 

♦Robertson Rapid Cut Power Saws • 26 

Roofs, Canvas, Sanding 285 

♦Root Snow Scraper for Locomotives 245 

Round Houses, Electric Light Wiring for 255 

Roundhouse Equipment, Concerning 144 

♦Roundhouse Equipment, Some Convenient 335 

♦Roundhouse, Gas Burning Heater with Fan System for.... 305 

Roundhouse, The Man in Charge of the ...269 

♦Roundhouse, A New Type of 122 

♦Roundhouse, Re-inforced Concrete, for the Wabash at Lan- 
ders 137 

♦Roundhouse with Crane Service, D. & R. G. R. R 491 

♦"Rubberset" Brush, The Origin of the 66 

♦Russel, W. J 69 

Rust 166 

Rust, Prevention of 319 

Safety Chains 496 

Safety Devices at Front of Electric Cars 120 

Safety Devices on Freight Equipment 356 

St. Louis Railway Club Scholarship 343 

Salt, H. E., on Welding Broken Locomotive Frames. .. .343 

Sand Blast 165 

Sanderson, R. P. C, on Height of Couplers 36 

Sanding Canvas Roofs • 285 

Sanitation 477 

Saturation and Superheat 355 

♦Saw, Power Hack 202 

Schlacks, W. J., on Height of Couplers 41 

Schmidt, Edward C, on Retaining Technical Graduates. .. .496 

Scholarship, St. Louis Railway Club 343 

Schroyer, C. A., on Height of Couplers 36 

Scrubbing the Interior 285 

Second Class Passenger Coach — Paris, Lyons & Mediter- 
ranean Ry. 310 

Security Back- Up Valve 315 

♦Self-Measuring and Computing Oil and Gasoline Outfits. . 93 

♦Semi-Plug Fiston Vaive, American Balance Valve Co 315 

♦Seoul Fusan Kailroad — Baldwin Balanced Compound 112 

♦Shaper, Twenty-Inch Crank 201 

♦Shoe and Wedge Chuck 113 

Shoes and Wedges, Lining up 258 

♦Shontz Stoker ■ 12 

♦Shop Kinks on the Central Railroad of New Jersey 2>2>7 

Shop, Machine, Practice of Today 192 

♦Shops-Canadian Pacific, at Angus 289, 323,357 

♦Shops, Collmwood — A few Specialties of the 473 

Shops, Collinwood — A Visit to the 29 

Shops near Supply Base 321 

Shop Notes, Omaha 16 

Shop Practices 346 

Shop Sketches 322 

♦Shops. Kingsland, — D. L. & W. Ry 107 

♦Shops at South Louisville, L. & N. Ry 17 

♦Shops, The Missouri Pacific at Sedalia, Mo 79 

Shop Tools, Antiquated 33 

Side Bearings on Tenders 287 

♦Side Bearing. The Cardwell Rocker 200 

Simons, Jas. E., on Height of Couplers 4 l 

Simultaneous Telephony and Telegraphy on the Northern 

Pacific 76, 1 10 

Simple and Compound Locomotives 135 

♦Simple Consolidation Locomotive, Baltimore & Ohio ' 11 

♦Simple Consolidation Locomotive, C. R. I. & P. Ry 186 

♦Simplicity Bell Ringer 507 

Sketches, Shop 322 

♦Slack Adjuster, Fisher 245 

Smitham, N. L., on Height of Couplers. 75 

Smith, E. O., on Height of Couplers 41 

*Smith Piston Rod Swab 23 

Smoke Problem, The ?> 22 

♦Smoke Stack, A Fuel Saving 304 

♦Snow .Scraper, The Root, for Locomotives 245 

*Some Interesting Types in the Development of Four Cylinder 

Compound Locomotives 47^ 

*Some Interesting Types of Locomotive Development 298 

*Some of the Essentials in Locomotive Boiler Design 87 

♦Southern Pacific Ry— All-Steel Passenger Coach.. 372 

♦Southern Pacific, Hospital Car for the 8 

♦Southern Railway, Pacific Type Locomotive 148 

♦South Louisville Shops of the L. & N. Ry ( 17 

Special Apprentices Wanted 288, 321 

♦Special Boring and Turning Machine for the Lima Loco. 

& Mach. Co ' 387 

♦Special Flat Car — 100 Tons Capacity 140 

♦Specialties, A Few, of the Collinwood Shop... 473 

Specifications and Failures, Firebox Steel 271 

Speed, High Train 106 

Standard Arch Bar Drill 201 

Standard Brake Staff 172 

Star Metal Polish 96 

♦Staybolt, A Bent Flexible 342 

Staybolts, Copper 191 

♦Staybolts, Copper — Western Railway of France no 

♦Staybolt Drill, A Four Spindle .• 391 

Staybolt Failures, Why ? 106 

Staybolts. Flexible 203, 253 

♦Staybolt. A New Flexible 264 

Staybolts, Rigid and Flexible, Vibration Tests of 381 

Staybolt Test, Falls Hollow 203 

♦Staybolt Threads. Locomotive Firebox 7 

Steam and Electric Locomotives, Large 170 

Steam and Trolley Service, Combined 154 

♦Steam Motor Coach, The Kobusch-Wagenhals 385 

♦Steam Motor Coach, Great North of Scotland Ry. 88 

Steam Pressure, High, in Locomotive Service 472 

Steam versus Electricity as a Motive Power 210 

♦Steel and Stockroom Equipment 142 

.Steel, Calcium ._ 201 

♦Steel Car, Passenger — Southern Pacific Ry 372 

♦Steel Cars for Suburban Service, New York Central 3 

Steel, Firebox — Failure and Specification 271 

Steam Gauge Indications 254 

♦Steele-FIarvey Crucible Melting Furnace for Brass Foundry 

Practice 316 

Steel, Mitis • 278 

Steel Passenger Car 1 

Steel Structures, Preparation and Painting of .101 

♦Steel Underframing, Stock Cars with 499 

Steel Versus Wrought Iron, Uses of 159, 201 

Stinson, O. M., on Height of Couplers 39 

♦Stock Cars with Steel Underframing. 499 

♦Stocks, Die, A Ratchet Attachment for 247 

Stock Room. An Ideal 133 

♦Stoker, The Shontz ' 12 

Stored Castings - 285 

Storekeepers' Association, Third Annual Convention 189 

Strength, Main and Awarkdness versus System 284 

Structures. Steel, Preparation and Painting of 101 

Struthers, A., on Height of Couplers 39 

Suburban Motor Cars. . . .' 117 

♦Suburban Steel Cars, New York Central 3 

Subway Engines, Interborough Rapid Transit Test 06 

Sumner, Eliot, on Height of Couplers 39 

Superheat and Saturation 355 

♦Superheater, Canadian Pacific 147 

Superheated Steam on the Canadian Pacific 135 

Supervision of Traffic, Government 121 

♦Switcher, The Heaviest Six-Wheel 308 

System versus Main Strength and Awkwardness 284 

♦Tabor Mfg. -yi New Power Rammer 204 

Talty, J. A., on Drop Grates 256 

Talty, J. A., on Firebox Maintenance 297 

Talty, J. A., on Pooling Engines 368 

Technical Graduates, Retaining 471, 496 

Telephone and the Railroads 183 

Telephony and Telegraphy, Simultaneous, on the Northern 

Pacific % 76, 1 1 

Tenders, Side Bearings on 287 

♦Tenover, A New Single End 350 

♦Ten-Wheeler, Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 54 

Terminal Cleaning 13 r 

Tests, College ' 105 

♦Test, Comparative, of Large Locomotive Air Pumps 196 

Tests, Fuel-, at the University of Illinois 142 

Tests of High Speed Tool Steels on Cast Iron 163 

Tests of High Speed Tool Steels, University of Illinois. .. .114 
Test, Interborough Rapid Transit Co., Subway Engine.... 96 

Test for Linseed Oil 168 

Test, Lubrication, at Purdue 158 

Tests, Locomotive — Pennsylvania R. R 269 

Test. Staybolt, Falls , Hollow 203 

Tests, Vibration, of Rigid and Flexible Staybolts 381 

♦Thermit Process, Welding Broken Locomotive Frames by 

the — Central Railroad of New Jersey 377 

Thompson, W. O., on Height of Couplers 75 

♦Thread Rolling Machine, The Acme Rotary 62 

Tonge, John, on Care of Flues 397 

Tonge, John, on Height of Couplers '74 

Tools. Antiquated Shop ^3 

Tools, High Plane of American ."195 

♦Tool, a Novel Special Turning 15 

♦Tool Stand, Portable 507 

Tools, New, and Old Conditions 254 

Tool Steels, Tests of High Speed, University of Illinois. . 114 

♦Traveling Engineers' Association 244, 288, 330 

Traveling Engineer, The 368 

Treatment of Cars in ^General Repairs 283 

Trial Run of Electric Train on the New York Central. .. .380 

Tringer, H. L., on Height of Couplers 75 

Trolley and Steam Service, Combined 154 

♦Turning and Boring Machine, Forty-two Inch. 27 

♦Turn Table Device, Locomotive 63 

♦Twenty-inch Crank Shaper 201 

♦Underframing, Steel, Stock Cars with 499 

♦Union Pacific R. R. — Atlantic Type Balanced Compound. . . .336 

Union Pacific Shops at Omaha, Air Power in the 14 

♦Universal Milling Machine, No. i l / 2 25 

University of Illinois, Fuel Tests at the 142 

University of Illinois Tests of High Speed Tool Steels. .. .114 

Uses of Steel versus Wrought Iron 159, 201 

Valve and Valve Gear Mechanism 247 

Valve Gears for Steam Engines 163 

Valve Gear, The Walschaert. for American' Locomotives. .. .185 

♦Valve, New Combination, for Car Heating 392 

♦Valve '"K" Triple, The New Westinghouse 159 

♦Valve, Security Back-up 315 

♦Valve, The Erwood Swing Gate 508 

Van Alstyne, David, on Fleight of Couplers 74 

Variable Effect of Climate Conditions on Paint and Varnish. 166 

Varnish Lustre, The Premature Paling of 30 

Varnish Remover, The Dangerous 320 

Variation in Height of Couplers, Increase in 35, yT,, 

Ventilator, The Globe 205 

Vibration Tests of Rigid and Flexible Staybolts 381 

♦Vises, Emmert Mfg. Co 392 

Visit to the Collinwood Shop 29 

Volume of Firebox Water Spaces 169 

"Wabash at Landers, Re-inforced Concrete Roundhouse for 

* the 137 

Waitt, A. M., on Height of Couplers 38 

Walschaert Valve Gear for American Locomotives 185 

Walschaert Valve Gear as Applied to Locomotives 356 

Walsh, J. F. — The Traveling Engineer 368 

* Water and Lubrication Glass Shield, Mears Improved 23 

Watts, A. H., on Height of Couplers , 41 

Waughop, Chas., on Height of Couplers 38 

Wear on De Glehn Compound. 105 

*Wedge and Shoe Chuck 113 

* Welding Broken Locomotive Frames by the Thermit Pro- 

cess, Central Railroad of New Jersey 2,77 

*Welding Broken Locomotive Frames without Removal. .. .302 

Welding Broken Locomotive Frames 346 

West, Geo. W., on Height of Couplers 74 

^Western Railway of France — Copper Staybolts. . . no 

*Western Union Telegraph Company, Private Car for the.. 383 

*Westinghouse "K" Triple Valve, The New 159 

*Westinghouse No. 119 Direct Current Railway Motor 268 

What Inducements do Railroads Offer to the Mechanical 

Graduate 72 

*Wheaton Variable Exhaust ?nd Drifter on a C. G. W. 

Locomotive 127 

* Wheel Press, Hydraulic, A New 90-inch 600 Ton Niles....39i 
*Wheel, Pressed Steel Hand Car, Kalamazoo Improved. .. .246 

Wheels, Steel-Tired Car — Output of Pond Lathes on 276 

Wiring a House 348 

Wiring, Electric Light for Roundhouses 255 

World's Fair and the Results 93 

Worsdell, Wilson, on Height of Couplers" , . , 72 

Whench, The Johnson Automatic 158 

*Wrench, Ratchet, The Adreon-Morse 350 

Zeng, O. F., on Height of Couplers 75 

January, 1906 


Established 1878 


Published by the 

BRUCE V. CEANDALL, President, CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-PreBldent 

O. W. BODLEE, Secretary 

Office of Publication, Rooms 409=410 Security Building, Corner 
Madison Street and Fifth Ave., Chicago 

Telephone - - Main 3185. 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City 

Telephone - - 3524 John. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to ihe interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price, $1.00 a year; to foreign countries, $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 10 cents. Advertising 
rates given on application to the office, by mail or in 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Papers should reach subscribers by the first of the month 
at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or 
failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 
gladly sent. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 

Vol. XXX 

Chicago, January, 1906. 

No. 1 


The Conventions at Atlantic City ; 1 

The Steel Passenger Car 1 

Locomotive Adhesion 2 

New York Central Steel Cars for Suburban Service 3* 

Baldwin Freight Engine, Deepwater Railroad Co 4* 

Ridgway Heavy Driving Wheel Lathe 5* 

Mr. Loring Coes 7* 

Locomotive Fire-Box Staybolt Threads 7* 

Hospital Car for the Southern Pacific 8* 

The Lassiter Straight and Taper Bolt Turning Machine 10* 

Baltimore & Ohio Simple Consolidation Engine 11* 

Meeting Place of the M. M. and M. C B. Associations 12 

The Shontz Stoker 12* 

Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers . . . 14* 

Air Power in the Union Pacific Shops at Omaha, Neb .14 

A Novel Special Turning Tool 15* 

M. C. B. Association Circular of Inquiry 16 

The L. & N. Shops at South Louisville 16* 

Personals 22 

Lawrence Bros. Artificial Limbs 22 

The Smith Piston Rod Swab 23* 

Mears Improved Water and Lubricator Glass Shields 23* 

Fay & Egan Molder 23* 

New Plant of the Armstrong Bros. Tool Co 24* 

The McCrosky Adjustable Reamer 24 

Pedrick and Ayer Multiple Drill 25* 

Detroit Graphite Co. Building an Addition 25 

The Joy Automatic Hose Coupler 25* 

No. iV 2 Universal Milling Machine 25* 

The Robertson Rapid Cut Power Saws 26* 

Forty- two Inch Boring and Turning Mill 27* 

Notes of the Month ± 27 

Paint Department 7 29 

The Conventions at Atlantic City. 

THE Master Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' 
conventions for 1906 will be held at Atlantic City, 
N. J., opening on June 13, by the M. C. B. Association. 
Such is the program arranged by the Executive Com- 
mittee in session at the Hotel Manhattan, New York, on 
December 11. 

It is not a far fetched guess that the choice for the 
next meeting place will meet with the approval of prac- 
tically the entire membership of both bodies. Atlantic 
City has come to be known as a first class convention 
place, not only by reason of its hotel facilities for taking 
care of large gatherings, but for the more important 
reason that visitors are treated with a consideration and 
fairness unusual to the general summer resort, whose 
mission in life is to see how near to the vitals they can 
cut without danger of a permanent suspension of the 
victim's animation. 

The members of both associations have borne much 
from hotel brigands at various times in the 40 years of 
their existence, and the choice of the next meeting place 
will be regarded as good business, or will be looked upon 
as fair at least, since it will give the other fellow a chance 
to demonstrate his skill with the scalpel, and bar the 
vultures that had come to look upon these organizations 
as too easy to make a protest under any form of a hold- 
up; that their reasoning was faulty is shown in the se- 
lection of Manhattan Beach in 1905 and Atlantic City 
for 1906. 

In making this choice for the next convention, there 
were several considerations to carefully weigh. The first 
was, of course, ample hotel accommodations ; another 
was, a place to hold the meetings where a speaker could 
be heard, and still another had reference to a place for 
the exhibits that would be convenient to the convention 
hall. Prominent hotel men have guaranteed all these re- 

The hotels are so close together as to make unneces- 
sary the massing of the members in one. The steel piers, 
near at hand, are equipped with roomy lecture halls, 
whose acoustic properties make them well fitted for con- 
vention proceedings; and from their location over the 
ocean, also delightfully cool. The entrance to the piers 
and the piers themselves present as fine advantages for 
the exhibits offered by our supply friends as any place 
that could be selected. Therefore, viewing the thing as a 
concrete proposition, there is no doubt that Atlantic 
City will be found an ideal place to hold the next con- 


The Steel Passenger Car. 

THE remarkable success achieved by steel cars in 
freight service has paved the way to the creation of 
the steel passenger car, which is no longer a dust covered 
theory on the drawing board, but an established entity, 
and made so after a most persistent fight against a con- 
servative opposition seemingly inspired by a desire to 
leave good enough alone. This sentiment has apparently 
been due to a want of correct information on the ques- 


January, 1906 

tion of metal construction, and therefore foreign to the 
practice of the wood-worker who has dominated the de- 
sign of passenger cars from the beginning. 

It is plain to the student of car construction that safety 
to passengers is a question of supreme importance and 
should be paramount. That the steel coach would make 
travel safer does not admit of argument, but the sug- 
gestion has been made for a compromise in the way of a 
composite wood and steel passenger car, and drawings 
for such cars have been gotten out and cost estimated, 
which if built would prove anything but the wisdom of 
the purchaser, as the use of freight equipment on those 
lines has shown. 

From a mechanical viewpoint, steel is the logical form 
of construction for any kind of a car, and especially so 
for a passenger car. Sills, posts, braces and carlines are 
all readily procurred in commercial shapes, that will sat- 
isfy the demands for any section modulus required. By 
such construction the whole structure is simplified and 
the car may be made strong enough to hold itself up with- 
out truss rods, since the plated sides become girders to 
assist the sills in carrying the load, besides which im- 
portant advantage unattainable in wood, the neutral axis 
of the sills may be brought to more nearly coincide with 
the center line of draft and thus have the highest effi- 
ciency as compression members, with a resistance un- 
known to wooden construction. 

The first cost is an item that while somewhat higher 
than for the wooden car, does not weigh as a factor in 
cost comparison, since the price of the former should be 
pitted against the whole life of the car owing to its low 
rate of depreciation, and therefore bring the actual cost 
so far below that of the wooden car as to make compar- 
ison out of it, when cost of maintenance of the latter en- 
ters, as it should, into the calculation. The weight of 
the steel coach when designed on correct lines will be 
fully as low as that of the wooden car of like capacity. 

The initiative for an all steel coach was taken less than 
two years ago, in the case of the cars for the New York 
Subway, which though smaller than the regulation pas- 
senger coach, showed some original thought that at- 
tracted attention to the possibilities in that line for heav- 
ier cars. An evidence of progress in this direction is 
noted in the orders of the Pennsylvania and Erie roads 
for steel coaches, also in the recent orders of the New 
York Central for heavy all steel equipment for their 
suburban traffic in the electrified zone of that road. 
These coaches are fully up to standard passenger equip- 
ment in size and finish, and are interesting examples of 
bold design on lines that will leave a record mark for 
steel passenger cars. 

Locomotive Jtdhesion. 

ONE of the curious things connected with locomo- 
tive design is the wide variation in the weight on 
drivers, and also the different views held on the amount 

of weight necessary to produce a certain frictional coeffi- 
cient between wheel and rail. This variable status does 
not exist on foreign roads to the extent that is found 
here, more attention being given there to weight — total 
and adhesive, for obvious reasons, but it would seem that 
sufficient incentive could be found to make wheel loads 
with some degree of uniformity here, and make the ques- 
tion one of a constant quantity for either freight or pas- 
senger service. 

Wheel arrangement is a most potent factor in manip- 
ulating loads thereon, especially in designs of engines 
with trailing wheels, decreasing or increasing the ad- 
hesive weight to an amount that will not only give prac- 
tically an equalized distribution, but also place the 
greatest amount of the total load where it will do the 
most good. The function of the adjustable equalizer 
fulcrum between the rear drivers and the trailing wheels 
is to accomplish this purpose, but it may be regarded as 
a make-shift when the adjustment is not made with 
reference to a proper coefficient of adhesion — and by 
proper is meant the frictional resistance that will start 
the train without slipping. 

The Pennsylvania road has furnished some prece- 
dents in correct wheel location, in their class E. 3 en- 
gines, by an arrangement of the trailer at a distance from 
the rear drivers, such as to relieve the trailer of a cer- 
tain amount of weight and transfering the same to the 
drivers as adhesive weight, which is a very pretty in- 
stance of close calculation that comes well within the 
meaning of the term engineering, and is in marked con- 
trast to the results obtained by the near location of 
trailers to drivers on some of the early Atlantic type en- 

Such results are only obtained by calculation of known 
weights and not estimated values, and the extent to which 
the designer may come wide of the desired figures may 
be but shown by a case within the knowledge of the 
writer, where six wheel switch engines were built 14,000 
lbs., in excess of the specified weight, all due to the lack 
of correct values taken for the details, which was left 
to subordinates to furnish. 

• The foreign designer, as has been intimated, gives his 
most earnest attention to load distribution on wheels, 
making a special study of keeping down weight to a 
point that invites slipping of the wheels, believing that 
some sacrifice should be made to adhesive weight, if by 
such action useless dead weight can be avoided. It is 
the general practice on many European roads to make 
the ratio of total load to adhesive weight as low as 3.5 to 
1 for all classes of service, while in this country these 
values differentiate from 4 to 5^2 to 1 and with no refer- 
ence to the service to which the machine is assigned. In 
fact the higher value is given to freight and passenger 
engines alike, from which it is evident that there is too 
little attention paid to the formulas given by the Master 
Mechanics' Association a few years since, and which 
have lost none of their value due to change of types, and 
therefore are of the same import today as when incor- 
porated in the proceedings of that body. 

January, 1906 


Mew York Central Steel Cars for Suburban Service 


IN the New York Central electrification 
scheme, there will be used a steel passenger 
equipment that is to be a marked advance 
over any steel construction yet put out for 
the purpose. An initial order has been taken 
by the American Car & Foundry Company 
for 125 motor cars which are represented in 
the accompanying line engravings. These 
cars will be used in trains- at first, made up of 
motor cars and trailers, and will be equipped 
with the Sprague-General Electric multiple unit control. 
The motor cars and trailers are exact duplicates ex- 
cept in the motors and truck, those for the trailers being 
of the M. C. B. type, and all are designed to operate on 
curves with a mininum radius of 135 feet. These cars 
are constructed entirely of non-inflamable material, the 
bodies being made of structural and pressed steel shapes, 
while the windows and door casings and frames, also 
the mouldings are of pressed steel and the fittings of 
metal or fireproof material. 

More or less agitation for steel passenger equipment 
has been made for steam roads, and on this account the 
details of construction will be of more than passing inter- 
est, and especially for the reason that the engineers en- 
gaged on the design of these cars have approached the 
problem on original lines, there having been but little 
done heretofore that could be used as a precedent for 
an all steel construction of a standard coach, and nothing 
in fact for any coach except those for the Subway. 

The center sills consist of two 8-inch I-beams, each 
continuous between platform and sills. The sides of 
the cars are built up as plate girders with the steel 
sheathing plates forming the web, a continuous 6x6x 
j4-inch angle forms the bottom flange, and a continuous 
special bulb section at the belt rail, forms the top flange. 
The side parts extend in one piece from sill to plate. 
Three special cross bearers, extending from side to side 

of the car under the sills, and equally spaced between 
the body bolsters, act as floor supports and transfer to 
the sides of the car the load that would otherwise tend 
to deflect the center sills. By this arrangement the 
center sills are kept in alinement and retain their full 
value as compression members under buffing stresses. 

Steel channels form the end sills. The ends of the car 
body and the vestibule, are built up of rolled and pressed 
steel shapes and steel plates, the bulkheads bel-ig designed 
so as to form a pocket for the sliding end doors. An 
anti-telescoping steel plate is secured undo the center 
sills and platform and sills. The buffer beam is made up 
of white oak faced with steel plate. - The cariines are of 
steel angles in one continuous piece from side plate to 
side plate, forming the contour of the lower and upper 
decks. The ventilator frames are of pressed steel form- 
ing a watertight housing for the upper deck sash. The 
roof is formed of fireproof composite board secured to 
furring strips which are secured to the cariines and 
parlines, the composite board being covered with heavy 
cotton duck. The furring is of fireproof ash. 

Steel angles placed longitudinally form the floor sup- 
ports, and are in turn carried on cross bearers. The 
flooring is made of Keystone section galvanized sheet 
steel, laid transversely and covered with cement flooring, 
which is protected by maple floor strips. The interior 
finish is of composite board and plate steel, relieved at 
joints and connections by rolled steel mouldings. The 
seats are of the walk-over type, upholstered in fireproofed 
rattan. The fittings of the car are of statuary bronze, 
and the basket racks are continuous. The side sash 
are equipped with the National automatic sash balance 
and locks. Deck sash are fitted with automatic venti- 
lators, and the deck sash screens are of perforated alum- 
inum plate. The window curtains are of pantasote. 

For illumination, the cars are fitted with both the 
Pintsch gas and electric systems, the former being neces- 



sary on account of the cars being used in combined steam weight per axle, loaded, on the motor trucks, is 32,390 

and electric service before the completion of the electri- lbs., and on the trailer trucks 23,390 lbs. The weight of 

fication work. There are five Pintsch gas lamps with the car body for both motor and trailer is 53,000 lbs., 

four jets each, and forty-two 16-candle power electric without electrical equipment. 

lamps, thirty of which are hung as pendants from the The general interior arrangement of these cars is 

clear story sills, and twelve hung in pairs over the aisle, similar to that of sixty- foot coaches used in steam ser- 

Each vestibule has a Pintsch deck light and two electric vice. The seating capacity is for sixty-four passengers, 

lamps. On the outside, each end of the motor car is and toilet facilities are provided as in the regular steam 

equipped with an incandescent headlight on the roof of trains. In all respects concerning the comfort and con- 

the vestibule. Two systems are provided for heating, venience of passengers this equipment stands as a model 

either of which may be used according to the service one for the service. Taking into account the weight of 

the car happens to be in. The Gold steam heat is used the locomotive of a steam propelled train of six cars and 

for steam train service, and electricity when in electric comparing the same with an electric train composed of 

service, the latter heaters being located under and at- a like number of cars and of the same seating capacity 

tached ' to the seats. For ventilation and cooling, an such as described, the loaded weight of the former per 

electric fan is located at each end of the car. passenger is 1823 lbs., while the loaded weight per pas- 

The cars are equipped with high speed automatic air senger of the latter is 1618 lbs., making a difference in 

brakes, each motor being a unit in itself, and has its own favor of an electric train, of 39.4 tons, or 205 lbs., per 

compressor and motorman's brake valve. The apparatus passenger. The light weight of the motor car is 102,600 

is so arranged that steam locomotives when coupled to lbs., and that of the trailer 78,600 lbs. The weight of 

the train can operate the braking system in the usual the usual sixty-foot wooden coach is 61,800 lbs., or about 

manner. The Lindstrom hand brake is installed on each 965. lbs. per passenger. The general dimensions of the 

platform. Each car is equipped with a complete air sig- new steel car are given in the tabulated figures below, 

nal apparatus, with air whistles in motorman's compart- which show a very close adherence to the dimensions of 

ment, which can be cut out when a steam locomotive is a modern wooden passenger coach, 
attached. The switch panel chamber is located at the general dimensions. 

trailer end of the car on the same side as the control ap- Ft. In. 

paratus. The rear of the panel is accessible from the Length over all 60 00 

men's toilet room. This panel contains all of the switches Length of car body between vestibule? 50 00 

for the control of the car and for the air compressor and Width over all 10 2% 

lighting, heating and ventilating. In addition to the Width over sheathing and platform floor 9 8^ 

ordinary brake, whistle and steam hose couplings, there Height from top of rail to top of roof 13 g]/ 2 

are two bus line and two control train line coupler Total wheel base 45 00 

sockets on each end of car. All the cables under the Wheel base of motor trucks 7 00 

car are carried through loricated conduits. The motor Wheel base of trailer trucks 6 00 

leads from the motor's to the car body are covered with Diameter of motor truck wheels 36 

spiral brass armor. Diameter of trailer truck wheels 33 

The trucks are of the four-wheel swing bolster type, .-*— 

built by the American Locomotive Company. The jour- 'Baldwin Freight Engine. Deepivater Rail* 
nals on motor trucks are 5/4x9 inches, and on trailers, road Co. 

5x9 inches. The wheels of the motor trucks have cast ^W^HE 2-8-2 engines recently delivered to the Deep- 
steel spoked centers. An extended hub on these wheels JL water road are used on a coal road where it is in- 
takes the gear which is shrunk on the hub. The wheels convenient to turn them and they are therefore operated 
are keyed to the axles. Steel enters into the construction backward as much as forward. The adhesive weight is 
of the side frames of the motor trucks, they being of distributed over four pairs of driving wheels in order to 
cast steel, while the end frames are of steel angles. The avoid too great concentration of load on the rails. The 
third rail shoe beam is attached to the journal boxes. rear truck enables the use of a good depth of throat 
The side bearings are the Norwood, style F ball bearing. sheet, and also a horizontal grate in the wide fire box. 
Bolsters are of cast steel with center plates cast on. The They are powerful engines for the service, having a 
brake beams are inside hung, while the brake heads are starting power of 45> 20 ° lb s., on an ordinarily dry rail, 
of the M. C. B. type made of malleable iron, and the The Y are simple engines with all the best and tried fea- 
brake shoes are of the stripped back type. The journal tures of that tyP e of machine, together with a boiler of 
boxes on the motor truck are Symington, and those on lar S e beating surface, having over 3,400 square feet. 
the trailer trucks, McCord M. C. B. pedestal type. The followin g specification gives, in connection with the 

rr U , _ . halftone, for which we are indebted to the Baldwin Lo- 

There are two 200 H. P. General Electric No. 59C . ' ,,. , , . , „ , . ' . 

^ 1 j- 1 r~, . .„ comotive Works, a clear idea of the dimensions of this 

motors on the motor truck of each car. This power will 

1 , ., engine: 

give an acceleration of one and one-quarter miles per Gaug£j 4 feet 8 ^ inches 

hour per second, and a speed of 52 miles an hour. The Cylinder, 22 inches by 28 inches. 

January, 1906 



Valve, balanced. 

Boiler, type, straight Mtl. steel. 
Diameter, 78 inches. 
Thickness of sheets, 13-16-inch. 
Working pressure, 200 pounds. 
Fuel, soft coal. 
Staying, radial. 
Firebox, material, steel. 
Length 102 inches, width 72 inches. 
Depth, front 72 inches, back 62 inches. 

Thickness of sheets, sides ^Ms-inch, back fjj-inch, crown 7-16- 
inch, tube ^2-inch. 
Water space, front 5 inches, sides 4 inches, back 4 inches. 
Tubes, material iron, wire gauge number n. 
Number, 300, diameter, 2J4 inches, length, 18 feet, 6 inches. 
Heating surface, firebox, 160 square feet. 
Tubes, 3,254 square feet. 
Total, 3,414 square feet. 
Grate area, 51 square feet. 
Driving wheels, Diameter outside, 51 inches. 
Diameter of center, 44 inches. 
Journals, 9^x12 inches, others, 9x12 inches. 
Engine truck wheels, (front), diameter, 33 inches. 
Journals, 5^x10 inches. 

Engine truck wheels, (back), diameter, 26 inches. 
Journals, 6x10 inches. 
Wheel base, driving, 14 feet. 
Rigid, 14 feet. 

Total engine, 31 feet, 1 inch. 
Total engine and tender, 59 feet. 
Weight, on driving wheels, about 180,000 pounds. 
Total engine, about 224,000 pounds. 
Total engine and capacity, about 340,000 pounds. 
Tank, capacity, 6,000 gallons, 10 tons coal. 
Tender wheels, No. 8, diameter, 33 inches. 
Journals, 5x9 inches. 
Service, freight. 

• ♦ » 

Ridgway Heavy Driving Wheel Lathe. 

THE Ridgway Machine Tool Co., Ridgway, Pa., 
have recently completed a 90-inch driving wheel 
lathe which is especially adapted to the use of high speed 
tool steels. A successful demonstration of the machine 
was made at their works for a party of prominent engi- 
neers, among whom were R. T Shea, inspector of ma- 
chinery and tools of the Vanderbilt lines ; C. H. Hogan, 
superintendent of motive power of the Western Division 
of the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. ; James Horton, master me- 
chanic, Homestead Works, Carnegie Steel Co. ; John 
Flemming, master foreman, and John Parsons, tire lathe 
operator, Depew Shops, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. ; William 

Eberhart, assistant foreman wheel shop, P. R. R., Al- 
toona; C. H. Potts, master mechanic, and C. H. Miller, 
general foreman, Renova Shops, P. R. R. ; O. P. Meckel 
and H. L. Paulus, Baird Machinery Co., Pittsburg. Pa., 
and C. A. Goodspeed, Prentiss Tool and Supply Co., 
New York. 

The machine, which is shown in an illustration, is 
driven by a Thompson-Ryan variable speed motor hav- 
ing a range of four to one. From the illustration it is 
seen that all parts subject to strains are made short and 
stocky. This is seen in the face plates and clamping 
devices. These are so arranged that the crank pin goes 
into a hole in the face plate, bringing the wheel up close, 
which insures more rigidity. The tool rests are arranged 
so as to have very little overhang, insuring the loss of 
tool vibration. This general scheme is adhered to 
throughout, which makes the machine an ideal one for 
locomotive shop work. 

The bed is of box form with internal ribs and the front 
is extended beyond the main body to give the usual sup- 
port for the tool posts. The left hand head, which is 
also constructed of the ribbed box section, has the driv- 
ing gearing. The centers are carried in steel spindles 
7 inches in diameter, sliding in the main spindle, and 
are clamped at the front ends by conical split bushings. 

An important feature is found in the mechanism em- 
ployed in traversing the right head or tail back and forth. 
A small electric motor is conveniently hung on a bracket 
attached to the tail stock and is geared directly to the 
traversing screw. One gear of this train is arranged 
to slip at a certain point so that it is possible to run the 
motor at full speed, bringing up the center at a rapid 
rate solidly into place in the axle without the necessity 
of slowing down or stopping the motor. The power of 
this device can be adjusted so that sufficient force is 
applied, thus avoiding the necessity of adjusting the 
centers by means of the hand wheels furnished. 

The rests are of rigid construction and are clamped to 
the bed by six i^-inch bolts. The side next to the face 
plate is cut away on the top and reinforced on the under 
side so as to allow the driving dogs to be brought as 
near to the rim of the wheel as possible. The tool blocks 
have sniveling compound slides with power feed in any 
direction, and can be set so as to turn wheels from 48 
inches to 90 inches in diameter. The right hand rest 



January, 1906 


is provided with power traverse by means of a link con- 
necting it to the tail stock head. 

The driving dogs are different from those usually em- 
ployed for this class of work. They are built up of two 
pieces, one of which is bolted to the face plate. This 
piece has a U-shaped opening to admit a spoke of a 
wheel. Three set screws in the U-shaped portion center 
and hold the wheel rigid. The other piece of the dog 
slides over the end' of the U-shaped section. This is 
put on after the wheels are in place and has a set screw 
to do its share of holding the wheel rigid. 

The feed is taken directly from the face plate ; the feed 
lever being close to the operator makes it possible to 
adjust the amount of feed without leaving the work. The 
face plates can be driven independently or in unison, 
as desired. All running bearings are bushed with bronze. 
The face plate pinion is forged steel and runs in a sleeve 
which is bronze -lined. It is withdrawn from mesh with 
a face plate gear for journal turning by a lever in the 
front of the head. The speeds of the face plate are in 
correct geometrical ratio for tires, giving cutting speeds 
of 5 feet 6 inches per minute on a 90-inch diameter to 
34 feet per minute on a 48-inch diameter. The remain- 
ing ten speeds are in correct geometrical ratio for jour- 
nals, giving 32 feet per minute cutting speed on 5-inch 
journals to 6 feet per minute on 10-ineh journals. The 
journal rest is carried on the two inner members of the 
main rest and has two tool blocks with cross slide and 
longitudinal power feed for turning both journals at 

The iaUte may be equipped with quartering attach- 

ments for boring the crank pin holes of the driving wheels 
when assembled on the axles. The attachments weigh 
2800 pounds and have spindles 2 11-16 inches in diameter 
with a travel of 16 inches. The quartering attachment 
on the left head is driven from the motor which drives 
the machine. On the right head it is driven by the me- 
chanism provided for transversing the head on the bed. 
Both quartering attachment spindles have ten changes of 
speed, varying from 69 to j6 R. P. M., which give a 
wide range for all diameters of crank pin holes. The 
tool rests used when turning the journals of axles add 
1,500 pounds to the weight of the machine. 

The general dimensions of the machine are as follows : 

Swing 7 ft. 7 in. 

Diameter of face plates'. 7 ft. 7 in. 

Maximum distance between face plates 9 ft. 

Maximum distance between centers 7 ft. 6 in. 

Face plate speeds 20 

Max. speed for tires R. P. M 2.68 

Min. speed for tires R. P. M 227 

Max. speed for journals R. P. M 54 

Min. speed for journals R. P. M 4.53 

Maximum feed 5 in. 

Minimum feed 025 in. 

Main spindle, left head, diameter 13 in. 

Main spindle, right head, diameter 11 in. 

Internal spindle diameter 7 in. 

Main driving shaft diameter 6 in. 

Cone for belt drive, large step, diameter. . 36 in. 

Cone for belt drive, small step, diameter. ........ 18 in. 

Belt width 7 in. 

January, 1906 


Motor 3° HP- 
Floor space 20 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. 

Weight . . 90,000 lbs. 

The first test on the machine, which was performed at 
the Ridgway works consisted of turning a pair of very 
badly worn locomotive driving wheels 57 inches in dia- 
meter in 59 minutes actual cutting time. Six minutes 
were consumed in placing the wheels in the lathe, and 
they were taken out in four minutes, making the time for 
the complete operation one hour and nine minutes. The 
machine stood on the floor of the shop without any 
fastening, and it was necessary to operate it from a 
platform, consequently it was not possible to force the 
machine to the extent that would have been possible had 
it been properly placed on a suitable foundation. In all 
the tests the ability of the machine proved more than 
was commensurate with the capabilities of the tool steels, 
for it rigidly stood up to the point of failure of every 
tool used. The wheels used in the tests were furnished 
by the N. Y. C. & H. R. R., and were worn about as 
badly as any that would ever be met with in practice, 
these being selected to try the tool under the most severe 

The feed on the first pair of wheels was commenced 
with a feed of 9-32 inch, a cut }4 inch deep and a cutting 
speed of yj4 feet per minute. After running i l / 2 inches 
over the treads of the tires, the speed was increased to 1 1 
feet per minute and the feed to %. inch. When the 
treads had been farced to a width of 3 inches, the tools 
gave out, the speed having been increased to 14 feet per 
minute. Another make of steel was tried which gave 
out in about 3 minutes. With still another kind of steel 
the flanges were begun and finished in 44 minutes. One 
hour and 28 minutes covered the cutting time, including 
the replacing of tools. In this time 250 pounds of metal 
were removed and the power consumed by the lathe va- 
ried from 6 to 26 H. P. The machine was operated by 
Lewis H. Morgan, Superintendent and general manager 
of the Ridgway Machine Tool Company. 

In another test the expert tire turner, John Parsons, 
of the Depew Shops, of the N. Y. C. & H. R. R., operated 
the machine. Cutting was commenced at the rate of 16 
feet per minute, the feed being yi inch and the cut ]/z 
inch deep. When the tools had traversed i l / 2 inches 
across the treads the feed was increased to %. inch and 
one of the tools gave out. Two more tools broke down 
before the cutting was finished. This was the test re- 
ferred to in the first paragaph, for which the cutting 
time, including the replacing of tools, was 59 minutes. 
The metal removed was 180 pounds, the power con- 
sumed being the same as in the previous test. The dif- 
ference in time of the two tests may be attributed prin- 
cipally to the condition of the wheels. 


picture was taken on June 22, 1905, at which time he 

was 94 years of age. He is hale and as full of vigor as 

many men at half his age, and is as regular at his works 

as any man in his employ. His life, while a busy one, has 

left him still in the enjoyment of good health, and as the 

picture tells, a lover of outdoor exercise. 
— ♦-. 

Locomotive Firebox Staybolt Threads. 

THE accompanying illustrations show the method 
adopted by Mr. J. B. Barnes, Supt. L. & C. Dept. 
of the Wabash Railroad, for securing a greater number 
of threads in the fire box sheet and at the same time al- 
lowing the water to surround the thread. 

This is a simple device and all that is necessary is 
to drill a small hole in the sheet at the point where the 
center of the bolt is to be. The punch and die illustrated 
herewith are then applied, which turns in the sheet as 
shown, giving a longer thread than is obtained with the 
ordinary method of fastening. 

Another advantage found with this method is, that 

« ■» • 

Mr. Loring Coes. 

OUR half-tone of Mr. Loring Coes, the veteran 
wrench manufacturer of Worcester, Mass., the 
founder and orginator of the wrenches that bear his 
name, shows Mr. Coes at his favorite diversion. This 




January, 1906 




the head of the riveted bolt is flush with the inside sheet, 
which prevents the fire from injuring it. Also the larger 
radius under the head gives less tendency for the bolt 
to start a crack there. 

The staybolt shown in connection with this drawing 
is also original with Mr. Barnes. It is simply a thimble 
screwed into the outside sheet, and the staybolt intro- 
duced. The head rests on a ball joint as shown and the 
thimble is sealed up with an outside plug leaving a small 
space between the head of the bolt and the plug for 
slight movement in case of expansion or contraction. 
The method of screwing in the bolt is the same as usually 
employed for this purpose. That is it has either a 
square end at the threaded portion or a square hole in 
the head. 

We are indebted to Mr. J. B. Barnes, Supt. L. & C. 
Dept. of the Wabash for these illustrations and des- 

» ♦ » 

Hospital Car for the Southern Pacific. 

THE Southern Pacific recently completed at its Sac- 
ramento shops a special car which is intended for 
a hospital car but is so constructed that it can be used 
for a private or official car. The general plan of the 
interior together with the finish and many of the fixtures 
were made under the direction of Dr. F. KpAinsworth, 
chief surgeon of the Southern Pacific. 

The car is 67 feet long over end sills, 9 feet 8 inches 
wide over side sills. It has six wheel trucks which weigh 
41,000 pounds, and the total weight of the car is 122,500 

pounds. The end compartment is finished in dark oak, 
the kitchen and front end in natural oak and the re- 
mainder of the inside finish is mahogany. The casings 
and mouldings and general design of the interior are 
neat but in simple lines. The metal trimmings are gun 
metal. The car is lighted by electricity, using axle 
light. It is also supplied with the regular Pintsch gas 
equipment. The car heating fixtures are supplied by 
the Consolidated Steam Heating Co. 

From the plan view it is seen that the observation room 
is at the rear end and is 9 feet 2^/2 inches long. It has a 
leather sofa, which forms the upper and lower berths. 
Next to the observation room is a private state room, 
with stationary bed, wardrobe and washstand. Next to 
this is a closet with a compartment opposite for shower 
bath. This bath is lined with white porcelain tiling. 
Next is the medical locker room, with closets containing 
a regular dispensary outfit and all the surgical instru- 
ments required for any ordinary operation due to rail- 
road accidents. At the front end of the car the platform 
on one side is occupied by a large refrigerator and a 
closet on the opposite side. The platform is completely 
closed by a pair of doors leading to the platform of the 
next car. Inside the main car at the end is the heater 
room and opposite this is the servants sections with 
upper and lower berths. Next to this is a very conveni- 
ent kitchen 8 feet 6 inches long with a full equipment 
of crockery and cooking utensils. Next to this is a com- 
partment which ordinarily is used as a dining room, be- 
ing fitted with a locker and serving and dining table. 
At the sides of this room are large double doors with a 
width of four feet, which are intended to admit a couch 
or stretcher. This room is used for the operating room 
when used for hospital purposes. The ward room is 
next to and part of the dining or operating room and 



January, 1906 


. • t»-*:<&i xammtmrnnar-* ,.- 




can be divided into sections for three upper and three 
lower berths on each side, making a total of 12 berths. 
Ordinarily this room is arranged like a parlor car, with 
a few easy chairs and the floor entirely clear. The berths 
with the partitions, springs and mattresses are stored 
in pockets in a cellar entirely beneath the floor. The 
arrangement of these fixtures, with the apparatus for 
operating the berths has been worked out in connection 
with the patents of the American Palace Car Co. and 
it was found that the plans are admirably adapted to this 
kind of a car. 

The berth frames are 33^ inches wide and 6 feet 6 
inches long. In order to provide space for them below 
the floor, the ordinary construction of under frame could 
not be followed. The construction used is clearly shown 
in the half cross section shown herewith. The center 
sills are 5x6^ inches, the intermediate sills are 4^4x6^2 
inches and the side sills 5x8 inches. At the central 
section of the car directly under the ward room a 
cellar for the storage of berths is provided. At this 
point of the car there are 9 inch channels placed directly 
under the side and intermediate sills with a clear dis- 
tance of 3 feet 1-16 inch between the flanges. This 
brings the bottom of the channels 17 inches below the 
floor, which is the depth of the berth pockets. A sub- 
cellar 5^4 inches deep is provided for the mechanism 
which raises and lowers the berths. This sub-cellar is 
obtained by the use of wooden sills placed below the steel 

,'> t, ■Jf2-5iivfbe\ir r i ton Ft. 

- /qua I mi Bsrram 

6'fe />'# ro/ripen^at/ng 
Spring _ £_"_** 


channels. Below the sills is a 7-inch deck beam which 
forms the crosstie and to this deck beam the truss rods 
are attached. 

The mechanism for operating the berths is shown in 
three views. The end section shows the socket in the 
floor by which it is operated, the operating tool being 
similar to a carpenter's brace. Immediately below this 
socket is a 3-inch sprocket gear driving a bicycle chain 
and gearing with a 6% -inch sprocket, having as the same 
shaft a 3-inch pinion. This pinion gears into the large 
gear at the center and on the shaft of the large gear is 
fixed the drum for operating the cables. This mechan- 
ism is in duplicate, one being for the lower and one for 
the upper berth. There are also compensating springs 
which are intended to keep the cables always taut. The 
cables from the large drums lead off to sheaves at the 
edges of the pocket and these in turn lead to sheaves 
placed in recesses in the vertical partitions which ordi- 
narily form a part of the floor of the car. By the use 
of this mechanism a berth can be raised to a level with 
the floor, the springs and bedding removed and a cot 
with a patient placed on the frame, or the patient can be 
transferred from a cot to the berth and it can then be 
elevated to the upper position. There is a simple device 
for locking the berths when in position. 

The car is equipped with the Standard steel platform 
and has steel double body bolsters. When not in use this 
car is held at the company's hospital near West Oakland 
and a trained nurse and cook are assigned to it to see 
that it is always in proper condition for emergency ser- 
vice. On account of the long distances between sta- 
tions and hospitals on the Southern Pacific, there is 
often a delay in getting patients to the hospital and it 
is the intention that the car will be taken to a wreck by 
a special engine carrying the doctors and that the hos- 
pital equipment which it contains will enable them to 
afford relief much quicker and better than when this is 
provided by the ordinary transportation. The road will 
build a number of cars, which will be arranged and equip 
ped in a manner similar to the one illustrated, but the in- 
side finish will not be as elegant. It is also the intention 
of the company to establish along the line a number of 
emergency hospitals at remote places where it is found 
they will be useful. They intend to provide facilities for 



January, 1906 


taking care of the injured, which will be equal to and 
better than those of any other railroad. 

We are indebted to Mr. H. J. Small, General Superin- 
tendent of Motive Power for the illustrations and de- 

■ ♦ » 

The Lassiter Straight and Taper Bolt Turning 


HE bolt turning machine shown in our half-tone is 
a tool designed and patented by C. K. Lassiter. 
mechanical expert with the American Locomotive Co., 
and adopted by that company for making all bolts within 
its capacity. This machine is made in two sizes for bolts 
from % to 1^ inch diameter, the smaller size turns up 
to 12 inches in length and large diameter up to 18 inches 
long. The number of cutter heads required depending 
on sizes and lengths and whether straight or taper. The 
four spindles are counterbalanced, and may be driven 
independent or in multiple. Each spindle has a friction 


safety stop so arranged as to stop action of the feed in 
case any excessive resistance is set up during the cutting 
operation, by which all liability of breakage is eliminated. 

The end of each spindle is threaded to receive a bolt 
driving check which is counterbored to receive inter- 
changeable bushings of hardened steel, properly con- 
structed to drive the forged head of the bolt whatever its 
size or shape. The four cutter heads are suspended ver- 
tically in four holders which permits of a slight oscillat- 
ing movement in order to obviate lateral stresses. The 
cutter heads contain the cutter blades, guides, and wedge 
blocks and keys for adjusting the cutter blades and guides 
in vertical or radial positions. All adjustments are made 
by means of a plug gage of correct dimensions. 

The forging is first turned straight in the roughing 
head, the finishing head giving the proper taper and 
finish. The wear on the cutter heads is practiaclly noth- 
ing, and the cost of maintenance of the blades is a small 
item, they requiring to be removed from the dies and re- 
ground onlv at long intervals. As many as 8,000 taper 
bolts have been finished without regrinding the cutter 

The output of this machine is largely in excess of any- 
other method, as many as one thousand 1^x9 inch taper 
bolts having been rough turned and finished in ten hours. 
the accuracy of the work being superior to those pro- 
duced by any other method except by grinding on centers. 
The output of a first-class engine lathe handled by an 
expert, who centers, rough turns and faces under the 
lead, changes his tool, and finish turns on the body and 
under the head, besides the inevitable filing to fit gages, 
would not be over fifty bolts in ten hours. In other words, 
this machine with an unskilled operator has a capacity 
equal of twenty lathes handled by first-class talent. 

To state the cost in dolars and cents for the opera- 
tions of turning and facing under the head of all standard 
bolts from |4 to ijMs inch diameter, and from* 3 to 14 
inches long, a roughing and finishing cut will average 
not over forty cents per hundred. Adding twelve cents 
per hundred for rounding the points and the total cost 
of turning is fifty-two cents per hundred for the finished 
bolt blank ready or threading. This machine is furnished 
bv the W. H. Foster Co.. 126 Liberty St., New York. 

January, 1906 


1 1 

Baltimore £r Ohio Simple Consolidation Engine. 

UR halftone of the Baltimore & Ohio con- 
f~\ solidation engine represents a lot comprising 
^■^ 210 of that type built by the American Loco- 
motive Company, by whose courtesy we illus- 
trate this machine. In the design of these 
engines, first consideration has been given to 
the prime essentials of a freight locomotive, 
the aim of the road being to have a machine 
suitable for handling the heaviest tonnage 
at the highest practicable speed ; a reasonable first cost ; 
economy in fuel and water consumption; low cost of 
maintenance; a construction embodying high class work 
with the minimum number of parts, to the end of a 
maximum period of service without failure. 

These points have all received the closest attention in 
design of details, for the service in which the engines are 
to operate. The rigid wheel base is short to meet the 
exactions of sharp curves, and the weight on truck is 

Mechanics, and the third, of the Road Foremen, each 
bringing with them, one locomotive engineer and fireman 
of each division. 

"After the arrival of the sample locomotive at Balti- 
more, certain parts were dismantled, and the members 
of these committees were given every opportunity to 
make an examination of the details in the general design 
and construction. The locomotive was then connected 
and put under steam, so that members of the committees 
could have an opportunity to observe as to the operation, 
hauling capacity and straining and riding qualities. The 
committees were instructed to submit reports after their 
investigations, giving their criticisms and recommenda- 
tions, and reasons for any change that they would sug- 
gest making. These reports contained many valuable 
suggestions, which, coming from the people who will 
be in direct charge of the maintenance and operation of 
the locomotives over level and mountainous divisions, 

-- . . 

||^^_— ^^^L*Bj3 ;., 




_ p 

' v 










m_t --' M^m 





low in order to have a large percentage of adhesive 
weight to total weight, being arranged to be as low as 
will be consistent with high speeds down mountain 

The care taken to produce the best possible freight 
engine of its type, is shown in the creditable broad gage 
methods followed by the General Superintendent of Mo- 
tive Power, Mr. J. E. Muhlfeld, in bringing the officials 
and men of his road who are to be directly responsible 
for the maintenance and operation of these engines, 
as a board to pass on the merits of the machine from 
the viewpoint of the designer and operator. Concerning 
his action in this regard, and which will be conceded 
is most unusual, Mr. Muhlfeld, in his reference to these 
engines, says: 

"The construction of the first, or sample locomotive 
No. 2500, which was put in service during the month of 
August, was carried in advance of the regular order, 
to give an opportunity for discussion and a practical 
demonstration of the design, construction, and operation, 
the result of which might lead to discussion that would 
affect the balance of the locomotives. The Motive 
Power Department appointed three committees, one con- 
sisting of the Superintendents of Motive Power, Me- 
chanical Engineer and Engineer of Tests and Shop 
Master Mechanics, another of the Divisional Master 

have been of considerable benefit in producing a design 
that the Motive Power people feel will give the most 
satisfactory general results." 

The tendency toward the increasing use of the Wal- 
schaert valve gear is again seen in this order, as five of 
these engines are to be equipped with the Walschaert 
gear similar to that applied to the Mallit articulated com- 
pound, for the purpose of making comparison and deter- 
mining as to the advisability of future applications of the 
Walschaert gear, instead of the Stephenson link gear. 
The time is yet here when 210 engines comprise the 
complete motive power equipment of many roads, repre- 
senting all kinds' and types. Here we have a single order 
for that number of engines, all of which are identical in 
size and type, which fact is quite conclusive that Mr. 
Muhlfeld is secure in his position concerning the needs 
of his road for power. The following specification con- 
tains interesting data not touched upon in the foregoing, 
among which will be noted the comparatively low tube 
heating surface and wide water space. These engines 
are believed to represent the most advanced practice in 
the production of a simple slide valve locomotive on rigid 
engineering lines. 

Cylinder, type simple slide valve, diameter 22 inches, stroke 30 

Track gauge 4 feet Sy 2 inches, tractive power 41,100 pounds. 



January, 1906 

Wheel base, driving 16 feet 8 inches, rigid 16 feet 8 inches, 
total 25 feet 7 inches. 

Wheel base total, engine and tender 59 feet 8J4 inches. 

Weight in working order 208,500, on drivers 185,900. 

Weight in working order, engine and tender, 345,900. 

Heating surface, tubes 2612.80 square feet. 

Heating surface, firebox 162.26 square feet. 

Heating surface, total 2775.06 square feet. 

Grate area 56.5 square feet. 

Axles, driving journals, main 10 inches by 13 inches, others 
gY 2 inches by 13 inches. 

Axles, engine truck journals, diameter 6 inches, length 10 
inches. * 

Axles, tender truck journals, diameter s l A inches, length 10 

Boiler, type straight top, O. D. first ring 74 7-16 inches. 

Boiler, working pressure 200 pounds ; fuel, soft coal. 

Firebox, type wide, length io8 l /$ inches, width 7514 inches. 

Firebox, thickness of crown }i inch, tube ]/ 2 inch, sides Y% 
inch, back Y% inch. 

Firebox, water space, front /p/2 inches, sides 4^ inches, back 
4*4 inches. 

Crown staying, radial. 

Tubes, material char, iron, number 282, diameter, 2^ inches. 

Tubes, length 15 feet 10 inches, gauge No. 11 B. W. G. 

Boxes, driving, main C. S. others C. S. 

Brake, driver West. Am. Auto, truck and straight air 

with H. P. control, Vert. Cyl. 

Brake, tender West. Auto. Str., air signal West. J. air with 
H. P. control. 

Brake, pump 11 inches L. H., two reservoirs 18^x120. 

Engine truck 2-whl. with 3 point hanger for swing center 

Exhaust pipe, single nozzles S T A inches and 5 l / 2 inches. 

Grate, style rocking B. & O. Std. operated in four sections. 

Piston, rod diameter 4 inches, piston packing 3^ C. I. snap 

Smoke stack, diameter 18 inches, top above rail 14 feet 7$i 

Tender frame 13 inches, steel channels and plates. 

Tank, style water bottom. 

Tank, capacity 7,000 gallons. 

Tank, capacity fuel, 12 tons. 

Valves, type Richardson Balance, travel 6 inches, steam lap 
i*4 inches. 

Valves, ex. lap. yi inch. 

Setting 1-16 inch lead in full gear F. & B. 

Wheels, driv. diam. outside tire 60 inches, centers diam. 54 

Wheels, driv. material, main C. S., others C. S. 

Wheels, engine truck, diam. 33 inches, kind, std. steel works 
C. I. spoke. 

Wheels, tender truck, kind, 33 inch C. I. plate. 

» ♦ 

Meeting Place of the M. M. and M. C. B. 

A MEETING of the joint executive committee of 
the Master Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' 
associations was held at the Manhattan Hotel, New York 
City, on Monday, December 11, to hear the report of a 
subcommittee, consisting of Mr. F. K. Shults (chair- 
man), A. E. Mitchell and G. W. Wildin, recommending 
that the conventions of 1906 be held at Atlantic City. 
After hearing the representations of delegations from 
Atlantic City and Saratoga, the executive committee 
adopted the subcommittee's report by a unanimous vote. 
The arrangements made with the representatives of At- 

lantic City are most complete, and as there are 14 large 
hotels on the ocean front, there need be no difficulty as 
to hotel accommodations. No hotel will be made head- 
quarters, as the meeting hall, exhibit space and general 
arrangements for assemblage and conference will be ac- 
commodated on the great steel pier, so that the pier, and 
not the hotel, will be really the official headquarters of 

the conventions. 

. ■» » 

The Shontz Stoker. 

THE accompanying illustrations are of the Shontz 
stoker as applied to stationery boilers. It is one of 
the simplest devices that has ever come to our attention. 

It consists of a hopper into which the coal is fed. A 
small wheel forces the coal down onto a chain which 
carries it into the fire box. This also regulates the 
amount of coal fed by the slide on the opening. As the 
coal drops over the end of the chain it comes in contact 
with a steam jet which blows it against a deflector plate 
which distributes it over the fire box. This deflector 
plate is moved back and forth by a rod and operated 
by the same small engine that operates the chain belt and 
forced feed. Below the chain belt is a plate to prevent 
any of the fine coal falling through. The size of the 
opening in the fire door is only about 3x4 inches. 

Our rough sketch of the back end of the locomotive 
boiler shows a rough application of the device to a loco- 
motive boiler. This is in line with the suggestions of 
Mr. H. F. Ball made at the Master Mechanic's Asso- 
ciation meeting at Manhattan last June. That is to have 
the coal conveyed from the tender into the fire box. In 
this case the forced feed can be done away with as the 
rocking and shaking of the locomotive is enough to keep 
the coal moving. It would only take a small hole in the 
bottom of the fire door making it possible to fire by hand 
if it is so desired. 

Mr. F. Chauvet of the Commonwealth Electric Co. of 


January, 1906 




Chicago, has made extensive tests of various stokers and 
makes the following comment on the Shontz stoker : 

"In over feed stokers, I would say that I have had 
some experience with them, and find even in their un- 
developed conditions many commendable features and 
points of superiority over the different kinds of auto- 
matic stokers now in use. • . 

Their particular value is their simplicity and small 
size making it easy to attach them to any boiler front, or 
setting without disturbing the conditions in use, or pre- 
venting the return to the original method of firing in 
case of any accident to the stoker. 

Aside from their cheapness and facility of installation, 
from a combustion stand point they present special ad- 
vantages and as the ultimate object of any stoker is the 
economical burning of fuel and decrease of labor, there 
is a future for them as soon as they are mechanically per- 
fected. As opposed to hand firing their advantages are. 

1st. The uniformity of feed and perfect distribution 
of coal over the grate. 

2nd. By keeping boiler doors closed thereby reducing 
excess air which in hand firing results in decrease of 
efficiency and subjects boiler to dangerous strains. 

From the above it will be seen that with a regular feed, 
even distribution of coal and keeping boiler doors closed, 
perfect combustion is aproached with a minimum 

amount of air thereby increasing the efficiency of the 
boiler and furnace. 

Owing to the even feed and proper distribution of coal 
on the grate the volatile hydro carbons which are dis- 
tilled from the coal are oxydized, resulting first in a 
higher efficiency ; secondly, the absence of smoke which 
in itself is a sufficient virtue to recommend the installa- 
tion of a stoker. With hand firing the above condi- 
tions are not realized as the fuel is fed intermittently and 
large excesses of air admitted at each firing. The result 
is loss of efficiency and smoke. 

Compared to the chain grates the over feed stoker 
suffers as a mechanical device, however as a fuel saving 
apparatus it has points in its favor. 

1st. It maintains an even fire bed which the chain 
grate does not. 

2nd. In the chain grate this varying thickness results 
in not enough air in front and an excess at the end and 
leaving practically only the middle one-third of the grate 
with a good fire. 

This big fault is overcome with the over feed stoker. 

Having mentioned the points of advantage it is well to 
state the short comings of the over feed. As they are 
yet undeveloped their mechanical faults are many, so far 
they have not always operated successfully and they often 
become choked with coal, and their installation was use- 



January, 1906 

less unless there was a crusher. This now is different as 
most large plants use screenings and the mines have in- 
stalled screens varying from % inch to 3^2 inches, mak- 
ing it possible to obtain any size cheap coal. Another 
objection raised was that the coal was blown in by 
steam requiring high pressure. 

With the latest over feed devices the coal is carried in 
mechanically to the deflectors and blown in with from 
3/4 lb. to 5 lbs. pressure, making very little drain 
on the boiler and small loss from steam in the fire if any 
as it is compensated by making a better mixture of gases 
and completely oxydising all minute particles of coal 
in their flight by the oxygen which otherwise would be 
unused and excess. 

The part that water gas would play is insignificant as 
to produce water gas an excess of incandescent carbon 
would be necessary to decompose the steam and to satu- 
rate to carbon dioxide with another carbon atom. 

Where the stoker is of value is in small isolated 
plants especially in cities, where room is scarce and floor 
space valuable. 

There it can be installed when hardly any other type 
can be put. Its application to railroads and steamboats 
has not yet been tried, however, as it remedies most de- 
fects of hand firing and chain grate stokers, it has a 
good future as soon as it is mechanically developed to 
insure continuity of service." 

of a crowd, the extraordinary attendance being due not 
so much as a tribute to terpsichore as a desire to be pres- 
ent at the reception given by the retiring and incoming 

» » ■ 

Meeting of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. 

THE American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
held its fifty-second meeting in New York City, the 
home of the society, December 5th to 8th, with the record 
attendance of over 1200 members and guests. The oc- 
casion was a notable one in the annals of this body for 
the reason that there were fewer papers presented than 
usual, enabling the members for once to devote more 
time to social amenities than to the dry details of en- 
gineering technics. While the subjects for discussion 
were not numerous, they were of the highest order of 
excellence, the paper on "Reinforced Concrete Applied 
to Modern Shop Construction" being of the greatest 
moment to the readers of railway literature. 

An enjoyable feature of the session of December 5, 
was the holding of the meeting in the dining-saloon of 
the Hamburg-American Liner, "Amerika," the newest 
and largest passenger steamer afloat up to date. After 
the meeting on the big ship, the members and guests 
took a special train on the Lackawanna road and visited, 
by invitation, the immense Worthington Hydraulic 
Works recently completed at Harrison, N. J., where the 
afternoon was spent inspecting the plant. An elaborate 
"lunch a la fourchette" was served by the management, 
to the visitors, in the works, and there was probably 
never before anything like this sumptuous lay-out served 
on any similar occasion. 

The annual ball and banquet on the night of December 
7, (always held at Sherry's), was the occasion of a turn- 
out that would swamp ordinary facilities for taking care 

Jiir Power in the Union Pacific Shops 
at Omaha. 

COMPRESSED air has become as essential in rail- 
way shop work as steam for power or electricity 
for lighting. Hardly a process of locomotive or car 
building and repairing is not aided by some form of air 
tool. The air compressor, as the source of power for 
these pneumatic tools, assumes an important place in the 
shop equipment. 

In the shops of the Union Pacific Railway at Omaha. 
Nebraska, air power has been carried to a degree of ap- 
plication probably equalled in no other shop of the coun- 
try ; and the extent of its use has made necessary an air 
compressor installation ranking among the largest for 
this purpose. 

The buildings comprising the various departments of 
these shops are compactly grouped beside the yards of 
the company and in their arrangement shops' economies 
have governed. The power house is at the south of the 
main group and was one of the shop buildings under the 
scheme in effect before the late improvements and rear- 
rangement. This fact accounts for some features of 
power house arrangement which differ from usual prac- 
tise where the building is designed to suit the work. A 
longitudinal fire-wall separates engine and boiler rooms. 
The boiler equipment was selected to meet the conditions 
of very limited space. For this reason it is made up of 
six marine shell boilers, with internal fire-boxes. These 
units are rated at 250 H. P. each, giving a total capacity 
to the plant of 1500 boiler horse power. Hand firing -is 
employed, the coal being dumped on the fire-floor from 
cars on the side-back paralleling the power house. 
Steam pressure carried is 150 lbs. on the boiler gauges. 
Boiler room auxiliaries are grouped at the north end of 
the battery of boilers and comprise the usual equipment 
of feed pumps, heaters, etc. 

The main steam header for the power plant is in the 
boiler room, in the rear of the boilers. It is sub-divided 
and protected by valves according to the best practise. 
All engine room exhausts unite below the floor in a header 
leading to tht exhaust head, above the roof. From the 
steam header, steam pipes to all engine room units pass 
through the fire-wall and lead to the cylinders through 
wide-sweep bends. Separators are on each steam pipe 
just within the engine room, and all steam piping is pro- 
tected by insulating covers. 

The engine room contains two air compressors built by 
the Ingersol-Sergeant Drill Company, of New York. 
They are of duplex pattern, with cross-compound steam 
and air cylinders. High and low pressure air cylinders 
are water- jacketed on the heads and barrels. Each com- 
pressor has a free air capacity of 2216 cubic feet per 
minute, when running at 120 R. P. M. The air pressure 
is maintained at about no lbs. on the receiver, giving an 

January, 1906 



average working pressure of 100 lbs. throughout the 
shops. A5r cylinders are 16% and 24^ inches in diame- 
ter; steam cylinders, 16 and 24 inches. The stroke is 18 

The main air pipe passes underground to the shop 
buildings and radiates to the several departments. All 
piping in the buildings — air, water and gas — is carried in 
shallow conduits in the floor with removable covers. 
Branches with valves rise at each post for connection 
with shop appliances. 

The applications of air in the shops are those common 
to railway repair work. In the locomotive shop, air 
drills in various sizes are used for drilling, reaming and 
tapping ; chipping and riveting hammers have their usual 
place ; pneumatic stay bolt cutters assist in dismantling 
fire boxes. A small rotary air motor drives gearing for 
turning locomotive drivers in setting valves. Another 
operates a cylinder boring machine. Air hoists and air 
jacks assist in the handling of heavy parts. Pneumatic 
presses find a ready place in certain classes of work. In 
the air brake testing department, air pressure is drawn 
from the main plant. An interesting device here is a 
pneumatic pressure coupling which holds the valves 
under test against the supply pipe, saving the time and 
trouble of screwing in place. 

In the yards, warehouse and foundry air hoists appear 
on every hand — silently, easily swinging great loads. In 
the car shops pneumatic drills find manifold uses, and air 
jacks assist in many operations. Cars are sand-papered, 
and paint is removed and applied, by air appliances. 
Practically all cleaning is done by the air blast. 

Jl Afovel Special Turning Tool. 

THE character of supervision of a shop plant is re- 
flected in the ways and means for putting out work 
by special processes, and the thought devoted to one class 
of work which is of a complicated form, and heretofore 
done by antiquated methods, is shown crystallized in the 
illustration of a device that produces results not only at 
a reduced cost, but also of the highest class. This scheme 
is one of the many labor savers worked out and in opera- 

7/ ■ — . 


l^v Kj li, 








tion by Mr. John Tonge, General Master Mechanic and 
Master Car Builder of the Minneapolis and St. Louis 
road, by whose permission we present it. It was primar- 
ily devised for the purpose of turning wrist pins on the 
solid type of crossheads as used on four bar guides, and 
when used for that purpose is applied to a milling ma- 
chine as shown in Fig. 1 . 

The device consists of a frame, split on its center line, 
in two parts, which are solidly secured as one when in 
operation, by bolts at the center and ends. The smaller 
end of the frame is secured to the bar of the milling ma- 
chine, and the center hole is brought in line with the ma- 
chine arbor which passes through it and the pinion, 
which is also made in halves and is splined to the arbor. 
This pinion meshes into a gear which is also in halves 
and fits the larger hole in the frame. Both of these gears 
are grooved to fit the frame in which they work and can- 
not therefore leave their respective positions. The larger 
gear has an internal diameter large enough to clear the 
largest wrist pin, and is fitted with a cutter by which the 
turning is done ; all these points are shown clearly in 
the details. The motion imparted to the pinion by the 
arbor, is communicated to the gear which in turn drives 
the tool. 

In operation, the crosshead is clamped to the table of 
the milling machine and the turning tool is mounted as 
shown, when the crosshead is fed against the tool. Com- 
paring this operation with the old time practice of mount- 
ing a crosshead on the lathe centers and using the time 
and muscle of a laborer to give the job a half turn by 
means of a lever, while the latheman does the turning 
with a bent tool and numerous shifts of the same, it is 
seen that the old method is too far out of it to be con- 

This device is also used on reverse shaft bearings when 
it happens that a lathe with the proper swing for the work 
is not available. 

It is plain from Fig. 2 that the smallest swing lathe 
will take such a job which is one of the most dangerous 
and unwieldy details to turn on a locomotive. Rocker 
shafts are also turned by this arrangement for the same 
reason as that given for the reverse shaft. As shown, 



January, 1906 

both of these jobs are placed on the lathe centers, and mo- 
tion is imparted to the tool by means of an arbor carrying 
a pinion which meshes with a gear, mounted in place of 
the face plate. It is such devices that makes an ordinary 
equipment able to cope with lmost any situation. 

■» » 

Master Car Builders' Inquiries. 

THE committees of the M. C. B. Association are 
out with their circulars for information to assist 
in formulating their reports to the coming convention 
and two of these which are the first in the field so far, 
are presented herewith. 

Height of Brake Staffs. 
The American Railway Association desires to obtain 
additional information in order to determine the out* 
side dimensions of the standard box car, as follows : 

1. Is there a maximum and uniform height of brake 


2. What is the distance from center of running board 
to center of brake staff? 

3. What is the height of peak of roof from rail ? 

4. Is there any standard and uniform size of brake 
wheel ? 

The distance from center of running board to center of 
brake staff (20 inches) having been made a standard 
of the association in 1902, there remain questions 1, 3 
and 4 to answer. 

In order to assist the committee, will you kindly an- 
swer the following questions as early as possible: 

1. What is the maximum height of brake staff (meas- 
ured from top of rail) permissible on the road which you 
represent ? 

2. If this limit is governed by one or two points only, 
are they sufficiently important to fix the limit for your 
whole system? 

3. What is the height of peak of roof of your stand- 
ard box car from top of rail ? 

4. What is your standard diameter of brake wheel ? 
Please send replies to Mr. J. H. Pennington, superin- 
tendent motive power, D. S. & S., Drifton, Pa. 

Specifications and Tests for Brake Beams. 
The committee selected to consider this subject re- 
spectfully requests that you kindly fill in answers to the 
following questions for cars of 60,000 80,000 and 100,000 
pounds capacity for the information of the committee. 
In giving this information, it is the desire of the com- 
mittee that you confine your replies to cars built within 
the last two years and including any of the cars which 
you may now have building or in contemplation. 

Questions Nos. 3 to 9 relate to dimensions shown on 
accompanying diagram. 

1. Name of railroad. 

2. Light weight of car. 

3. Truck wheel base "A." 

4. Top of rail to center of brakeshoe "B." 

5. Top of rail to center of fulcrum pin "C." 

6. Horizontal distance center of fulcrum pinhole to 
center of brakeshoe, if in advance of shoe "D." 

If behind shoe "E." 

7. Vertical distance center of brake lever fulcrum to 
center of brake hanger "F." 

8. Horizontal distance from center of shoe to center 
of brake hanger "H." 

9. Width of spring plank or transom "G." 

10. Send blue print of truck brake rigging. Give 
drawing numbers for each capacity car. 

11. Number of cars built or contemplated to above 

12. Name of brakebeam used. 

13. State whether trussed or solid. 

The committee would also be glad to receive answers 
to the following questions as expression of your general 
opinion from your experience with various brakebeams 
in the past: 

14. What brakebeam, if any, has given entire satis- 
faction? And by whom manufactured? 

15. What brakebeam do you consider as having given 
the least satisfaction, and reason for basing your 
opinion ? 

If you have more than one class of car for each capa- 
city, please forward full information on separate sheet 
for each class of car of each capacity. 

Please send your reply before January 1, 1906, to R. 
B. Kendig, mechanical engineer L. S. & M. S., Cleve- 
land, O. 

Omaha Shop Notes. 

THE pressure for increased repair facilities at the 
Omaha shops, at St. Paul, made it necessary to 
increase the length of the machine and erecting shops, 
and five pits were added, making a total of fifteen, which 
has afforded the relief required. All heavy tools are 
driven by individual motors, and high-speed tool steel is 
used on all machine tools. The term high speed is rather 
vague when standing without figures, but an idea may 
be had of what is meant when it is stated that a planer 
working high carbon steel on frog and switch work has 
a cutting speed of 38 feet per minute. In the improve- 
ments consummated, electricity had a wide share of at- 
tention. The lighting plant consists of a Westinghouse 
vertical compound 16 and 27 by 16, driving a 150-kw. 
generator. Compressed air is also provided for by a 
compound compressor with a capacity of 1,320 cubic feet 
per minute to 100 lbs. pressure. Both of these power 
units were wisely chosen for excess capacity and will be 
able to fill requirements for increased output when the 
future presents its demands for light and air. 

January, 1906 



The L. $> N- Shops at South Louisville. 

' ■ (Continued from Page 447.) 

Car Repair Shop. 

This building is simply a large steel shelter covering 
seven of the freight car repair tracks for a distance of 
400 feet. The illustrations shown herewith give a very 
clear idea of its construction. It consists of long steel 
trusses spanning 145 feet with a single intermediate sup- 
port. ' The center section of the roof to a width of 55 feet 
is raised about 10 feet above the upper chords of the 
truss, and the windows in the sides and a wide skylight 
in the center of this section furnish the illumination for 
the center of the shop. There are nine large skylights on 
each side for light under the lower part of the roof. 
There are also some windows just under the eaves in the 
side walls. The building is enclosed on the sides entirely 
by rolling steel shutters, those on the sides giving a clear 
opening about 10 feet high, being operated by a spring 
roller. Those on the ends closing the track openings 
have an opening of 16 feet high and are operated through 

In addition to the six working tracks which have a 
capacity of 48 cars, with liberal spaces between, there is 
a material track on the west side. The floor throughout 
is of cement laid flush with the tops of the rail. There 
are several connections for compressed air between each 
pair of tracks, which are extended down from the roof 
trusses, and hang high enough to be out of the way. On 
the east side of the building are found several wood- 
working tools and benches, while on the west side there is 
a balcony for workmen's tool boxes. The foreman's of- 
fice occupies an elevated position in the northwest corner 
of the building, where a view is had of the repair yards. 

The tracks extending through this building continue 
through the building in both directions to connections 
into the belt line. 

New Freight Car Shop. 

This building is located on the south side of the trans- 
fer table at the eastern end of the pit, and is for building 
new freight cars entirely. It is of the same type of build- 
ing as the freight car repair shop, consisting of a large 
roof supported by steel trusses, and sides formed by roll- 
ing-steel shutters. The cross-section shown herewith 
shows that the design of the roof trusses differs, although 
the outline of the roof is practically the same. In this 
building there are two rows of intermediate supporting 
columns, which divide the building into practically three 
bays with two tracks in each. 

An interesting design of scaffolding is found in this 
building. This consists of a platform about four feet 
wide for the full length of the building on either side of 
the track, which is supported about seven feet from the 
floor by angles hung from the roof trusses. On each side 
of each platform there are extensions 2 feet 6 inches 
wide hinged so that they fold over and out of the way 
when not in use. These are held horizontal by cables 
fastened to the steel work above. 

All the tracks for this building are reached by the 

transfer table and all material for new cars is brought in 
on push cars. The new trucks are transferred from the 
truck shop by means of the crane to short stubs of track 
on the edge of the transfer-table pit, where they can be 
pushed on the table, and from there to the proper place in 
the shop. The sills and other wood work are transferred 
from the planing mill, which is near by, in the same man- 
ner. The erecting tracks continue towards the south into 
a common lead, there being enough yard room at this 
point for the storage of cars while they are being painted 
and stenciled. 

Planing Mill and Cabinet Shop. 

This is a large two story steel and brick structure of 
heavy construction, located on the edge of the transfer 
table pit just west of the new freight car shop. The con- 
struction is plainly seen from the illustrations shown 

The first floor is used for heavy planing mill work, 
while the second is a cabinet shop. A large electric ele- 
vator, which has a track connection to the transfer table, 
is used for handling material between the floors. There 
are also two wide stairways, one in each end of the build- 

The tools, which are practically all new and of the 
latest designs, are located as shown in the floor plan. 
The theory of the layout is such that the raw material 
enters at the south end of the building and the finished 
material makes its exit at the north end on the transfer 
table. The larger tools are driven by individual motors 
and the smaller ones in groups. 

There are track connections from the lumber storage 
shed and dry kiln to the southern end of the building, 
and material is brought directly to the machines on push 
cars. There is considerable yard room outside the build- 
ing at this end, where a stock of raw material can be 
stored for a short time. 

In the cabinet shop on the second floor are all the 
latest machines for cabinet work, driven from several 
counter shafts belted to motors. In one corner of this 
floor there is an enclosed tool room where all the sharp- 
ening and repairing of woodworking machinery, as well 
as the storage of extra parts is done. The workmen's 
benches are placed along the west wall and there is con- 





January, 1906 
























■ 1-1 














January, 1906 














1— i 










January, [906 

siderable open space on this floor for erection of cabs, 
storage of material, etc. 

A very complete system of shaving exhaust has been 
installed which reaches practically every machine in the 
shop and transfers the shavings, etc., to the power house. 
Each of the three sets of blowers discharge into a bin in 
the top of the building, from which a separate blower 
transfers them to the power house. The appearance of 
this set of piping and storage pockets is shown in the 

Back of the planing mill is a large steel shed, open at 
the sides, for the storage of dry timber. This has two 
tracks running through it, one of which connects with 
the planing mill, and the other with an outside track to 
the transfer table. There are a few machines for rough 
work consisting of a large band saw, cut off saw and rip 
saw in this structure. Also a bench for making grain 
doors. The lumber is piled on the cinder floor between 
the tracks and on a balcony along either side. 

Dry Kiln. 

This building occupies the extreme southern position 
in the group, being a short distance south of the lumber 
storage shed, to which it has track connections. It is a 
brick building 65x104 feet, divided into three sections 
by longitudinal walls. There are large covered plat- 
forms on each end raised some distance above the ground 
level. Transfer tables on a lower level are provided at 
the end of these platforms, which have tracks for receiv- 
ing'the trucks on which the lumber is transferred to and 
from the kiln. 

The equipment was furnished by the National Dry 
Kiln company and consists of a double layer of heater 
pipes at about the rail level, covering the whole area of 
the floor, which connects to a live steam header at one 
end and to an exhaust header placed somewhat lower at 
the opposite end, the connection to the exhaust header be- 
ing through small pipes. There are large flues on either 
side of each section in the exhaust end, which have open- 
ings into the drying room through small ports closed by 
slides. There are eight of these ports, each independent, 
so that the circulation and temperature can be varied to 
a fine degree. The tracks through the kiln are supported 
on concrete piers and are about three feet above the grade 
line, having an incline of 3/16 inch to the foot. 

Coach and Paint Shop. 

These shops in connection with the tender shop and 
passenger truck shop occupy a building 178x476 feet, 
running parallel to the transfer table pit directly oppo- 
site the center of the locomotive shop. The construction 
is clearly shown in the illustrations. From this it is seen 
that the roof is of the saw-tooth type with the "teeth" run- 
ning lengthwise. The trusses supporting the roof are 
of a simple design and have one center support. The 
doors over the tracks lift up in a similar manner to those 
used in the locomotive shop. As much space in these 
doors as is consistent with strength, is of glass. There 
are also three single sashes just above each door open- 
ing, and a row of windows above these. All of this glass 

in addition to that in the roof, furnishes the strong light 
so necessary for passenger car work. 

The first four tracks in the west end of the building 
are used for work on locomotive tenders, this section 
being divided off by a heavy brick fire wall having three 
door openings closed with iron doors for communication 
into the next shop. There is a shallow transfer-table pit 
with a small table operated by hand, which takes in all 
four tracks. This is placed near the center of the shop. 

The next shop is the passenger car paint shop, which 
has six tracks to the transfer table, and is divided from 
the coach shop by a heavy brick fire wall. In this space 
the oassenger car painting and varnishing is done. A 
small separate building with fireproof construction near 
by, is used for the storage of paints and oil. 

The coach shop comes next. This shop has racks 
for small supplies and benches for cabinet work along 
the walls. Such material as is needed is brought in on 
push cars from the cabinet shop by means of the transfer 

The truck work for passenger cars is done in a room 
occuping half the width of the building just beyond the 
coach shop. This has a ten ton electric crane, and the 
usual facilities for truck work. Directly back of this, and 
having an entrance into the coach shop is a store room 
for coach supplies of all kinds. 

The upholstering department occupies a room 54x59 
feet in the corner of the building, opening into the coach 
shop. Machines for cleaning hair and plush and benches 
are placed. 

Above the store room and upholstering shop are placed 
lockers and wash room. Merritt expanded lockers and 
large individual wash bowls are provided here. 

Cement floor is used throughout the whole building and 
each shop has its individual heating fans, which are usu- 
ally placed on a raised platform under the roof trusses. 
The most of the heating fans are driven by electric mot- 
ors, although a few are driven by steam engines. The 
heat for the coils is furnished by exhaust steam from the 
power house which also has a live steam connection for 
extremely low temperature. 

Transfer Table. 

The transfer table, which was built by Geo. P. Nichols 
and Bro. of Chicago, is a very important part of this 
plant, furnishing as it does the means of the best and 
some cases the only means of transportation between the 
places where erecting is being done and material needed. 
It is used more for car work than locomotive work 
for which reason as well as of the long distances, 
it is given an exceptionally high speed. It also has a 
low speed of 125 feet per minute, which is used when 
locomotives are being transferred. With the usual light 
load a speed of 900 feet per minute is used. 

It is operated by electric power, having two motors 
wired for the series parallel control. This gives another 
variation of speed for each set of gears. 

For permission to publish this article we are indebted 
to T. H. Curtis, Superintendent of Machinery, and to 
the Railway Review for photographic line drawings, etc. 

January, 1906 




n 1 1 j 

\,: \ifv&<l,''*MiJf •°i*\}l.' 

* fc 



















































January, 1906 


Joseph Townsend, formerly for many years master 
car builder of the Chicago & Alton, died in Kansas City, 
Mo., on December 3. 

Mr. George Tilton has been appointed superintendent 
of shops of the Mexican Central at Aguascalientes, Mex., 
to succeed Mr. H. V. Ridgeway, resigned. 

Mr. H. H. Harrington, general foreman of the Erie 
at Susquehanna, Pa., has been appointed master me- 
chanic at that point, succeeding Mr. W. H. Wilson, 

Mr. George B. Longstreth, heretofore master mechanic 
of the Tennessee Central at Nashville, Tenn., has been 
appointed master mechanic of the Nashville Terminal 

Mr. Frank Zink has been appointed acting superin- 
tendent of motor power and rolling stock of the Santa 
Fe Central, with headquarters at Estancia, N. M., to suc- 
ceed Mr. G. H. Stone, resigned. 

Mr. J. H. Bannerman, formerly superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Tennessee Central, has accepted a 
position with the W. J. Oliver Mfg. Co., of Knoxville, 
Tenn., as mechanical superintendent. 

Mr. J. E. Gould has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power of the Norfolk & Southern, with head- 
quarters at Berkley Va., vice Mr. J. Whetstone, who has 
been appointed marine superintendent. 

Mr. William Donald has been appointed general mas- 
ter mechanic of the Rio Grande Western, with head- 
quarters at Salt Lake City, Utah, to succeed Mr. John 
Hickey, resigned on account of ill health. 

Air. C. H. Prescott has resigned as master mechanic 
of the Great Northern Line and Montana Central Ry. at 
Great Falls, Montana, to accept a similar position with 
the Spokane International Railway at Spokane, Wash. 

In the December issue we stated that Mr. W. L. Gar- 
land was appointed assistant foreman of the Pennsyl- 
vania R. R. at West Philadelphia, Pa. This was an 
error as Mr. Garland was appointed general foreman. 

Mr. C. S. Bricker has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Sheridan division of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, with headquarters at Sheridan, Wyo., vice Mr. 
C. J. Saberhagen, resigned; effective on December I. 

Mr. J. Kastlin has resigned as master mechanic of the 
Saint Joseph division of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy at Saint Joseph, Mo., to become superintendent 
of the Davenport Locomotive Works of Davenport, la., 
effective on December 1. 

Mr. H. C. Woolbridge, heretofore general foreman of 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western at Elmira, N. Y., 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Buffalo and 
Rochester divisions of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pitts- 
burg, with office at East Salamanca, N. Y. 

Mr. H. H. Vaughan, superintendent of motive power 
of the eastern lines of the Canadian Pacific, has been 

appointed to a newly created office of assistant to the 
first vice-president, with headquarters at Montreal. In 
the new position Mr. Vaughan will have general charge 
of motive power matters of the entire system. 

Mr. E. W. Fitt, formerly assistant superintendent of 
motive power of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Lines west, has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Alliance and Sterling divisions, with headquarters at 
Alliance, Neb., vice Mr. F. J. Kraemer, assigned to other 
duties. The office of assistant superintendent of motive 
power has been abolished. 

Mr. W. C. Ennis, master mechanic of the Delaware & 
Hudson at Oneonta, N. Y., has been appointed superin- 
tendent of car shops and rep'air work, with headquarters 
at Carbondale, Pa. Mr. G. S. Edmonds, heretofore me- 
chanical engineer, has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Susquehanna & Pennsylvania division, with office 
at Oneonta, N. Y., to succeed Mr. Ennis. Mr. Ross 
Kells has resigned as general foreman of car shops at 

Mr. A. B. Ford has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Minot division of the Great Northern at Minot, 
N. D., succeeding Mr. C. T. Walters, who has been 
transferred to Havre, Mont., as master mechanic of the 
Montana division, in place of Mr. F. M. Fryburg, who 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Great North- 
ern and Montana Central at Great Falls, Mont., succeed- 
ing Mr. C. H. Prescott, resigned to accept a position 
with the Oregon Short Line. 

D. Hardy, general superintendent of the Lehigh and 
New England R. R., has resigned his position to take 
effect January 1st, 1906. Mr. Hardy will enter the slate 
business, having organized the Bangor-Hardy Slate 
Company, with offices at Pen Argyl, Pa. Prior to ac- 
cepting his present position two years ago, he was gen- 
eral superintendent of the Missouri Pacific R. R. at St. 
Louis, Mo. This company will also handle coal in the 
cement and slate territory. 

The appointment of W. H. Wilson to the office of 
superintendent of motive power of the Buffalo, Roches- 
ter & Pittsburg marks the rise of another practical rail- 
way man. Mr. Wilson began his working career as an 
apprentice to the machinist trade on the Lehigh Valley 
in 1881. After completing his apprenticeship he went 
to the Dunmore Iron & Steel Company's shops and was 
soon promoted to the position of foreman. Filling this 
position for six years, he was appointed general fore- 
man, and in 1900 was made master mechanic. On the 
absorption of his company by the Erie he was appointed 
master mechanic of that road at Susquehanna, from 
which position he takes the higher office on the B. R. 
& P. 

■ ♦ ■ 

Lawrence Bros. Artificial Limbs. 

The immense improvements made in artificial limbs is a 
source of wonder to those who have not kept in touch with the 
latest development in the art of producing a member that de- 
fies detection. The Lawrence Brothers of New York City have 

January, 1906 



acquired a reputation for this class of work that few makers of 
these goods' 'ever reach, simply because they produce the best, 
and a limb that always remains the best under any kind of 
treatment. The ankle and knee joint construction is such as to 
cause no exertion in the wearer, every movement being most 
natural, for the reason that there is no friction to overcome. 
Their artificial leg is the acme of perfection mechanically, 
and never chafes or annoys the wearer for the reason that the 
system of securing the limbs by straps is such as effectually pre- 
vents any soreness, no matter what the occupation of the wearer. 

♦ ■ 

The Smith Piston Rod Swab. 

The necessity of having a durable and efficient swab on the 
piston rods of air pumps has brought out a variety of devices 
having for their object lubrication of air pump rods. Among 
such devices are found numerous home-made make-shifts, whose 
best service has been to remind the users of packing that an 
opening existed for a first-class commercial article that would 
prevent heating and cutting of rods and burning of packing. 

The self-feeding swab manufactured by the Smith Lubricator 
Co., Scranton, Pa., was designed by practical men who have 
approached the problem by a route closed to the ordinary experi- 
menter. The strong point of this swab is, that it effectually 
prevents a hot rod by the simple process all have aimed at, with 
indifferent results, namely, getting the oil at the right place 
at the time when it will do the maximum amount of good. No 
oil can get out of the cups without passing to the inside or bear- 
ing surface of the swab, it therefore reaches the part required, 
and without waste. With one filling of the cups, after the swab 
has absorbed all the oil it will take up, it will feed ten hours 
continuously, and when the air pump is not running, the feed 
stops automatically. There is no complicated mechanism to get 







out of order, the swab consisting of only the frame and the cups 
which will last the life of the pump, and the soft winding mater- 
ial on the frame. Our half-tone conveys a clear idea of ' this 

equipped with the same, insure all engine men from accident 
due to the bursting of glasses. 

« ♦ 

Mears Improved Water and Lubricator 
Glass Shield. 

The accompanying illustration shows the Mears improved 
patent water and lubricator glass shield as manufactured by the 
Boyer Safety Device & Equipment Co., of Kansas City, Mo. The 
shield consists of a tin back which is clamped at both ends to 
the gauge pipes as shown in the illustration. The front part of 
the shield is made of steel wire and spring brass, and fits in 
grooves at either edge of the back plate in which it will slide 
up or down and from which it can be removed by simply pres- 
sing the sides of the shield together. 

The netting is fine enough that in case of a glass breaking 
the pieces will not be blown in the engine crew's eyes, yet one 
can readily see the height of the water in the glass at any time. 
The necessity of a shield of this kind has been felt for a long 
time and engine crews hail with delight an invention which is 
as simple as this and yet serves the purpose for which it is made 
so well. 

The Boyer Safety Device & Equipment Co. report a large in- 
crease in the sales which is easily explained by the fact that 
railroads cannot afford to be without this device, as engines 

New Fay &■ Egan M older. 

The molder is so useful in car shops that any new develop- 
ment in this particular type of machinery is always interesting. 
And added to this, when it is known that the new tool is from 
the hands of the Fay & Egan Co., the largest firm in the world 
devoted exclusively to the manufacture of car shop wood-work- 
ing machinery, there is always felt confidence that something 
good has been made. We therefore take pleasure in showing 
our car shop foreman and mechanics a Fay & Egan No. 133 new 
patent inside molder, made in two sizes to work on four sides 
12 or 15 by 6 inches. It is especially designed for car shop work, 
and is replete with labor-saving devices, all fully explained in 
circular the firm will send to those interested. All possible im- 
provements offered from long experience in building such tools 
have been embodied in its make-up, and there are no complicated 
adjustments to bewilder an operator, so no experts are required 
to run it. 

. Frame is very strong and rigid, and compact in every way. 
Cylinders are slotted on four sides. Lower one is at feed-out 
end, and made single or double-belted. All cylinder pulleys 
taper-fitted to journals. Upper cylinder belted at each end, and 
its housing carries the pressure bar, which is raised and lowered 
with it. Chip breaker before this cylinder is in sections, each 



January, 1906 


independently adjustable to clear projecting knives, and yet main- 
tain pressure close to cut. 

Pressure bar before lower cylinder has vertical and horizontal 
adjustments; also table, after cylinder, which is easily swung out 
of the way to give quick access to cylinder. Pressure bars of 
both cylinders are quickly thrown back for access to heads and 

There are four powerfully-driven feed rolls, all their different 
adjustments accurately made. Upper ones are in sections and 
their shafts are easily withdrawn to interchange smooth to 
fluted rolls. The feed has three speeds, and is at all times 
strong, positive and uniform, and under instant control. 

Further particulars and terms from its maker, J. A. Fay & 
Egan Co., that advertises in every issue of this paper. Address 
firm at 145 to 166 West Front St., Cincinnati, Ohio. And ask 
for either general catalogue, or books on band saws, sanders, 
and universal wood-workers. 


shafts fitted with fire-proof automatic closing doors. 

The dimensions of the main building are 175 feet by 60 feet, 
with a one-story annex 175 feet by 30 feet. The location and ar- 
rangements of the buildings are such that perfect light and ventil- 
ation are secured. Much new machinery of the latest type has 
been installed. Steel pulleys with pressed steel hangers and roller 
bearings are used exclusively. Iron and sheet steel are used 
wherever possible in partitions, benches, stands, drawers, pack- 
ing tables, stock racks and shelving, very little light wood being 

The assembling, stock and shipping departments are especially 
remarkable in this respect and comprise one of the most com- 
plete and well designed sheet steel fixture installations in the 
United States. 

We hope later on to show some interior views of this plant 
which will prove of general interest. 

New Plant of the Armstrong Bros. Tool Co. 

The accompanying engraving gives a capital exterior view of 
the new plant of Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago. The site 
is an excellent one, the ground having a frontage of 200 feet, 
on the Chicago and North-Western railway, and 216 feet on 
Francisco avenue, corner of Carroll avenue. The main build- 
ing is three stories and basement in height, and it is of standard 
mill construction, with stairways and elevators enclosed in brick 

The McCrosky Adjustable Heartier. 

People who have not used the McCrosky Universal Adjustable 
Reamers, manufactured by Samuel Harris & Co., Chicago, have 
not arrived at practical perfection in sizing holes round and 
true, either straight or taper. The relics of barbarism in the 
shape of the solid reamer which loses its nominal diameter the 
minute it is used to remove a sufficient amount of stock to bring 
a hole up to size (which is the only excuse for the use of a 

January, 1906 



reamer of any kind) are to be seen laying claim to best modern 
practice. 'They are reamers in the sense that they will shape up 
a hole if sufficient muscular effort is laid out on them, but they 
fail of their purpose in interchangeability of work, and here is 
where the adjustible reamer stands pre-eminent in shops that 
have earned a reputation for the best output. Machine reamers 
of this type are made in sizes from three fourths to fifteen-six- 
teenths inch in diameter. The hand reamers are made in the 
same sizes, while the shell reamer is made from i^A to 2>Va inches 
in diameter. They are also made for Morse taper when requir- 
ed. The best tribute to these reamers is the fact that once used, 
the solid affair is forever abandoned. 

♦ » . 

Pedrick 6? Jtyer Multiple Drill, 

In manufacturing, it has come to be a well recognized fact 
that machine tools to be most efficient must be specially design- 
ed for their particular work, and for this reason the multiple 
drill shown herewith was designed and built for the Westing- 
house Air Brake Co., its function being to drill the brake cyl- 
inders for passenger and freight cars, the machine having twelve 
spindles, four of which are at one end and eight on the other. 

The feed is made to operate by means of the lever seen at the 
left of the hand wheel at the center, and the feed is controlled 
automatically by stops when the drill has reached the proper 
depth, the stops throwing a trip, which disengages the 


feed and simultaneously carry the spindles back to the starting 
point, so that after setting the several drills for one series of 
holes, the machine requires no further attention from its opera- 
tor until another cylinder is to be drilled. This tool is put up 
with the usual close attention of the builders, to detail of finish 
and accuracy of adjustment for which they have earned a rep- 
utation, and is now largely used on steam pump cylinders as 
well as for the purpose above named. 

This machine is manufactured by the Pedrick and Ayer Co., 
of Plainfield, N. J. 

• ♦ » 

The Detroit Graphite Co. Building an Addition. 

The Detroit Graphite Manufacturing Co., Detroit, is doubling 
the size of its plant. A large number of workmen are now tear- 
ing down an old building adjoining the plant, preparatory to 
putting up a five-story brick structure of mill construction, and 
which will give the concern about 25,000 square feet additional 
floor space. 

The company enjoys the benefit of owning its own graphite 
mines in Baraga county, Lake Superior region, and doing its 
own mining. ; Not all the paint manufactured, however, contains 

"Our red, white and -blue paints do not contain graphite," 
said Manager A. A. Boutell, "but we put graphite in about all 
our other colors in as large proportion as experience has shown 
will produce the most serviceable paint. 

"Ninety per cent of our product is shipped away in barrels. 
If we put it in cans, we would require a block of buildings to 
handle our output. 

The Detroit Graphite Manufacturing Co. started 13 years ago. 
Six years ago it put up its present five-story factory, 47x86 feet, 
thinking it would be ample for all the business that could be 

obtained in a generation. "Now we have hopes that the new 
building will last us for another generation," concluded Mr. 
Boutell, "but we may be fooled again, as we were when we built 
our present plant, thinking it was large enough for all time." 

One of the reasons for the remarkable success of the Detroit 
Graphite Manufacturing Co., in the opinion of Mr. Boutell, is 
the fact that jobbers and retailers are eliminated. "We sell direct 
to consumers," said Mr. Boutell, "thus saving them two profits 
in the price of our paints, besides selling a good article. 

"We had a queer experience the other day. A dealer in iron 
called us up by telephone and wanted to know what he could 
use to get our 'dinged' paint off some iron beams he wanted to 
weld together. 'I've used about everything I could think of,' 
said he, 'including sulphuric acid, but it doesn't make any im- 
pression on it.' He was advised to use a file, for, as a matter of 
fact, that \i about the only way to get graphite paint off iron." 

The Joy Automatic Hose Coupler. 

The Joy automatic hose coupler is illustrated herewith. It is 
made in two parts, without springs, and is said to be thoroughly 
tight. The union is formed by a cam on the male end which 
carries offset lugs. This end is inserted and given a quarter turn, 
which drives the lugs home. The cam compresses the washer 
longitudinally, causing lateral expansion, which insures the tight- 
ness of the joint, the tightness increasing with the pressure. 


The washer is held in place on the male end by a hexagonal nut 
and therefore cannot be lost. When worn out it is quickly re- 
placed by removing the nut. Long life and ability to withstand 
hard service are special claims made for the coupler. Other 
claims are that it saves time by the ease and quickness with 
which it can be coupled and uncoupled; that it can be handled 
almost as readily in the dark as in the light; and that it works 
with precision at highest pressure. It is made either for hose 
connections on each end or for hose connection on one end and 
pipe connection on the other. It is made and sold by the 
National Pipe & Hose Coupler Co., Penobscot Bldg., Detroit, 

J\{o. / U2 Universal Milling Machine. 

This machine embodies a number of new and important im- 
provements which will be much appreciated by users of univer- 
sal milling machines. Special attention is called to the positive 
gear feed drive and the change feed mechanism, by which 
twenty changes of feed can be made without stopping the ma- 
chine, the new clutch mechanism in connection with the hand 
wheels, also the box type of knee and telescopic elevating screw. 

The spindle has a No. 10 B. & S. taper hole in front end, is 
made of hammered crucible steel, has a ^-inch hole through 
its entire length and runs in self-centering bronze boxes arranged 
to compensate for wear. It has slot across end to engage clutch 
collar for arbor, is threaded to take a chuck, and a threaded col- 
lar covers the screw when not in use. It is connected with the 
change feed mechanism by three spur gears, making a positive 
drive. The spindle is fully back-geared, and gears are protected 
by guards. 

The arm is made of steel, is designed for horizontal adjust- 
ment and has an arbor support which may be removed, so that 



January, 1906 

any of ■ the attachments can be placed in position without the 
necessity of removing the arm. 

The table has an automatic longitudinal and cross feed in 
either direction, and being centrally driven, feeds freely at any 
angle to 45 degrees right or left hand. It is provided with 3^- 
inch T slots and with oil pans at each end. Feed is reversed in 
front of machine. 

The knee is of the box type and is supported by a telescopic 
elevating screw, so that no holes are necessary in the floor. 

Hand wheels are provided with clutch arrangements enclosed 
in hub which operate the vertical movement of the knee and 
cross movements of the carriage. When either the knee or car- 
riage have been set to the required position, the clutch may be 
instantly disengaged by pressing in the knob on the front of the 
hand wheel, thereby preventing any accidental change from 
their fixed position, and also preventing them from revolving 
when the automatic feeds are thrown in. 

The dials are adjustable and graduated to read to thousandths 
of an inch, to indicate the vertical, transverse and longitudinal 
movements of platen, and are set at any position with set screw. 

The patented change feed mechanism is conveniently arranged 
on the back of column, and is capable of obtaining instantly, 
twenty changes of feed, slow or fast, by a simple movement of 
the lever, without stopping the machine. 

The dividing head can be set at any angle from 10 degrees 
below the horizontal, to 5 degrees beyond the perpendicular. 
The front end of the spindle is threaded to the same size as the 
machine spindle, and also fitted with the same taper. By means 
of the raising block, the head can be set at any angle for taper 
work. The head is arranged for plain and differential indexing, 
dividing all numbers to 360. The ten change gears, which are 

sent with the machine, make a combination which will cut 
nearly any spiral from 1.25 to 68.57 inch pitch to one turn. 

This machine is built by the Becker-Brainard Milling Machine 
Co. of Hyde Park, Mass. 

The Robertson Rapid Cut Power Saws. 

Our illustration of power saws represent the rapid cut saws 
made by the Robertson Mfg. Co., Buffalo, New York, a firm 
that has made a specialty of this device for many years. They 
are made in several sizes, but the No. 3, which is shown has a 
capacity of 8x8 inch round or square bars. This machine has a 
swivel vise, and is geared three to one, and is heavy and rigid. 
On placing this machine on the market a new field opened up, a 
still larger machine being required for cutting I-beams, and work 
of that character. Therefore, the design of No. 4 followed, with 
a capacity of 8x15 inches. The call for a larger machine was 
heeded in No. 6 which is a somewhat different machine in 
general design, having an upright column on which the bearing- 
carriage is supported, the value of this being in its adaptation to 
cutting off square sections, where the cut is required to go a 
certain depth, and stop on the parallel or square of the bar. 
The frame of the carriage is raised to the desired height by 
means of the crank at the top of column. The saw frame is 
then raised on the angle and locked by the hook. 

This machine, (No. 6) has a capacity of 12x12 inches with a 
24-inch blade. Another feature worth noting is the steel frame 
for the blade, which is a casting and has arms on each end, and 
a bar on top, the outer arm having a clamp bearing by which 
when small work is being cut, • a short blade may be used by 
moving the arm mentioned on top of the bar, to the length of 
blade required. The company is now adopting this method on 




January, 1906 



all size machines; the great utility of which is apparent from 
the fact that they are automatic, and have gravity feeds, also 
being constructed so that the frame is raised on the return 
stroke, giving practically the same action as if the saw were in 
the hands of a mechanic. The guide bar at the top and sliding 
bar at the bottom insures perfect alignment for full stroke. 
The accuracy of these machines is shown in the fact that cuts 
one-sixty-fourth inch thick and perfectly true, are taken from 
bars, making them instruments of precision in the fullest sense, 
which accounts for their wide use in first-class shops as well 
as in government works the world over. 

» » • ■ 

Forty-Two Inch Boring and Turning Machine. 

1 he 42-inch boring and turning mill illustrated is one of the 
recent high class tools built by the Baush Machine Tool Com- 
pany, Springfield, Mass. It has some especially valuable points 
that will strike the mechanic as features that place it in the 
front rank of rapid production devices which are forcing the 
attention of railway shop managers at this time. The best 
thought and labor have been laid out on this machine to give 
it proper rigidity and wearing qualities required in such a tool. 

Electricity is the motive power and the capacity is 44 inches 
in diameter by 37 inches in height under the cross rail, or 31 
inches under the tool holders. The table is 42 inches in diam- 
eter, powerfully geared and has ten changes of speed ; five with 
the back gears and five without. The maximum speed of the 
table is 20 revolutions per minute and minimum speed 0.6 rev- 
olutions per minute. The teeth on both the table and pinion 
are steel and accurately planed involutes in contour. On the 
under side of the table there is an outer bearing nearly equal to 
the diameter of the base, which adds to the stability by elim- 
inating all overhang. 

The table spindle which is 10 inches in diameter and 20^ 
inches long, has a straight bearing which acts in conjunction with 
an angular bearing to receive the side strains, in addition to 
this there is a thrust ball-bearing on the lower step of the spin- 
dle which acts as a preventive against any lifting tendency, 

and relieves the friction of the table when heavy cuts are being 

There is one turret head and one swivel head. These two 
heads are entirely independent in their action, both as to direc- 
tion and amount of feed. The swivel head can be set at any angle 
and has a movement of 24 inches, which is also the range of the 
turret head. Either head can be brought to the center for boring. 
The heads are attached to steel feed screens by split nuts which 
can be opened, and a rapid movement obtained by ratchet and 
pinion engaging in the steel rack on the cross rail. The feeds 
are positive, and have 15 changes, ranging from one-sixty- 
fourth to sixty-one-sixty-fourths inch horizontally, and one-six- 
ty-fourth to nine-sixteenth inch vertically. The feed arrange- 
ment is the efficient Hendey-Norton. 

The cross rail is raised and lowered by power which can be 
done without revolving the table; it has an extraordinary depth, 
reducing the wear and insuring absolute truth over long periods 
of service. A hand brake which operates on the main driving 
cone, enables the machine to be stopped instantly. Observation 
of the performance of one of thsse tools under the manipula- 
tion of a coarse feed man left the impression that it would 

stand up against any feed and speed within its range. 
■ ■» ■ 

Afotes of the Month 

An experienced mechanic of good address who has filled po- 
sition of railroad shop foreman or better, is wanted to represent 
a well-known house with established trade in calling on railroads 
in the east. State age, experience and salary expected at the 
start. Address Railway Master Mechanic. 

» ♦ « 

Christopher Murphy & Co., Chicago, have just issued their 
catalogue A which deals with the O'Neill rapid tube cutter. 
The advantages claimed for this tool are that it requires only 
two sizes to cut all tubes from 2 inches to 4 inches inclusive. 
This tool is particularly well adapted for removing boiler flues 
and all shops should be equipped with them. 

• » ■ 

The Birdsboro Steel Foundry & Machine Co. report their 
being exceedingly busy. Among other orders recently secured 
is a contract to supply a large part of the machinery for the 
new 250-ton mixer, which the Republic Iron & Steel Co. are 
installing at Youngstown, Ohio. During the past two weeks 
they have booked orders for the following sizes of the Wagner 
Cold Saws : 1-50 inch ; 4-40 inch ; 4-2^ inch ; 6-18 inch, and 
I-I4 inch. 

« ■»■ » 

L. J. Bordo & Co., of Philadelphia, have been obliged by the 
expansion of business to step over the border, and have made 
extensive arrangements to manufacture the Bordo appliances 
including their locomotive blow-off valves and swing joints for 
steam, gas, water or oil, for the Dominion of Canada. The 
headquarters will be at Montreal, but all business will be handled 
from the home office at Philadelphia. 

On account of the rapid growth of their business in the Penn- 
sylvania district, the Independent Pneumatic Tool Co., of Chi- 
cago, have opened an office at 207 Germania Bank Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Mr. Richard Hurley has been appointed mana- 
ger of the office and will have a complete line of air drills, flue 
rolling, reaming, tapping and wood-boring machines, and pneu- 
matic riveting, chipping, calking and beading hammers. Mr. 
James C. Dennis has also entered the employ of the company 
to travel out of the New York office. 

» ♦ » 


The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company have 
recently placed on the market a storage battery charging recep- 
tacle having many advantageous features, among the more im- 
portant being a swivel attachment which conforms the receptacle 
to standard steam railway practice, and allows the car or vehicle 
to start and pull out the cables without danger of breaking them 
or the contacts. The apparatus is adapted to both railway and 
automobile service, and has been adopted by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad for charging batteries on their cars. 



January, 1906 

The firm of John F. Allen, have announced that the only 
agents authorized to sell the well-known Allen Riveting Mach- 
ines are Joseph T. Ryerson & Sons; Scully Steel & Iron Com- 
pany; Baird Machinery Company; A. B. Bowman; Berger, Car- 
ter Company, and the Fairbanks Company. In further reference 
to the matter they state that other concerns at times claim to 
represent them. One concern has copied one of their "Rivet- 
ors," using the machine of one of their customers to take dimen- 
sions from, which tool is being imposed on prospective purchas- 
ers. They warn the trade to beware of such. 

» ♦ • 

A gang of graders commenced work grading the ground for 
the $1,000,000 shops which the Missouri, Kansas &. Texas Rail- 
road company is under contract with Parsons, Kansas, to build. 
The ground comprises thirty acres and when purchased by the 
city contained eighty-six houses, which have all been removed 
except twenty-four, and these will be removed within the coming 
week. The land cost the city $150,000, the railroad donating 
$65,000 of the purchase price. The contract with the city 
provides that the houses shall be moved and the land deeded to 
the railroad company by the first of December and the railroad 
company agrees to have the shops completed within two years. 

• •» 

The "Oliver" Machinery Co., of Grand Rapids, have issued 
their catalogue C, on circular sawing machinery. This describes 
in detail the universal saw benches, variety saw tables, swing 
cut-off saws, saw mandrels, dado heads, cutter heads, and other 
saws together with their saw gauges and saw filing vises. The 
"Oliver" Machinery Company are manufacturers of high grade 
machinery such as band saws, scroll saws, planers, jointers, 
pattern lathes, speed lathes, gap lathes, miter machines, wood 
trimmers, disk sanders, bench vises, clamps, dowels, rapping 
plates, etc. Special catalogue describing any one of these will 
be cheerfully furnished. 

« ♦ 

The Hendrick Manufacturing Co., of Carbondale, manufac- 
turers of perforated metals and general sheet iron works, have 
recently placed Mr. Byron C. Guerin in charge of their New 
York office at No. 149 Broadway. Mr. Guerin has for the past 
two years been connected with the firm of Clendenin Bros., of 
Baltimore, Md., importers and jobbers of metals, widely known 
to the trade. The Hendrick Manufacturng Co.. take this oppor- 
tunity to thank their old customers for their liberal favors of the 
past, asking for a continuance of the same. They are enlarging 
their facilities for handling incoming trade, and would be pleas- 
ed to receive specifications in their lines. 

■ ♦ 

The General Pneumatic Company, of Montour Falls, N. Y., 
send out a mailing card on which is shown in tone drawings, 
eight different styles of cranes operated by the Shepard pneu- 
matic or electric apparatus as desired, which are devised to 
cover practically every requirement in crane practice for shops. 
It is proposed by the builders of these cranes that a prospective 
purchaser shall not get away for want of a crane to suit his 
special conditions, as the question is asked whether any of the 
cranes shown solve his immediate problem, and if not, he is in- 
vited to so state his problem. This particular method of going 
to the man with a proposition to suit his requirements, is evi- 
dence of live management, and cannot help but produce results. 

♦ » 

The Standard Machinery Company, of Norwalk, Ohio, which 
has been in operation for some time with O. M. Brown as 
president and W. H. Wilson as manager, will remove to Bow- 
ling Green, Ohio, having secured a site in the latter city on Pike 
avenue at the crossing of the Toledo & Ohio Central Railroad. 
At Bowling Green Messrs. Brown and Wilson will be joined 
by J. C. Slocum, who has been connected with the Jeffrey Mfg. 
Company of Columbus, and who will add a number of lines to 
the business of the Standard Company, which has heretofore 
consisted principally in the manufacture of bolt cutters and 
lathe die stocks. Mr. Slocum will endeavor to develop hoisting 
engines for use in small factories. A factory building, 50x150 
feet will be erected and placed in operation by January I. 

The American Woodworking Machinery Co., 136 Liberty 
street, New York, have just issued a 320-page catalogue illustrat- 
ing and describing their wood-working machines. It has stand- 
ard 9x12 pages and has their familiar 60-inch saw mill band saw 
as the first illustrated machine in the book. This is followed 
by various band saws of power and hand feed, tilting and solid 
tables, and tilting saws. These are followed by a scroll saw 
which in turn is followed by their various circular re-saws, 
lath mills, edgers and rippers, ripping machines, circular rip- 
saws and cut-off saws. The planers, matchers, surfacers, mould- 
ers and stickers come next, while the morticers, shapers, tenon- 
ing, boring and clamping machines, lathes, sanders, grinders, 
etc., complete the list of valuable and indispensible machines in 
the catalogue. 

President Schurman of Cornell University in his thirteenth 
annual report spoke as follows of Sibley college : In a technical 
school it is no easy problem to hold the balance evenly between 
the claims of pure and the claims of applied science. At one 
extreme a curriculum may be too academic; at another it may be 
too practical, not to say commercial in its aspects. The Sibley 
course is now well adapted to the demands of the engineering 
and industrial world, with which Sibley professors are also re- 
quired to keep in actual touch. It seems, therefore, opportune to 
recall the fact that the great discoveries which have shaped and 
moulded the modern industrial world originated in the quiet 
laboratory of the theoretical investigator. And the teaching that 
enlarges and vivifies the mind of the student must rest on general 
principles without which concrete applications are of little value. 
It has been the glory of Cornell University in different prov- 
inces of knowledge to combine theory and practice, and while 
the new Sibley course is laying renewed stress on the latter it 
must not be interpreted as surrendering one jot or tittle of the 
recognized supremacy and indispensableness of the former in 
any scheme either of liberal or technical education. Indeed the 
opportunity now for the first time given to students in Mechan- 
ical Engineering to devote their senior year to specialization in 
physics, or chemistry, or geology, is a sure indication of the at- 
titude of the Faculty, who will also no doubt encourage and 
advise seniors specially qualified and interested to devote them- 
selves to such scientific work. 

The American Locomotive Company have recently put out 
some most interesting literature concerning their products, which 
is of a very attractive character, from the technical as well as 
the press point of view. These little brochures are of the stan- 
dard of 6x9 inches in size, one of them giving in a complete 
form the salient points of value of the Mallet articulated type 
of compound engines to meet certain transportation problems 
in freight haulage. The Mallet compound built by this company 
for the Baltimore & Ohio, which is twice as large as any com- 
pound of the kind ever before built, is illustrated by working 
drawings and specifications, which clearly show the construct- 
ive features of these powerful machines. A later issue of these 
admirable descriptive documents (which will be carefully filed 
for future reference by their recipients) is devoted to an exposi- 
tion of the Cole four-cylinder balanced compound engine of the 
Atlantic type which is possessed of some original ideas in loco- 
motive design. Of special interest to the follower of the trend 
of locomotive improvement is the record of performance of the 
Cole balanced engine on the testing plant at the St. Louis ex- 
position, which is a part of this little educational work, show- 
ing a draw-bar pull of 5,224 pounds at 75 miles an hour. The 
construction of this engine is also shown by dimensioned draw- 
ings and a specification, besides which there are drawings of 
engines of the Pacific, ten-wheel, consolidation and Prairie 
types showing that there are no questions of design or type of 
a locomotive that prevents the application of the Cole principle. 

January, 1906 



Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by 
M. C. Painter, M. (St O. R. R. 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 

Devoted to the Interests of 

Master Car and 

Locomotive Painters 


To members of the M. C. & L. P. A : 

If any member not receiving his Railway Master Mechanic 
or has knowledge that any member fails to receive it regularly, 
will notify me, giving his full address, I will endeavor to have it 

Subscriptions for 209 members in good standing have been paid 
for the current year, and there is no reason why all should not 
receive them promptly, provided I have your correct addresses. 

A. P. Dane, Secretary. 

e ^ ■ • 

Editor, Car Paint Shop: Owing to the fact that there appears 
to be neither much interest nor criticism accorded the yearly 
reports of committee on tests at our annual conventions, it has 
been officially suggested that committee on tests for 1906 be- 
come more alive to the best interests of the grand old organi- 
zation of Associated Master Car and Locomotive Painters. ' 

As a fitting beginning, the committee begs space in columns of 
their official journal to offer the following suggestions to all in- 
terested fellow members in which they propose to outline that 
which follows : 

The first suggestion is, that they invite the general co-oper- 
ation of the Association's entire membership, through adopting 
a system of having each critically active member send to the 
chairman, or other member of test committee, a detailed ver- 
sion of the supposed cause and results of any material deviltry 
coming under their observation in daily car paint shop practice. 
When such reports have been received by committee on test, 
it shall become their duty to further investigate the questioned 
material under test, and make such report of same as they 
deem most applicable to best requirements of the Association, 
giving the name of original consignee (unless otherwise stip- 
ulated) in final committee report at yearly meeting in Convention. 

The second suggestion is, that all members not possessed with 
the hope of personal profit forward to committee on tests for 
a general interchange any class material manipulation in the 
shape of original ideals, as to what constitutes the best mater- 
ial formulation of paints for specified service requirements, 
which usually includes some special mixes that have given out- 
of-ordinary results, such as a special primary, surfacer, rough- 
coat, body, truck, roof or floor coating for a passenger car or 
some new just dropped upon material discovery where compelled 
in shop routine to do something in the way of turning out hur- 
ried new locomotive work — say, the quick job, that proved a 
surprise for durability in the shape of a primer, a glazing putty, 
quick, color or enamel coatings that held up long and well under 
quick drying varnish; how the gold size was made that could 
be leafed and safely varnished over within five to ten hours' 
time ; how to fix a cheap locomotive frame and truck black, to 
prevent it from becoming soluble in contact with grease and 
carbon oils; how to mix a tough cab roof coating that will 
reasonably stand the cinder beating usually subjected to; how 
they would make their ideal freight car paint, if called upon by 
official head to furnish specifications for the paint specially 
manufactured; how they know from practical experience and 
observation what pigments, oils and binders, made up in com- 
bination, have given the best results as a freight car paint; how 
they know that a certain pigment made up paint is best for 
painting a steel car, owing to the extreme service abuse received. 

The third suggestion is, the all important matter of calling the 
attention of the faithful craftsmen to the fact that there was 
never a more urgent time in the history of the Association 
than the present, where there was the same necessity for some 
concerted action in the way of guarding against the many new 

paint specialties offered from time to time to the railway pur- 
chasing powers, a majority of which have nothing to recommend 
them to trade, other than the strenuous efforts put forth in 
shape of capital and the selling talent required to place the 
product upon the market. 

It is true that there are many new specialty materials that 
have more or less value, but in regard to which the promoters, 
as a rule, claim a somewhat more exaggerated merit than the 
paints, when put into actual use, will warrant. It is also true 
that it is but natural that the always-alert paint manufacturer 
strongly advocates the use of his product, which, in many in- 
stances, is designed for some special purpose, regardless of there 
being any previous knowledge of purpose requirements. 

In view of the above facts, it becomes painfully evident that the 
only course for the railway master painter to pursue in behalf 
of the interests employing him, is to demand that all such ex- 
ploited unknown paint material shall first be submitted to a ser- 
ies of time-conducted, practical tests, clinging to the old-time saw 
that, the proof of the pudding is in the eating. 

In the spirit of progress, the committee on tests believe that 
all new material innovations should be received in the car 
paint shop, but they claim that they should first be carefully 
tested but never vouched for until proven satisfactory in every 
respect for purpose recommended for, from fact that such vouch- 
er becomes the trade capital to the interested, which, if honest, 
means continued merited business, but, if dishonest, the falsely 
represented material is not only sure to fail but also to become 
the cause of having both the integrity and trade ability of 
such voucher questioned. 

In conclusion, the committee on tests wish to state that they 
are fully aware that much criticism is apt to follow the prop- 
osition of having the entire membership of an association thrown 
into action as a zealous committee on tests, but, as they believe, 
the end would justify the beginning, if such procedure would 
bring the Associated Master Painters closer together on the 
matter of making tests. We, therefore, most earnestly solicit 
the help of every interested fellow associate, in order that the 
Association may have something to offer in a general way at 
yearly conventions, as to how tests on different paints used in 
their particular line of practice should be made, the idea being, 
that such recommendation acted upon would be viewed by rail- 
road officials with much favor. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. O. Quest, Chairman. 

Ji Visit to the Collinwood Shop. 

Continued from the November issue. 

Passing to the freight and engine department, we find Mr. J. 
G. Kiel in charge. Mr. Kiel was formerly in charge of the 
Buffalo shops, where he made a record for hustling out work 
that can hardly be excelled. 

In the freight department, the hopper bottomed steel car en- 
gages the most of the painters' attention. Here they are cleaned 
on the exterior with the sand blast and repainted, but the interior 
receives no attention whatever. This may cause some wonder 
on the part of those who are painting both the interior and ex- 
terior of their steel cars, but if viewed from a common sense 
standpoint it is very questionable whether the interior is bene- 
fitted by being painted. The paint sprayer is not used on freight 
work at this shop, all work is done by hand, but on engines the 
sprayer is somewhat extensively used, the frames, trucks, fire- 
box, etc., being painted in this way. Mr. Kiel uses a sprayer with 



January, 1906 

a double line attached to a can holding about four gallons. The 
can is provided with a float, which prevents the sloshing of the 
paint. Varnish color is not much used, but all engines are 
painted with flat color and varnished. 

In the matter of ornamentation, the same degree of plainness 
obtains as in the coach department. There is no striping what- 
ever, the initials of the road only are painted on the sides of the 
tanks and locomotives with aluminum the edge of the tires on 
the wheels, and the edge of the running boards are also painted 
with aluminum. 

The entire engine, except the frame is first scrubbed with soap 
and water before any painting is done, the frame is cleaned with 
gasoline, the jackets receive two coats of jacket enamel, but are 
not varnished. The freight and passenger engines are both 
painted alike, there is no distinction as is the case on some roads. 
When completed the engines present a very neat appearance. 

In closing, a few remarks in general on the equipment of the 
shops may be of interest. In the construction of the shops, no 
pains or expense have been spared to make complete preparations 
for facilitating the work in all departments. The various build- 
ings are all steam heated, and all communicate with each other 
by a complete telephone system, the shop is lighted, and all ma- 
chinery is run by electricity, all electric and telephone wires, 
water and steam pipes extend to the various buildings through 
sandstone side, cement top tunnel, amply large to admit of mak- 
ing the repairs that becomes necessary from time to time without 
digging them up, as would be the case were they simply buried 
in the ground ; moreover a break or leak can be instantly located 
and quickly repaired. On every hand there is evidence of the 
greatest skill, and the construction of the shop reflects much 
credit on the company. 

• ♦ « 

The Premature Paling of Varnish Lustre. 

We were recently asked our opinion of the cause of the pre- 
mature paling or deadening of varnish on the exterior of passen- 
ger cars. The subject is an interesting one, and furnishes a 
theme for discussion that is of general interest to the painting 
craft. We will open the subject and hope that it will lead to 
further discussion by the members. In maintaining the lustre 
of varnish to its natural limit, the two principal points that 
conduce to this end is the proper painting of the car in the 
first instance, and the proper care of the varnish while the car 
is in service — the one is of as much importance as the other. 

There are several causes that are responsible for the prema- 
ture deadening of varnish, either one of which will effect this 
result so effectively that an expert could hardly tell the cause 
of it. In cases where durability has been disregarded in order 
to economize in time, and a resort is made to quick drying 
under coats, not having sufficient binding fluid to enable them 
to adhere firmly to the surface, the resultant surface is a spongy, 
porous mass of pigment that will absorb the substance and sap 
the life of any paint or varnish that may be applied to it. It 
is not possible for varnish to retain its life and lustre when 
applied upon a surface built up in this manner. It is frequently 
the case that surfacers are composed of pigments of coarse tex- 
ture, and when the turpentine or vehicle has evaporated from 
them, it leaves them in a very porous state, and if examined with 
a strong microscope will be found very porous, and entirely 
unfit as a substructure upon which to apply varnish when the 
best results are expected or desired. 

Another cause of the paling of varnish is the too rapid appli- 
cations of the successive coats, and especially when an elastic 
varnish is used throughout. Usually but one or two days is 
allowed between coats for drying, with the result that each 
successive coat sinks into the former one, with the result that 
in some instances the lustre is nearly gone before the car leaves 
the shop. No carriage painter of ability would think of building 
up a porous surface, or of using elastic or finishing varnish for 
the under coats, and it is a recognized fact that carriage sur- 

faces generally retain their lustre longer than any other kind 
of vehicle. The manner in which a carriage surface is built 
up and the manner in which they are cared for is entirely dif- 
ferent from fliat of a railway passenger coach. This, of course, 
is due to the different conditions that obtain in each case. While 
the retention of the lustre on a carriage surface is due to the 
manner in which the surface is built and cared for, it is very 
probable that if it was subjected to the same severe conditions 
that is undergone by the average passenger coach, that the result 
by comparison would be much in favor of the passenger coach. 

The premature paling of varnish is not usually due to any one 
particular cause. There are many causes which produce this 
result singly, and some, if not all of these causes, will, upon 
investigation, be found contributory to this end in most all 
cases. Of the many causes which operate to cause the premature 
paling of varnish may be mentioned in addition to the causes 
above stated mopping or washing the body before the dust has 
been removed. Washing the body while exposed to the hot sun. 
The effect of sulphur gases which collect in the tunnels. Neglect 
of proper cleaning at terminal. Cleaning at terminal with coarse 
waste. The use of cleaning compounds destructive to varnish. 
Placing the cars in service before the varnish is dry. Of the 
causes above mentioned, that of proper terminal cleaning is of 
the greatest importance as far as the appearance and durability 
of the varnish is concerned. Where this work (terminal clean- 
ing) is not under the jurisdiction of the master painter, but is 
entrusted in many cases to persons entirely ignorant of the 
delicate nature of varnish, there is no certainty of retaining the 
lustre of varnish to the end of its natural life. Their method 
of cleaning is uncertain and variable, and they not infrequently 
neglect the cleaning until the deposit of dirt obscures all letters 
and ornamentation, then a resort is had to either strong soap 
and water or emulsion cleaners (which possibly have an excess 
of friction substance that is destructive to varnish lustre), the 
surface is given a vigorous rubbing or scrubbing, as the case 
may be, and after a while the dirt disappears, and — the varnish 
also. The friction caused by the extra amount of rubbing that 
is necessary to clean a neglected car is not only detrimental to 
lustre, but to the varnish also, the less rubbing the better. 

As regards the effect of sulphuretted hydrogen gas (the ana- 
lytical name given to coal smoke), it is next in importance as 
an enemy of varnish and varnish lustre. This gas has but little 
effect on varnish in the open air where it can be dissipated, but 
in tunnels, from which it can not escape freely, it will destroy 
the lustre in a few trips. The result by comparison of such cars 
with others that are not subjected to tunnel service will be very 
apparent as far as appearances are concerned. It is this gas 
which gives to coal smoke its suffocating qualities, and renders 
the closing of windows necessary when entering a tunnel. 

■ ♦ « 

Painting on the New York Central. 

The shops for painting and varnishing of all passenger equip- 
ment on the New York Central and Hudson River railroad are 
located at West Albany, N. Y. 

The main paint shop is a brick building 530 feet long by 150 
feet wide ; it is an old building, having been constructed a num- 
ber of years ago, but in recent years has been modernized as 
much as possible. Eighty feet of this building has been par- 
titioned off with a brick wall at one end and arranged to allow 
a space of 75x80 feet for varnish room, 35x35 for stock room, 
20x30 feet for foreman painter's office, the balance for miscel- 
laneous work. 

The main room, outside of the partition, which is 150x450 
feet, is devoted entirely to coach painting ; seven tracks run 
lengthwise through this room, each track holding seven cars, 
making forty-nine cars in all. The floor over the whole building 
is concrete surfaced with cement. Stationary posts upon which 
is hung an adjustable scaffold lines each track on both sides 
the whole length of the shop. The scaffolding can be adjusted 

January, 1906 



to any height so that the workmen can work on any part of the 
car, including the roof and upper deck. 

The whole building is well lighted with improved skylights, is 
thoroughly equipped with electric lights and heated with the 
Sturtevant system of hot air. The air is conducted from the 
central point located overhead, through galvanized iron pipes 
leading through openings located about 18 inches_ from the 
floor at numerous points between the cars and along the 
outer walls ; this system of heating is in every way a success. 

The' varnish room is equipped with adjustable sash and door 
racks, which can easily be gauged so as to receive any width of 
sash or doors. The window sash for all doors are grained in this 
room, in imitation of mahogany, with a machine known as the 
roller process, which is found to be a very rapid and economical 
method of graining in imitation of any kind of wood. 

The stock room is located in one corner and surrounded on 
all sides with solid brick wall. The entrance door and open- 
ings over the delivery counter are equipped with iron doors 
making the room absolutely fire-proof. Ample storage tanks 
are provided for all liquids, the tanks are placed on a raised 
platform in the center of the room running at right angles with 
the delivery counter ; mixing benches line the room on three 
sides, with cupboards and shelving underneath, and also a num- 
ber of tilting bins for storage. This room throughout is 
equipped in the most modern and up-to-date manner, with 
abundance of light and perfect ventilation. 

Running parallel with the main shop is another paint shop, 
150 ft. wide and 350 ft. long; this shop will hold twenty-six 
passenger cars. The heating, lighting, etc., are the same as in 
the main shop ; a greater part of this shop is used for painting 
freight equipment, except during about three months when the 
rush season is on, for coach painting. 

Aside from the two paint shops already described, track 
room has been provided in another building for holding four- 
teen cars, which is used exclusively for stripping and washing. 
Here the cars are stripped and washed and then transferred to 
the coach shop, where all carpenter and other repairs are done. 
When this work is completed the cars are transferred to the 
paint shop ready for the painters. At one end of the stripping 
shop is a room 16x65 ft., where all the small parts, such as 
sash, doors, blinds, stops, etc., are taken and given a thorough 
scrubbing. A tank 16x6 ft. 3 ft. deep, which is constantly sup- 
plied with running water, is used for this purpose. 

Adjoining this washroom is a similar one in size where all 
the small work is repaired for immediate delivery to the paint 

On the whole, while this is not in every respect a modern 
plant, every facility has been provided for carrying on the work 
in a systematic manner. When a car is placed for stripping, a 
schedule is made up which shows each transaction beginning at 
the washing and going on through the whole process to the fin- 
ishing coat of varnish, giving the date in advance when each 
transaction is to be done and the date when the car will be ready 
for trimming. All the work is done by the piece, and it is a 
rare occurrence for a car to go through this shop and fail to 
be turned out on the scheduled time. 

The capacity of this shop as to the number of cars which can 
be turned out within a given time has never been fully deter- 
mined. It has, however, a record for a continuous period of 
four months of eight and a half cars per day, all of which 
receive general repairs of paint and varnish. 

Mr. A. L. Allen is the General Foreman Painter in charge, 
Mr. Louis Fox is First Assistant. The Department Foremen 
are: Mr. Chas. Comsfock, Mr. T. A. Seymour, Mr. H. S. 
Knisley and Mr. Ben. Smith. H. M. BUTTS, 

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad. 

to be an unsettled question. Each has its advocates who have 
doubtless demonstrated their merits to their satisfaction. The 
verdicts are doubtless influenced in either case by circumstances. 
The short handle brush has held the field for many years, and 
its popularity is so .thoroughly and generally established that 
possibly several generations will have passed ere it is consigned 
to oblivion even for freight car painting. It may be said in favor 
of the short handle brush without fear of contradiction that for 
quality of work it can not be equaled by either the long handle 
brush or paint sprayer, for the reason that it is in every way 
far more wieldly than the former, and as to the paint sprayer, 
there is. really no comparison between the two. Whenever it 
is convenient to erect a permanent staging of convenient height 
we should prefer the short handle brush to the long handle, both 
for quality and speed, but where circumstances are such that a 
staging can not permanently or conveniently be erected, as in 
such instances where the ground is strewn with scrap or con- 
struction material, the long handle brush would fill the breach 
very acceptably; but, as compared to the short handle brush, 
it is far more unwieldly, and the extra long distance that it 
must necessarily travel back and forth to the paint bucket, sit- 
ting on the ground, would cause so much lost time that in the 
course of a day the result would be very apparent. 

Notwithstanding that this kind of a paint brush seems to be 
a sort of evolution of the long handle whitewash brush, it could 
not be condemned because of its ancestry more justly than 
could the human race because of the Darwinian theory. It 
must be accredited its proper place in the industrial field, for 
doubtless it fills a "long felt want" for those at least who see 
in it a good thing. As the world is to us as we see it, so is 
this particular kind of brush useful only to those who make 
good use of it and believe in it. 

As to the paint sprayer, it also has its uses ; there are many 
places where it fits, there are other places where it is a misfit. 
It would not find much favor among workmen generally in a 
closed building and steam heated ; when the mercury was playing 
around zero in such cases, if it were a thing of life, it would be 
in more danger than the czar of Russia. Its advent was re- 
garded with much disfavor from the first, for two reasons : that 
'it was a substitute for hand labor, and that it claims all of the 
air space within a very large area, and leaving none for the 
operator when it gets busy. The latter objection seems to be 
the greatest hindrance to its popularity, and it is somewhat of 
a reflection upon the inventive talent of the craft that the first 
machine invented to supplement the work of the paint brush 
should present defects which threaten to extinguish its use. We 

Freight Painting. 

The comparative merits of the long and short handle paint 
brush and the paint sprayer in freight car painting seem yet 



January, 1906 

venture the prediction, however, that these defects will soon 
be overcome, and that the paint sprayer will enter upon its 
second stage of greater usefulness. The field for it is too large 
and inviting to permit its dying of inanition. The ever increas- 
ing number of freight cars and the necessarily hurried demand 
for repairs when they are shopped, necessitates some method 
more expeditious than the paint brush for keeping them painted. 

It is now customary to repaint an engine while it is being 
repaired ; why should not the same custom be made applicable 
to a freight car? It is not impossible to do so. No one of a 
practical knowledge of mechanical matters can deny the neces- 
sity of keeping all freight equipment well painted, not so much 
for appearances as for its preservation. If paint was more freely 
used in painting the under framing and all points of contact 
during construction, it would add very materially to the life of 
freight equipment. 

Another matter of much importance in freight painting which 
has not heretofore received the attention that its importance de- 
mands is the stenciling of freight cars. We not infrequently 
see freight cars upon which the name of the road and other 
stenciling have almost entirely disappeared from view, and 
which would not be legible by night for inspection purposes with 
the aid of the best light obtainable. As a general thing the 
body paint will outwear the stenciling, especially if the stenciling 
is done with white lead ; this is due to the fact that the body 
receives two or three coats and the stenciling only one, and 
that one applied so thickly that the proportion of pigment or 
lead is far in excess of the usual proportions of such mixtures 
that are found to be the most durable; in other words, there is 
not enough oil in the stenciling lead to properly bind and pre- 
serve it for any considerable length of time. Much better results 
would be obtained if it were applied thinner and given two 
coats, but this would hardly be practicable owing to lack of 
time. Perhaps the most generally used pigment for freight 
painting is the brown iron oxide, stenciled with white lead. 
But this combination does not yield the best results. It is 
possibly due to the cheapness of the iron oxide pigments that 
they have come into general use for freight car painting, but 
notwithstanding their cheapness it is possible to obtain better 
results at a slight increase of the first cost by the use of yellow 
pigments for the body and lamp black and oil for stenciling. 
This makes the most pleasing and in the end the most durable 
and cheapest combination for freight equipment. This combi- 
nation is used upon the Armour refrigerator cars and possibly 
others, and there is no better looking freight equipment to be 
seen than the Armour cars. It is rare indeed to see one of them 
that is perished like the cars painted with iron oxide. When it 
is considered that most of the freight painting of all railroads 
is done out in the open air and exposed to all kinds of unfavor- 
able weather, it is a credit to the craft that the results are gen- 
erally as good as they are. 

• ♦ ■ 

A letter from our associate member, Mr. B. F. Wynn, of the 
Pennsylvania Railway at Pitcairn, Pa., brings the welcome news 
that our good friend, Mr. F. S. Ball, Master Car Painter of the 
Altoona shop, has regained his health and resumed his duties. 
We congratulate Bro. Ball on his recovery. 

» ♦ ■ 

William Marshall, George M. Ballard and Thomas Francis 
Clark, manufacturers, of Newark, N. J., are three of five incor- 
porators of the Anglo-American Varnish Company, just granted 
a charter by the Dominion Government. They will manufac- 
ture and deal extensively in japans, lacquers, varnishes, oil and 
pigments. The capital stock is $20,000, and the headquarters 
will be in Montreal. The Anglo-American Varnish Company 
is a Newark concern. Its office is at 53 Johnson street. 

Afotes and Comments. 

Elsewhere in this issue will be found a head lining orna- 
ment and border stencil taken from one of our first class cars 
built at the St. Charles, Mo., car shops during the incumbency 
of Mr. W. T. Wenchel, of the paint department, and to whose 
hand we credit the same. It is of unique design, being made 
as Mr. Wenchel informed the writer, from an idea obtained 
from the engravings on a piece of Dutch jewelry. The three 
parallel lines are first put on with vermillion, the ornament is 
then stenciled over them in gold. On a green ground, this 
makes a very pretty lining. 

« ♦ ■ 

It may be noticed on some cars that have been carefully 
painted and surfaced according to rule and on which every care 
has been bestowed in order to make a perfect job, that in a few 
months there is flaking of the paint along the edges of the beads, 
but on the remainder of the surface the paint is intact, with no 
appearance of disintegration. Such occurrences are calculated 
to detract very materially from the prestige of the master painter 
in charge. This trouble is due to an excessive amount of the 
surfacer left in the beads, which form such a thick crust that the 
contracting and expansive qualities are destroyed and flaking 
is the result. In some shops this trouble is overcome by resort- 
ing to the practice of what is called "sticking the beads," that is, 
cleaning out the excess of paint with a stick after each applica- 
tion of the surfacer ; the stick is shaped on the point to fit snugly 
into the bead and is moved upward instead of downward. The 
beads are not pumice stoned, but are cleaned out with sandpaper 
after the rubbing is finished. This method of surfacing reduces 
the amount of labor and insures better results. 

Elsewhere in this issue is an article from Mr. H. M. Butts, 
general foreman painter of the New York Central railway, de- 
scribing his shops at West Albany, New York. Mr. Butts' time 
is occupied in traveling back and forth over the system, super- 
vising the shopping of cars, terminal cleaning, etc., as all matters 
pertaining to painting and terminal cleaning comes within his 
jurisdiction. This is as it should be, as there is no one who 
knows as much about a gun as the man that made it. Mr. Butts 
is very fortunate in his position in having a broad-gauged man 
like Mr. Brazier, his superintendent of rolling stock, to support 
him. The management of the details of the West Albany shop 
is left almost entirely to Mr. Butts' able assistants, Mr. A. L. 
Allen, general foreman painter, Mr. Lewis Fox, first assistant. 
The foremen in charge of the various departments are Mr. Chas. 
Comstock, Mr. T. A. Seymore, Mr. H. S. Knisley and Mr. Ben 
Smith. It will be observed that the cars are handled several 
times in passing from one department to another while passing 
through the different stages of work. This the writer has always 
contended was the proper way to handle work in order to obtain 
the best results both as to quantity and quality. The idea of 
varnishing a car in a shop where it has been scrubbed and the 
floor water soaked is a waste of time and money and none the 
less suicidal or pernicious is the habit of dividing honors in 
the paint shop with the carpenter and truck man. It is desired to 
have an article each month similar to the one by Mr. Butts, 
from one or more shops, describing the method of conducting 
the same, and going into details as much as possible, and giving 
photographic views of shop when convenient. It is hoped that 
our friends will respond promptly when called upon for such 

February, 1906 



Established 1878 


PublisHed by the 

BaXTCB V. CK. AND ALL, President, CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-President 

O. W. BODLER, Secretary 

Office of Publication, Rooms 409=410 Security Building, Corner 
Madison Street and Fifth Ave., Chicago 

Telephone - - Main 3185. 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City 

Telephone - - 3524 John. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price, $1.00 a year; to foreign countries, $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 10 cents. Advertising 
rates given on application to the office, by mail or in 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Papers should reach subscribers by the first of the month 
at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or 
failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 
gladly sent. ? 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter. 

Vol. XXX 

Chicago, February, 1906. 

No. 2 


Brake Details S3 

Inspection of Locomotives 33 

Antiquated Shop Tools 33 

Railway Shop Equipment 34 

American vs Foreign Locomotives ■'• ■ -34 

Increase in Variation in Height of Couplers 35 

Locomotives for Experiment, Pennsylvania Railroad 42* 

Application of Card Index Systems to a Motive Power Office 46* 

40 Ft. Furniture Car, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry 50* 

The Rich Arch Bar Drill Press. 52* 

American Palace Car "Columbia" 53* 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ten Wheeler 54* 

Emptying Barrels with Compressed Air 54* 

The First King-Lawson Dump Car 55* 

The Marsh Car Lighting System 57 

Heavy Eight Wheel Passenger Engine, , Central Railroad of 
New Jersey 58* 

A New Freight Car Door and Hanger 59* 

Personals 60 

The Man Who Sells Things is Entitled to a Degree 60 

The Barber Roller Bearing Truck 61 

Chief Car Inspectors' and Car Foreman's Association of 
America 61 

The Chester B. Albree Iron Works Co 61 

The Acme Rotary Thread Rolling Machine 62* 

A Locomotive Turn Table Device 63* 

The Armstrong Bolt Driver 63* 

Important Movement in Advertising 63 

Notes of the Month 64 

Technical Publications 65 

Railway Association and Club Meetings for February 65 

The Origin of the "Rubberset" Brush 66* 

The Railroad Paint Shop 66 

THE necessity of revision of brake beam practice for 
the new heavy capacity cars — 60,000, 80,000 and 
100,000 lbs., has forcibly presented itself to those re- 
sponsible for their operation and care to the extent that 
a move is now launched by the M. C. B. Association 
that will no doubt culminate in not only a standard and 
stiff beam, but also in attachments and accessories to 
same that need attention. Brake beams have always been 
the weak link in the air brake system, and rigidity is yet 
wanting, more particitlarly with the heavy braking 
powers now used. 

It is a curious commentary on the long fight for stand- 
ards in the association, that the question is now asked, 
"Is there any standard and uniform size of brake 
wheel?" The supposition that a brake wheel should be 
of one diameter for cars of the same braking power, is 
a natural one, but the fact is that there is more diversity 
in that detail than in any other one connected with a 
brake rig. A standard of some one diameter would have 
the appearance of consistency at least and this does not 
now obtain when the variation is from 10 to 15 inches. 

A RECENT accident suggests the query, is engine 
equipment inspected with sufficient frequency? 
And the same accident would imply that the question is 
answered in the negative. 

A passenger run was delayed by a spring hanger 
breaking, the spring throwing itself in such position as 
to clamp the reach rod, thus making it impossible to 
operate the reverse lever. Upon attempting to jack the 
engine, it was found that the jack, carried on the engine 
as a part of its regular equipment, was inoperative. It 
had remained unused and uncared for during such a 
period as to have become useless from rust and want of 
oil. It was necessary to repair the jack before emergency 
repairs could be made to the engine — an additional delay. 
This instance is only one of a number emphasizing the 
imperative need of providing each engine with efficient 
equipment and maintaining the same in first class shape. 
In addition to posting a list of standard engine equipment 
in the cab of each engine, it would seem advisable to re- 
quire periodical inspection. Where regular crews are 
assigned, a report of equipment, signed by the engineer 
and engine house foreman, should state its amount and 
condition. With pooled engines, the engine house fore- 
man could be held responsible for inspection, having the 
engineers report to him in addition. The equipment 
should not only be kept in the engine, its usefulness 
should be assured. 

» ♦ ■ 

Antiquated Shop Tools 

TO THE observer having a mechanical training, the 
points picked up in out of the way localities are 
of the most instructive kind. As a reminder that work 
can be, and is done without the aid of appliances of 
even ordinary mediocrity in point of efficiency, tools are 
to be seen in active operation that should disgrace those 
responsible for their use, and they by the way, are 
not in charge of the plants where dividends are deferred 
by their use. In peregrination in search of good things 
for these columns, some of the relics of the early days 



February, 1906 

are found occasionally, devices that have long since out- 
grown their right to be classed with shop equipment, 
yet they are in service and are an important part of the 
layout, though the work done by their means is not only 
expensive, but so crude as to excite a smile. 

One of these old-timers recently found in an unex- 
pected quarter was a wheel press used for truck wheels 
and axles, engine, tender and car. This old machine 
probably dated from the earliest days of railroading in 
this country, was an example of how wheels were mount- 
ed before the hydrostatic press was perfected. The me- 
chanical power is obtained by means of the screw, geared 
several times, and the power increased by gear ratio 
twice since it was designed. It was operated by a star 
wheel consisting of eight levers driving a pinion that 
rushes into the system of gears actuating the screw, 
which forces the wheel on the axle. The levers are 
manned by as much human muscle as can effect a con- 
nection with their ends, and the force exerted is anything 
from 10 to 25 tons, lubrication and brawn considered. 

The exhibit was one to excite the wonder of one used 
to latter day facilities. Say the fit is not snug enough to 
overcome human endeavor, then tin shims or prick punch- 
ings of the axle is the remedy. It hardly seems probable 
that such a condition can prevail at this time, but wheels 
are yet mounted by the archaic scheme detailed. 

fact affords a good reason for the retention of such tools 
in service when the scrap pile is their proper location. 
The good man and poor tool, is a combination that makes 
a showing on quality of work only — never on quality 
plus quantity, and is therefore one of the most decep- 
tive and costly elements in the equipment of a shop. 
No greater mistake can be made in shop management, 
than holding tools in commission, that from age, or 
want of adaptability to the work to be done, have sur- 
vived their usefulness. The foreman is indeed a weak 
vessel, if his hands are tied with tools that cannot pro- 
duce the work at the lowest cost, and such results are 
only obtained by the best tools. 

■ ♦ « 

• ■» »- 

Railway Shop Equipment 

SHOP equipment as understood in a general way im- 
plies the facilities for turning out work, and of 
course covers an immense ground when taken in its 
fullest sense. Machine tools usually receive first consid- 
eration, but there are some other features deserving of 
attention that have a most important influence on the 
output of a shop. Supervision is one of these, and in the 
opinion of many who by reason of a long exper- 
ience in the shop, are entitled to be heard, the foreman is 
the most important factor in keeping the running ex- 
penses within the appropriation, entirely regardless of the 
character of the tool facilities with which he must carve 
out results. 

The foreman who is tied up to his desk making routine 
reports should not be blamed for the handicap placed on 
his efforts by red tape. System is a good thing, but here 
is one of the situations where net results are held back, 
by reason of a superabundance of it, for any cause operat- 
ing to prevent a foreman from circulating in the terri- 
tory under his supervision, must necessarily reduce his 
efficiency. Tyrannical pressure has long since given way 
to tactful force in getting the best out of men, in shops 
noted for high class management, and to exercise the 
gifts that make the foreman eligible to his position, he 
should be recognized as the head of his department, and 
placed above the suspicion that he was only a straw boss. 

Men, like machine tools, are simply a means to an end ; 
and to carry the simile further, both must be chosen for 
their ability to accomplish results. The man before 
the machine is the prime factor in output however, for he 
is able to get a performance out of an antiquated tool 
that sometimes goes to the credit of the machine, which 

Jfmerican vs. Foreign Locomotives 

THE American locomotive, while one of the greatest 
achievements of the mechanical arts in point of 
graceful lines and highest utility, is at the same time 
a marvel as to low cost. There are several reasons why 
our engines are constructed at a low figure when com- 
pared with like work done elsewhere. The most im- 
portant of which is the infatuation of the foreign de- 
signer with the high character of finish and details which 
in this country are painted at best, and in many cases 
left, as when coming from the forge. The prodigal finish 
was especially noticeabl in the exhibit of foreign engines 
at the St. Louis exposition. Those engines were of 
course treated for the occasion to a 'somewhat greater 
degree of polish than is the case of ordinary practice, but 
it was different in degree only, and served as a fair in- 
dex to the waste of time and money on work that could be 
iturned out at far less cost and yet serve its purpose as 
well. Especially so was this the case with the rods and 
valve gears which in our engines rarely know a file ex- 
cept at the fitted portions. The foreign engines were 
beautiful creations, and fair to look upon, but from the 
frigid business standpoint of the American constructor it 
was loves labor lost, since the testing plant could make 
no allowance for the esthetic factor in the machine. 

Standardization of details has also an important bear- 
ing on the cost of our engines, especially so on the large 
orders, by which fewer patterns are required than when 
engines are built with many changes of details. The effect 
of such changes is to increase the price of output, and 
when not made the purchaser shares in the reduced cost 
[The labor element has more influence on reducing cost 
of an engine than it is usually credited with. Since the 
wage rate is comparatively high here, it is assumed that 
such would appear in the cost of output, but the amount 
of work per day turned out, by reason of intelligent and 
close application, together with the improved high-speed 
tools used, are an offset to the lower wage and slower 
methods on the other side. 

The foreign engineer has nothing to learn from us in 
locomotive design when he can point to his original work 
and researches in compounding and also to his pioneer 
work in demonstrating the saving due to superheating, 
besides his development of the four cylinder balanced 
engine. There is, however, an opening for him to absorb 
some hints from our practice that will enable him to pro- 
duce results at a lower cost than his wont. 

February, 1906 



Increase in Variation in Height of Couplers 

T THE October meeting of the Western Rail- 

Away Club, Mr. J. J. Hennessey of the C. M. 
& St. P. Ry. addressed the members present 
on the subject of increasing the variation in 
height of freight car couplers. The question 
is an important one to the master car build- 
ers and will undoubtedly receive attention 
at the next convention of the Master Car 
Builders' Association at Atlantic City on 

June 13 to 15th. We are printing the remarks of Mr. 

Hennessey herewith together with the opinion of some 

of the members of the Master Car Builders' Association. 

Mr. Hennessey spoke as follows: 

"The present variation of 3 inches between the max- 
imum and minimum height of M. C. B. couplers from 
top of rail does not seem to me to be sufficient. The 
standard height of 33 inches was established way back 
in the 70's. At that time the railroads had their cars 
equipped with link and pin drawbars. Some of the 
wrought iron and Safford drawbars and others had 
very small openings in the mouth and it was very dif- 
ficult to couple one car to the other by switchmen step- 
ping in between the cars and attempting to enter the link 
of one drawbar, into the mouth of the opposite drawbar 
with safety to himself, when the variation in height of 
the two drawbars was more than three inches. That 
was the reason the M. C. B. Association established a 
variation of 3 inches between the maximum and mini- 
mum height of center line of drawbars from top of 

A few years afterward the vertical plane coupler or 
what is commonly called the Master Car Builders' coup- 
ler, was adopted. At that time the knuckles had a wear- 
ing surface on the face of about 8 inches, some less, 
some a little more, with an opening of about two inches 
in the center. The Master Car Builders' Association 
and railroad men generally discussed the advisability of 
allowing more of a variation, between the maximum and 
minimum height of cars but the objections were that in 
the majority of cases the lower lug of the knuckle was 
not over 2 3-4 inches wide, and they felt that with a 
greater variation, the tendency would be towards hav- 
ing all the pulling and buffing done on either the upper 
or the lower lug when a high car and a low car came 
together in switching, and thereby cause either lug to 
break off, and cause serious delays. But since that time 
things have changed. I think all railroads today are ' 
buying the solid knuckle with a nine-inch wearing face, 
while some of the larger roads are using knuckles hav- 
ing a wearing surface of 10 inches, and the knuckle sol- 
id, consequently we have gotten over the danger of 
breaking off the upper or lower lugs. 

Now, if you will inquire at your interchange points 
you will find that there is a great delay in cars being 
sent back, especially by the Belt lines who do the bulk 
of passing cars from one road to another, on account 
of the cars being higher or lower than the present pre- 

scribed limits. This is expensive to the railroads. Go to 
your own repair tracks and you will find that your car 
smiths or car repairers are continually raising your old 
cars ; here and there you will get a new car that is too 
high. We had one in Chicage a short time ago, a steel 
car which could not be lowered without practically re- 
building the whole truck ; the only way we could get rid 
of it was to send it back to Milwaukee and load it to get 
it down to the proper height; consequently I think the 
variation between the minimum and maximum height 
of M. C. B. couplers of three inches is insufficient. 

Now, you will say there is a law holding us to 
this 3 inch variation, but who is responsible for that 
law? The railroad companies, and the Master Car 
Builders' Association. It was they who recommended 
this maximum and minimum height to the Congress of 
the United States, and that honorable body accepted the 
recommendation and incorporated it into the law and 
now the law is being enforced, and to save the vast 
amount of money expended for the handling of cars, 
raising and lowering of same, we should petition Con- 
gress, it seems to me, to give us greater variation, in- 
stead of three inches, at least four inches. 

Now let us see the practical side of this. I was in 
hopes when I was told that they expected me to open 
this discussion that I would have something in a general 
line that was gotten up with care, but unfortunately I 
was called away these last three days and did not have 
time to get the data on the subject, so what I am saying 
here tonight I say off-hand. We did get some informa- 
tion from our repair tracks and I have that here, and will 
read it, and you will see what the railroads today are up 
against. We will see about what the actual settlement 
is in our cars, and in compiling these figures I have 
been very modest, in that I have given everything favor- 
able to the three-inch limit. These are all cases which 
make a car lower. Wearing on journal bearings, 3-8 
inch ; wear on journals, 2-8 inch ; wear on wheels. 
2-8 inch ; wear on carry * strap, and bottom of 
M. C. B. coupler, 4-8 inch, (that is, a quarter 
inch each) ; arch bars and small wearing parts, 
settlement of arch bars, I have got it down here 2-8 
inch. Now we all know that there are very few cars 
in service today that were built five or six years ago 
where the arch bars do not have a tendency to gig up, 
and this' 2-8 inch is entirely too insufficient to represent 
it, — but we will be moderate. Permanent set of springs 
was 1-4 inch to 3-8 inch. Difference of springs between 
empty and loaded car, 1 4-8 inch. Set of overhang of 
car, 3-8 inch ; that is, from the bolster to the end of the 
car ; you will find that most of our wooden cars droop 
down from the body bolster to the end, it is quite marked 
sometimes ; I have it here 3-8 inch, but I think if you will 
measure some of your old cars, you will find it an inch. 
In some of your weak old flat cars you will find they go 
one-half inch the other way. Now the total settlement 
according to the figures I have given is 4 1-8 inches. 
There is nothing overdrawn in this, in fact, it is not suf- 



February, 1906 

ficient, as it is not as much as really takes place in ser- 

Several months ago when I had this matter in mind, 
I rode about two hundred miles on one of the worst di- 
visions that the St. Paul Company has, and the up and 
down movement of the couplers on the main line I do 
not think in any place exceeded two inches. Of course 
you get a greater variation than that in the switch- 
ing yards, but with the knuckle from 9 to 10 inches 
wide I think that we can safely recommend a great deal 
more variations between the minimum and maximum 
heights, at least one inch more variation. That would 
allow us to build our new cars 35 inches high, and the 
car would not be condemned or refused in interchange if 
it were 31 inches high. I don't know how many of you 
gentlemen have taken a new car right out of the works, 
loaded it to its capacity, and run it a thousand miles, I 
have done it repeatedly, and I have found a permanent 
settlement of the car from one-half to one inch. 

The whole variation that we have today under the 
present Master Car Builders' rules and under the Inter- 
state Commerce Rules is three inches, and when you 
take a settlement of two inches when car is loaded, you 
have only one inch variation left, and I want to say, gen- 
tlemen, it amounts to a great deal more expense than 
most of us think for, to keep the cars within the present 

Mr. A. W. Gibbs, General Superintendent of Motive Power, 

P. R. R. 
"While it would doubtless be convenient, for many reasons, 
to allow more clearance, I am hardly prepared to join Mr. Hen- 
nessey in recommending an increase in the variation permissible. 
While it is true that the sources of variation mentioned, exist, 
I am not prepared to say that they all exist at the same time. 
Increasing the limits of tolerance in the height of couplers, 
is not an altogether satisfactory method of improving the diffi- 
culty, owing to the interference that occurs when it becomes 
necessary to couple to cars having the continuous vestibule 

Mr. W. F. Brazier, Supt. Rolling Stock, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. 

I have read the arguments before the Western Railroad 
Club in favor of a change in the height of couplers, and will 
say that I would be in favor -of raising the maximum height to 
35 inches. There is no question but what new cars turned 
out into service light should be at least one-half inch higher 
than the present limit, as the wearing parts will soon get down 
to the standard height. I believe we can safely let the min- 
imum height remain as it is. 

"Another point of far more importance than the variation 
in height of couplers, is the fact that all knuckles should be 
made solid and the face not less than nine inches, and the 
knuckles should be made of cast steel. While this is not the 
question, yet it is very important, in fact more important 
than the variation in height, — of having knuckles made of cast 
steel, the face not less than 9 inches, and all knuckles to be 
of the proper dimensions for the couplers for which they are 
intended. This would stop many of the break-in-twos we are 
having today on our freight equipment." 

Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson, S. M. P., Seaboard Air Lines. 
"I have read Mr Hennessey's remarks and do not favor at 
present any change in the standard variation for height of draw 
bars, believing that the narrow limits for this range of varia- 
tions are to everybody's best interest and with the steel frame 
cars coming into greater use the trouble complained of with 

the weak old-fashioned cars, poorly constructed and really 
unfit to meet the present conditions will disappear rapidly 
with the retirement of these old cars and the substitution of 
more modern designs. It seems to me that the article is a 
plea for leniency on account of weak old cars." 

Mr. G. N. Dozv, Gen. Mechanical Inspector, L. S. & M. S. Ry. 
"While Mr. Hennessey, in my mind, is one of the most able 
car builders in the country today, I will have to take exception 
to some of his remarks ; in other words, I do not believe in 
increasing the variation from three to four inches, but am 
heartily in favor of increasing the face of the knuckle from 
nine to ten inches, and the sooner the face of the knuckle is in- 
creased to ten inches, the better for the railroads having a lot 
of light capacity freight cars 

"I find in my travels through the large freight yards in the 
east, a very few cars that do not come within the requirements 
of the law, and that every year will lessen the number of old 
cars that have in the past been the cause of so much trouble 
in regard to coupler heights, due to bad construction, such as 
Mr. Hennessey speaks of, and it is my opinion that in a very 
few years cars having high or low couplers *will not be known, 
for today cars are being constructed that do not sag either at 
the ends or in the center; also arch bars are put in the trucks, 
that do not cock up at the end. Steel underframes and steel 
trucks are taking the place of the old designs now in use on 
the old and low capacity cars, which are being disposed of very 
fast by most railroads, but we will always have the action of the 
bolster springs to contend with in loaded and light cars, and 
to increase the distance from three to four inches in the var- 
iation of height of coupler, and not the face of the knuckle, 
trouble will still exist in cars coming uncoupled on rough 
tracks and at crossings, and with the increase in the variation, 
I am of the opinion more cases would come before us than 
we now have or know of, besides I am of the opinion it would 
be a premium for some railroads to become callous, while to 
have the distance to remain as at present, but to increase the 
face of the knuckle from nine to ten inches, would reduce 
the break-in-twos we now have from the above cause, if not 
fully obviate it, and make' freight trains much more safely 
handled than by increasing the distance from three to four 
inches variation in the height of the couplers, besides giving 
a much stronger knuckle, by reason of having more bearing 
on each other. 

"The above is solely in my opinion, which may be entirely 
wrong, for I know of several much more able men than T who 
are taking the same stand and view that Mr. Hennessey has." 

Mr. J. H. Manning, S. M. P., D & H. R. R. 
"Have read Mr. Hennessey's remarks in the proceedings of 
the Western Railway Club. Can see no objection from a me- 
chanical or operating standpoint why the maximum height of 
vertical plane couplers should not be 33^2 inches and the min- 
imum 31, and a variation of 4% inches. This would permit 
new cars to leave the works 2>S l A inches. The percentage of open 
knuckles in service cannot be a serious objection. If a change 
is decided will be gradual and they are rapidly going out of 
service. Again the possibility of getting a maximum high and 
minimum low car with an open knuckle on one or both is very 

Mr. T. A. Foque, Mech. Supt., M. S. P. & S. S. M. Ry. 

"I read the remarks of Mr Hennessey some days ago, and 
am of the opinion that the allowable variation between the max- 
imum and minimum height of couplers should be increased." 

Mr. C. A. Shroyer, Supt. C. D., C. & N. W. Ry. 

"I have read the article and I am in full accord with Mr. 
Hennessey's remarkp on the importance of increasing the var- 
iation in the height of automatic couplers in our equipment. 

"The Interstate Commerce law governing this height was 
enacted in 1893, and it required that within ninety days there- 

February, 1906 



after that the American Railway Association was to designate 
the limit of heights of the draft lines on cars and engines. 

"I recall attending a committee meeting of representatives 
of the American Railway Association, the only member of 
which I now recall was Mr. Theo. Ely, of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, which was held in all the prominent railroad centers 
of the country, of which Chicago was one. A large number of 
railroad men were requested by the committee to give their 
views on this subject. The conditions controlling at that time 
were the elements of danger existing in the coupling of the 
old link and pin drawbar by means of the link and pin to the 
automatic coupler, the knuckle of which was provided with a 
link slot. My recollection is that the opening of this was 1^4 
inches, so that the vertical motion of the link in this space was 
limited, and it was decided by the committee that the variation 
of 3 inches from the 33-inch height originally adopted by the 
Master Car Builders' Association was considered safe limits 
at which to maintain this draft line, so that the Master Car 
Builders' Association is not in any way responsible for the es- 
tablishing of the present limits. 

"It is well remembered by all of us that while the Master 
Car-Builders' Association established 33 inches as the standard 
height of the center of the draft line for the construction of new 
equipment, there was but very little attention paid to the main- 
tenance of this line at this height previous to that time, so that 
many of the cars of the eastern lines had 34 inches center of 
draft line, while many of the cars of the western lines were 
considerably below the 33 inches required by the Master Car 
Builders' Association, and for the purpose of eliminating the 
element of danger in the coupling of cars during the period of 
application of the automatic couplers, these limits of 31V2 and 
34J/2 inches were recommended by the American Railway As- 
sociation, after a full canvass of the situation among all the 
railroad companies of the country. 

"As a result of this, I think in 1895, the Master Car Build^ 
ers' Association established a price of $1.00 for raising or low- 
ering one end of a freight car to the required height as rec- 
ommended by the American Railway Association to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. You will recall that for a year 
or more a great deal of work was done by all the roads in the 
country for themselves and for each other in the raising of 
cars to this height under the requirements of the Master Car 
Builders' rules. • 

"In my interviews at different times with the inspectors of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, I have expressed myself 
to the effect that I did not consider 3 inches was limit enough 
for this work. Their argument was that the variations could 
be corrected from time to time as the cars go through the re- 
pairing yards. This, however, is not the case as more than this 
variation occurs to our new equipment in the wearing of jour- 
nal bearings, journals, wheels and the natural letting down of 
the different parts of the new car before the car has been in 
service a sufficient length of time to make it necessary to take 
it into the repair yard for repairs. 

"The construction of many of the modern built trucks and 
bodies, especially of iron and steel construction, is such that it 
is extremely difficult to raise and lower the draft lines. The 
extremely heavy loading in many times an additional cause for 
the draft lines being below the minimum height of 31 J/2 inches. 

"We have in service today, and there are running on many 
of the other roads, large numbers of stock cars, the trucks of 
which are equipped with elliptic springs, done so for the pur- 
pose of making the car easy riding under its load of stock. 
These cars when loaded with rail, oil, ties, lumber, etc., have so 
much motion in the elliptic spring that the draft line invariably 
is forced down below the minimum height of 31^ inches, and 
very much trouble has been occasioned us from this cause. 
We are compelled to raise the cars under these heavy loads, 
and when the load is removed we are again compelled to lower 
them. In our efforts to have these cars ride easily the elliptic 

springs were applied, and it is impossible to prevent the use of 
these cars for the hauling of this class of freight. 

"The use of the link and pin drawbar, which necessitated a 
uniform height of coupler during the period of change from 
the link and pin to the automatic, is passed and the universal use 
of the automatic coupler has entirely done away with the ele- 
ments of danger which existed in the use of the link and pin 
drawbar, so that today all that is required in this respect is 
the limit within a sufficient height to prevent the cars from be- 
coming uncoupled while in service by having the drawbars 
bounce apart in a vertical direction, and certainly very much 
more than 3 inches in this direction would be safe. 

"In the natural wear of such parts of our cars as are indi- 
cated by Mr. Hennessey's remarks, the variation is greater than 
the 3 inches allowance of the law, and these parts wear so 
rapidly that it is extremely difficult to maintain our equipment 
within the required limits by any reasonable amount of care. 

One of the largest items of expenditure in the maintaining of 
safety appliances as required by the law and the greatest cause 
of delay to freight, is in the matter of maintaining the uniform 
height of couplers. In the construction of new equipment it is 
almost impossible to do so and have the car constructed with the 
draft line closer than J/2 inch variation when new leaving the 
shops. A very short amount of service of the car causes the 
parts to wear and settle down to a uniform height. Hence, in 
the designing of the car, it is done with a view of having the 
draft line of the new car crowd the maximum height as closely 
as possible when the car is new out of the shops. 

"The use of the solid knuckle, which is now very extensive, 
forms an additional measure of safety, enabling an increased 
variation of height by reducing the liability of having the upper 
or lower lug of the knuckle broken if the strain was brought 
either above or below the center of the same, so that I believe 
that the time is now here when we should recommend to our su- 
perior officers through the American Railway Association the 
increasing of the limits for draft lines." 

Mr. Wm. Mcintosh, S. M. P., C. R. R. of N. J. 
"I hand you herewith copies of reports from our Chief Car 
Inspector and Mechanical Engineer, Mr. B. P. Flory, comment- 
ing on Mr. Hennessey's proposition regarding variation of 3 
inches between minimum and maximum height of freight cat 
couplers. These replies are self-explanatory, and my own views 
are that the present limitations are sufficient. It only remains 
for cars to be given the necessary attention to maintain them 
within these limits." 

Mr. B. F. Flory, M. E., C. R. R. of N. J. 

"Referring to the latest article on variation in height of 
couplers, would comment as follows : 

"Mr. Hennessey states that he thinks all roads today are 
buying solid knuckles with 9 inch wearing face. You will re- 
member that we commenced to buy the solid knuckle only a 
short time ago and I have no doubt but that many roads have 
not bought it very long. The solid knuckle is all right on most 
roads, but with roads having water facilities with their float 
bridges it is absolutely necessary to keep some open knuckles 
in stock, as it is often necessary to use a pin to accommodate 
the variations in the height of the tide. 

"Regarding the causes which go to make a car lower, the 
wear of the journal bearings, the wear of the journal, and the 
wear of the wheels, which he gives, I think is about right. The 
wear on the carry straps and the bottom of the coupler, l / 2 inch 
total, it seems to me is rather high. The permanent set of 
springs I do not believe will ever be J4 to Y% inch, or if they 
are, they are certainly not good springs. The difference in the 
height of the spring between an empty and a loaded car is 
never \Y 2 inche's like Mr. Hennessey states. Under 80,000 and 
100,000 cars the difference between the free height of the spring 
and the height of the spring under loaded car is only 1 inch. 



February, 1906 

The difference between the height of a spring on an empty car 
and on a loaded car would not be more than }i inch. 

"Taking these figures, including % inch for settlement of 
arch bars and ^ inch for overhang, they figure up to 2^4 inches. 
I do not believe that any of these figures which I have given 
will run over this, but if they should it is time for the car to be 
repaired anyway. 

"It seems to me that a 3-inch difference in the height of 
couplers is entirely sufficient." 

Mr. W. H. Hall, C. C. I., C. R. R. of N. J. 

"Noting the attached, relative to heights of freight car 
couplers, and your question as to whether I had any suggestions 
to make: By reading over Mr. Hennessey's subject I am unable 
to say where I can make any, suggestions other than that I do 
not see the necessity of changing the present variations in re- 
gard to heights of couplers. I note Mr. Hennessey claims there 
are only 3 inches, but as I understand it there are 2> l A inches. 
We can allow a car to be 31 inches in height under load and an 
empty car can be 345/2 inches which gives you 2^/2 inches varia- 
tion. This may be all true enough as he says on certain roads 
that have a poor lot of old worn-out equipment, but we have 
no trouble to speak of at our interchange points, in regard to 
the heights, as we try to make a point and keep our cars within 
the prescribed limits and not allow them to get below. We 
very seldom have to raise cars on our cripple tracks and as our 
equipment is now becoming more of the modern class, I do not 
see wherein we would be benefiting ourselves by having 4 
inches variation. We have, of course, a few cars as stated 
that will show a droop at the end, but we manage to keep our 
couplers up to the uniform height, and this class of cars 
we now have is deteriorating very rapidly and all new equip- 
ment being of different device, there will be no necessity, as I 
say, to change the variations that we have at present. 

"Of course, our conditions here, especially at our float bridges, 
are somewhat different from Western roads, and I do not think 
a 4-inch variation would work very well at our float bridges. 

"I do not know as I can say anything further in this matter 
as I consider the present variations to be working very well if 
the cars are given proper attention and not allowed to get in 
such condition as stated by Mr. Hennessey in the matter of so 
much wear and tear without renewing the parts before there 
are such discrepancies." 

Mr. H. E Pass-more, M. M., T. & O. C. Ry. 

"I agree with Mr. Hennessey and think that we should change 
our variation to 5 inches. It is my opinion that the railway com- 
panies and Master Car Builders have been lying dormant on 
this point, and we will all be very much gratified of the amount 
of saving there will be, especially in our cities where we have 
a number of interchanges and belt lines. 

"There are a number of old cars yet in existence that, 
when under load with the present rules, are too high because 
they sag in the center and raise at the ends, with very favorable 
chances of being the reverse when empty, and a number of 
other reasons can be given, which in my opinion tend to in- 
crease the variation in height." 

Mr. A. M. Waitt, Consulting Engineer. 
"I beg leave to say that I have read this article with great 
interest, and from my standpoint, heartily endorse the sugges- 
tions made by Mr. Hennessey. Mr. Hennessey is a thoroughly 
practical man and has looked at the question from a common 
sense and practical standpoint. With the improvements and 
changes which have been made in the knuckles of the M. C. B. 
couplers since the M. C. B. Association established a variation 
of three inches between the maximum and the minimum height 
of center lines of drawbars from top of rail, I believe it is 
perfectly right, safe and proper to urge the modification of the 
present standard from three inches to four inches, and to rec- 
ommend this change to the American Railway Association for 
their endorsement, and then would suggest that with the en- 

dorsement of the two associations, the matter be submitted to 
the Interstate Commerce Commission recommending the change 
to be made in the government requirement in this particular. 
I presume before the change in height could be officially rec- 
ognized, it would have to be done through act of Congress 
making an amendment to the present safety appliance act. This, 
I believe, can now be done, with safety and it will be productive 
of a quite considerable saving in expense and delay on railroads 
all over the country." 
Mr. N. L. Friese, Gen. Foreman, Car Dept., N. & W. Ry. Co. 

"Referring to the subject of variation in heights of couplers, 
with particular reference to the address delivered by Mr. J. J. 
Hennessey before Western Railway Club: 

"Mr. Hennessey is not entirely correct in thinking that all 
railroads are buying solid knuckles ; instead, some railroads 
at least are using open face knuckles in large quantities on new 
cars of high capacity as well as for repair work. Cars are 
found having all the defects he refers to of a cumulative 
nature, but as a rule, this is in itself evidence that such cars 
are in need of repairs. In any event, we do not consider this 
valid argument in favor of increasing the variation in height 
of couplers. The probability of increased failures due to break- 
in-twos should govern almost exclusively. The last report of 
the M. C. B. standing committee of tests of M. C. B. couplers 
calls particular attention to the large number of break-in-twos, 
nearly all of which can be' attributed to coupler failures, and on 
subject of knuckle pivot pin states: "The breakage of the knuckle 
pins has become the direct cause of many serious partings on 
the road since the adoption of the solid knuckle." From this 
we may infer that while the solid knuckle has reduced knuckle 
failures to some extent, it is of no benefit otherwise. 

"A prolific source of coupler failures is breaking of lugs 
which form part of coupler body and to which knuckle is pivoted. 
Another is failure of pivot pins as stated by the committee. 
Certainly, increasing the variation in height of couplers to at 
least 4 inches will aggravate both these troubles, to say nothing 
of the probable increase in break-in-twos between cars switched 
over industrial tracks, which as a rule, are not in good surface. 
Mr. Chas. Waughop, Chief Joint Car Inspector, St. Louis. 

"I read the article and coincide with Mr. Hennessey on his 
paper on this subject. I have had the subject reproduced in 
the St. Louis Railway Club proceedings for December and the 
' subject will be up for discussion at the February meeting of 
the Club which will be held in the parlors of the Southern 
Hotel, at 8:00 P. M., February 9th. I have also asked the Car 
Foremen's Association of St. Louis and East St. Louis to dis- 
cuss the question, which they did at their meeting, Tuesday, 
January 16th. 

"My personal idea is that more leeway should be given on 
both the maximum and minimum heights of couplers, and will 
advocate a variation of one inch either way with the recom- 
mendation to the Master Car Builders that the eleven inch 
face knuckle be adopted as a standard, which will be perfectly 
safe, in my opinion, for a variation of from 30^ inches to 35^ 

"We believe here, that if the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission were to recognize these variations with the eleven inch 
face knuckle, it would be unnecessary to be called on to 
either raise or lower a car on account of the coupler height, or 
if so, it would be reduced to the minimum." 

Mr. S. Higgins, G. M., N. Y. H. & H. R. R. 

"We have given this matter some thought and believe it 
would be a great mistake to make any change. If the limits 
for height of couplers are increased, as has been suggested, I 
do not question but what the couplers themselves will be able 
to stand it, but I feel that such a change would result in injury 
to draft rigging and underframing, particularly in the case of 
cars having wooden underframes. We should, so near as pos- 
sible, maintain the line of draft between adjacent cars on the 
same horizontal plane." 

February, 1906 



Mr. A. Struthers, M. M., D. N. W. & P. R. R. 
''With reference to the question of the maximum and min- 
imum height variation of drawbars as at present embodied in 
the M. C. B. rules, wish to say that I agree with Mr. Hennes- 
sey's ideas that the changed conditions in the way of wider and 
solid knuckles such as are in general use now would admit 
of at least another inch being allowed in the variation with 
much greater safety than was formerly under the conditions 
as they existed and would be the means of eliminating expense 
in the way of labor and delays." 

Mr. Eliot Sumner, A. E. M. P., P. R. R. 
"Our feeling is that ample variation is now allowed for the 
height of freight car couplers and it would be a great mistake 
to increase the limits. Most of the difficulty is experienced 
with the old wooden cars and we must continue to adjust them. 
If any steel cars are as high when new as Mr. Hennessey men- 
tions, certainly the matter should be taken up with the de- 
signer. The variation in steel cars between empty and loaded 
and old and new, is not sufficient to cause any great inconven- 

"One very important item in this connection is the variation 
in couplers when cars are moving on and off the car floats at 
the float bridges around Jersey City and it is sufficiently annoy- 
ing at the present time without aggravating the allowed limits. 
"Furthermore, this question, to a certain extent, affects the 
passenger equipment in those freight cars which are sometimes 
operated in passenger trains on account of the platform buffers." 

Mr. G. S. McKee, S. M. P. and C. E., M. & O. R. R. 

"Beg to advise that I agree fully with Mr. Hennessey in re- 
gard to this matter, and believe that there should be a change 
made in the rules governing heights of drawbars. We have 
for some time felt that the necessity of a greater variation than 3 
inches for drawbars, which is now prescribed in the M. C. B. 
rules, particularly in building new cars. When these new cars 
leave the manufacturer's shops, they are to the maximum limit, 
when after a few weeks service and all parts are thoroughly 
settled, we find that when the car is loaded to its full capacity, 
the drawbar is very often from 1 inch to i^ inches lower than 
the maximum, 34^/2 inches. Coupled with this, the wear on the 
journal bearings, the overhang of the car and the settlement 
of springs, etc., it is no surprise that in a short while we hear 
of trouble at interchange points on account of the coupler 
below the minimum. 

"With the introduction of the solid face knuckle, we think 
the Yz inch above and below the present standard, or a varia- 
tion of 4 inches will relieve this trouble to a great extent and 
avoid the necessity of frequently delaying traffic by being com- 
pelled to hold cars at terminals and making the necessary 
changes in the height of coupler." 

Mr. Chas. E Peiffer, For. Car Repairs, L. V. R. R. 

"I consider this matter worthy of consideration and the 
subject as outlined by Mr. Hennessey is very complete and I 
think this should come before the M. C. B association for con- 

Mr. O. M. Stimson, M. C. B., Szvift Refrigerator Transportation 


"Having read with interest Mr. J. J. Hennessey's remarks 
before a recent meeting of the Western Railway Club, I beg 
to advise that after having given the subject matter of Mr. 
Hennessey's remarks very careful consideration, I acquiesce 
in his views, believing that by increasing the variation as now 
allowed by law it will not only result in considerable saving, 
but will also facilitate movement of cars at terminals. 

"There are, of course, still in service a very great number 
of open face or slotted knuckles, and it would not in my judg- 
ment be wise to increase the variation in the height of couplers 
until the number of slotted or open face knuckles now in ser- 
vice has been considerably reduced. 

"My general information is to the effect that few, if any, 

open face knuckles are now being purchased. It would, there- 
fore, seem that by the time the subject was thoroughly discussed 
and the present law amended, there would not be a sufficient 
number of the open face or slotted knuckles in service to warrant 
serious consideration, especially if the usual notice was given 
that slot or open face knuckles would not be accepted after a 
certain date. 

"There are, of course, certain unusual track conditions that 
might cause trouble by cars coming uncoupled. These, however, 
could and would be corrected if it were found necessary to 
do so." 

Mr. Geo. A. Miller, S. M. P. and M., Florida East Coast Ry. 
"This item is so clearly set forth by Mr. Hennessey at the 
October meeting of the Western Railway Club, and the data 
submitted right to the point, that I can now see only one conclu- 
sion to be arrived at after the discussion and that will be to pe- 
tition Congress to allow at least 4 inches variation. This means 
a great saving of expense to the railroads, especially those 
handling perishable freight. Present conditions are somewhat 
changed to what they were when this law went into effect, 
and so long as the safety feature of the law is complied with, 
it ought not to be difficult to get the law amended to cover 
the mechanical." 

Mr. R. H. Parks, Man. Shops, M. D. T. Co. 
"I think this covers the ground pretty thoroughly, believing 
fully that a larger variation should be allowed. We construct 
all of our own new cars and we find it necessary to raise them 
before the first year's service has been completed. We think 
that this should not be the case and are in sympathy with any 
move along this line." 

From a Car Builder. 
"Referring to Mr. Hennessey's remarks, would say that our 
experience bears out the statement made by him. 

"The M. C. B. ruling for freight cars, is coupler to stand 
34^2 inches from top of rail to center of shank on empty car, 
a °d 33V2 inches on loaded car — total variation of 3 inches and 
the minimum to be 315^2 inches. 

"I find, in checking up cars built by us, which have come 
into our work again, that they have settled from 54-inch to 
1 inch in height within 20 to 30 days after being placed in ser- 
vice, which goes to carry out the statements Mr. Hennessey 
has made that the present standard does not give sufficient lee- 

"We frequently have occasion to couple passenger cars 
which stand 36 inches or even 36^2 inches from top of rail to 
center of coupler with freight cars whose couplers are very 
close to the minimum height of 31^ inches and find no difficulty, 
all of which would go to show that a variation of 4 inches 
would certainly be within working limit. 

"We find on new equipment that the height of drawbar 
will vary as much as ^ to ^ inch by the difference in camber 
of the cars — however, this would not be so apparent on steel 
construction as on wooden cars. 

"In this connection, the allowable height of drawbar on pas- 
senger service on new cars should certainly be increased, as the 
present standard of 35 inches is not sufficient to permit a new 
car to be turned out and run any distance without being too low. 
"As an instance, we turned out one lot of cars which were 
sent as far as Indianapolis and injured and returned, and we 
found the height to center of drawbar had been decreased Y$ 
inch during that short length of service. 

"The height of drawbar on new passenger equipment for 
coaches, sleepers or dining cars should be not less than 35J4 
inches and for baggage and express cars not less than 36^ 
inches. Then after the cars have been in service a short time, 
or the baggage and express cars loaded the drawbars will stand 
very close to the present M. C. B. height of 35 inches," 



February, 1906 

Mr. E. W. Pratt, M. M., C. & N-W. Ry. 

"Referring to the subject of the variation in height in coup- 
lers, would say that I have discussed this matter with a consid- 
erable number of practical railroad men, and it would appear 
to me that any discussion on the subject will be rather one- 
sided. There is no question but what our Master Car Builders' 
Association is responsible in their initiation for the law enacted 
by the Congress of the United States with reference to the 
limits in the height of couplers ; neither is there any doubt in 
my opinion that Congress by and with the recommendations of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, would be ready to modify 
the existing laws in accordance with a practically unanimous 
petition from all members of the Master Car Builders' Asso- 

"If any difficulty is met with in bringing this matter to a suc- 
cessful conclusion, I am inclined to believe that it will be due 
more on the part of some railroads to increase the allowable 
variation to a considerable extent, rather than to accept as a 
compromise some limit of variation, such as 4 inches or \ l / 2 
inches, to which very few reasonable objections can be raised. 

"In a recent conversation with one of the Commissioners of 
of the Interstate Commerce Association, I felt impressed with 
the fact that the Commission as a general proposition, were will- 
ing to accept the best judgment of the mechanical officers of 
the railways in this country, as represented by the Master Car 
Builders' Association, in the matter of technical details regard- 
ing the practical enforcing of the law, the main point being 
that the object of the law governing safety appliances should 
not be lost sight of. It would seem to me that while there is no 
danger to employes or freight in transit, with an increased var- 
iation of 4 inches, there is, on the contrary, a likelihood of more 
substantial construction of trucks and bolsters than is apt to 
be the case where repeated shimming and the like is done, in 
order to raise cars that are too low, up to the prescribed limits. 

"I would like very much to offer the suggestion that a pe- 
tition addressed to the Interstate Commerce Commission be 
framed and presented for a vote of the M. C. B. Association at 
the coming meeting. If such petition could be signed by the 
officers of the Association and following them, by the individual 
officers of the various railway companies, and the attendants 
of the convention, praying that the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission would present this petition with their recommendations 
to the Congress of the United States, favorable action might 
be had in this matter within reasonable time, and the railroads 
relieved of a considerable unnecessary expense; besides the 
delay to freight in transit. 

"Should it be found impossible to obtain the unanimous 
opinion of the railroad men of this country as favoring a cer- 
tain specified variation, the result will doubtless be as it was in 
the fall with the old man and the bundle of sticks : 'Unable to 
break them all together, separated in small bunches, they were 
all broken a few at a time.' " 

Mr. C. M. Mileham, M. M., Street's Western Stable Car Line. 

"Referring to Mr. J. J. Hennessey's remarks, relative to var- 
iation in heights of couplers : For rhy part, I cannot agree with 
Mr. Hennessey. To my mind, some standard height should 
be maintained, as I find, since standard heights were adopted, 
we are getting far better results from our couplers. Prior to 
the adoption of standard heights, when cars were in all kinds of 
condition, our knuckles were worn out unevenly at points of 
contact. Some were worn out at top, while the bottom was 
hardly worn out at all, and vice versa. After we got our cars, 
all practically to a standard height, the knuckles wore on the 
entire surface of contact, in place of two or three inches on 
top or bottom, as the case may be. By wearing the entire 
depth of knuckle, gives us probably twenty-five per cent more 
service from knuckles, and pulls more evenly on lugs of couplers, 
thereby saving our couplers, giving us a direct central draft, in 
place of pulling down on the top of the coupler, or up, as the 

case may be, should the knuckle not come in contact the entire 

"Should we now go back to the practice of all kinds of car 
heights, we will experience the same results on the solid knuckles 
as we did on the slotted ones, i. e : uneven wear, practically on 
account of the variation in heights, and uneven distribution of 
the strain on the top or bottom lugs of our couplers. 

"I would recommend, that we maintain our present ar- 
rangement, according to M. C. B. rules, in this matter." 
Mr. M. K. Barnum, C. B. & Q. Ry. 

"The figures given by Mr. J. J. Hennessey at the October 
meeting of the Western Railway Club for the maximum wear 
of the different parts of a freight car make a total of 2PA inches 
instead of 4 J /s inches. These figures include the compression of 
springs caused by loading an empty car and they represent the 
maximum average amount of reduction in height due to the 
presence of all the items in the same end of the same car, which 
would be a rare combination. However, I believe that the 
limit of 3 inches between the maximum and minimum height 
is too narrow and that it should be increased to 4 inches. The 
latter would be perfectly safe with the present types of couplers 
and knuckles and the change will expedite freight movements 
and materially reduce cost of freight car repairs." 

Mr. H. Bontet, Joint Car Inspector, Cincinnati, O. 

"In regard to article on the change of the height of freight 
car couplers, I believe that Mr. Hennessey has quoted the exact 
facts, except that he did not make it strong enough for old 
cars drooping at the end. 

"The variation in the height of couplers in interchange is 
causing a great deal of trouble and there is hardly a day that 
any repair track at Cincinnati does not have quite a number of 
cars, on which they have to raise the couplers. 

"I believe that if new cars are set up so the center line of 
the coupler is 35 inches and that they will allow them to drop 
down to 31 inches, it would not interfere with the handling 
of cars and would save a great deal of delay and setting out, 
which is being done under the present rule. 

"I do not know of anything that would facilitate the move- 
ments of cars more than to allow us this extra inch in the 
variation of the height of couplers." 
Mr. Wm. Hassman, M. M., Peoria & Pckin Union Railway. 

"Referring to Mr. J. J. Hennessey's address to Western Rail- 
way Club, beg leave to say that, from the experience that I have 
had with that question, and by a close observation on the ter- 
minals of this company, I am free to say I can see no good 
reason for making any change from the present variation as 
prescribed by the M. C. B. rules and the Interstate Commerce 
laws, basing my views, first, on the low percentage of total num- 
ber of cars moved over these terminals that are stopped by 
reason of undue variations in heights; second, that when cars 
are so found it is invariably on account of being too low, 
which can be remedied in the point shown by the speaker to be 
the cause of the greatest variation, i. e : bottom of coupler and 
carry strap ; third, the throwing of too much stress upon the 
lower lug of the coupler when operating so much below the 
designed line of stress in the coupler, both by pulling or by 
impact in coupling. 

"We have had experience in cars too high when loaded, 
caused by dropping in the center and rising correspondingly 
on the ends. Not having any means of lowering the car, we 
jacked up the center and tightened the truss rods, thereby gain- 
ing the required amount of end drop to bring them to max- 
imum height. 

"It seems to me that we still have too many cars running 
with 'paint pot capacities,' that cause undue' variation from 
maximum empty heights to height when loaded, that no rea- 
sonable change in the rule can overcome. 

"We also know that the greatest weakness in freight caV 
equipment that develops in the heavy trains, operated by the 

February, 1906 



very heavy engines now in service, is in the draft gear ; too 
much variation under those conditions throws the stress too 
much below the designed line of stress that works a hardship 
upon the weaker one to its undoing. 

"All m all think that 'well enough' should be let alone." 

Mr. Jas. E. Simons, Gen. Man., Fits-Hugh, Luther Co. 

"Referring to the remarks by Mr. J. J. Hennessey on the var- 
iation in height of freight car couplers : My opinion is that 
the variation as permitted at the present time is not sufficient, 
but would not be in favor of increasing the maximum height, 
as I can see no particular reason for it. If the variation 
is extended it should be in the minimum direction. 

"I fully agree with Mr. Hennessey that a change should be 
made and believe an additional inch, making 4 inches variation, 
would be ample to meet all requirements existing at the pres- 
ent date." 

Mr. W. J. Buchanan, M. C. B., B. & L. E. R. R. 

"I agree with Mr. Hennessey that the variation in the height 
of couplers should be 4 inches instead of 3 inches." 
Mr. E. O. Allen, Div. F. C. D., K. C. S. Ry. 

"Will say that I am decidedly in favor of increasing the var- 
iation in height of couplers." 

Mr. J. P. McCuen, S. M. P., C. N. O. & T. P. Ry. 

"I have noted remarks of Mr. J. J. Hennessey at the meeting 
of the Western Railway Club, regarding variation of height of 
freight car couplers and I wish to advise that I agree with Mr. 
Hennessey on this subject." 

Mr. A. H. Watts, M. M., Cincinnati Northern R. R. 

"Would advise that I am in favor of a greater variation in 
height of freight car couplers. I think there should be at least 
one inch more variation." 

Mr. T. E. Parker, Cudahy Refrigeraton Line. 

"My opinion of this question, is that we have sufficient var- 
iation between the minimum and maximum height of couplers 
at the present time, and I can see no good reason for it being 
changed to a greater variation. I would be more in favor of 
making it of less variation than I would of a greater one." 
Mr. P. T. Mooney, M. C. B., T. C. R. R. 

"I am in favor of Mr. Hennessey's suggestion." 

Mr. E. O. Si ith, M. M., St. L. & H. Ry. 

"Wish to say I was much interested in the remarks of Mr. 
Hennessey, and no doubt the condition he cites, obtains to a 
large degree; still it appears to me that a change of one-half 
inch, or 35 inches as a maximum, that would allow new cars to 
be built on those lines, to allow for the permanent set, will be 
all that will be required. 

"Would leave the minimum as it now is, 31^2 inches, as it 
is desirable to retain as much bearing as possible on the wear- 
ing face of the knuckles, and keep couplers as near uniform 
height as possible." 

Mr. C. S. Morse, M. C. B., W. & L. E. R. R. 
"Replying to changing the limit of variation in height of 
freight car couplers : It is our opinion that a greater variation 
than the present one is permissible, and we would recommend 
that the limits be made 31% inches and 35J/2 inches. Our reason 
for placing the additional allowance above instead of below 
is to enable the placing of the center line of draft nearer the 
center of the draft sills of the steel cars. It has been found 
to be a very hard matter to do this with the present drawbar 
height on account of the extra weight and expense involved in 
lowering the trucks." 

Mr. J. F. Graham, S. M. P., 0. R. & N. C. S. P. Co. 

"Referring to extracts from remarks of Mr. J. J. Hennes- 
sey, M. C. B. of the C. M. & St. P., before the Western Rail- 
way Club, at Chicago, relative change in height of freight car 
couplers : 

"I agree with Mr. Hennessey that it would be well to in- 
crease the limit of distance between the minimum and maximum 
height of couplers, but do not agree with him in the matter 

of building new cars 35 inches high. He states they recently 
had a car in Chicago which could not be lowered without prac- 
tically rebuilding the whole truck, and the only way they could 
get rid of it was to send it back to Milwaukee and load it 
to get it down to proper height ; consequently he thinks the var- 
iation between the minimum and maximum height of M. C. B. 
couplers, of 3 inches, is insufficient. No doubt, when this car 
was built, it was intended to have it a maximum of 34^ inches 
for couplers, and, if it had been built as suggested by Mr. Hen- 
nessey (35 inches) would it not be just as fair to suppose that 
they would have got it 35^2 inches, above the standard limit, 
if the limit was 35 inches, as they would be to get it above the 
standard limit, if it was but 34^ inches? 

"If there is any change to be made, I would be in favor of 
changing the limit the other way ; in other words, give it a 
minimum height of 30 inches and a maximum height of 34^2 

"Many of the cars built today are built with a clearance 
to the maximum, and, if you raise the height of the coupler, 
you are necessarily going to raise the balance of the car body, 
which, in my judgment, would be an unwise thing to do. 

"If cars which are intended to be 34^ inches are 35 inches, 
and it is not possible to lower them without rebuilding the 
trucks, as stated by Mr. Hennessey, then .there is something rad- 
ically wrong -with the inspection of the cars at the time they 
were built, and the matter should be looked after. If a car 
with steel underframe is properly constructed, there is no dan- 
ger of it getting any higher, after it is put in service ; unless 
it is by unfair usage, which would spring the car body, and then 
it should be remedied without changing the height of the truck 
center plate, or any of the truck belongings. However, I agree 
with you in the main, that the limit of 3 inches is not suf- 
ficient with the vertical plane coupler which has a knuckle face 
of 9 inches, and would recommend the minimum height as 30 
inches and maximum. 34^2 inches." 

Mr. G. M. Ferguson, Supt. L. T. R. R. Co. 

"Would state that we heartily agree with Mr. Hennessey on 
all of the points he makes, the only objection to increasing this 
variation would be the increasing of liability of breaking the 
shanks of couplers in switching service when the high and low 
couplers came together with knuckles closed." 

Mr. Ed. A. Nix, Manager Lenoir Car Works. 

"Will say I am thoroughly in accord with the move- 
ment and believe it would prove of much benefit 
to the different Railway Companies, as well as to the different 
car manufacturing industries. I believe the maximum height of 
car couplers can be increased to 35 inches with perfect safety 
and hope to see the suggestion adopted by the M. C. B. Asso- 
ciation at their next convention in June." 

Mr. H. L. Lewis, F. C. D., D. & H. Co. 

"In view of the facts he has brought out in this matter 
I heartily agree with him in his suggestion. This will also be a 
step in the right direction for forming a common standard for 
both passenger and freight equipment cars, which will evident- 
ly be discussed at the next regular meeting of the Master Car 
Builders' Association." 

Mr. W. J. Schlacks, Supt. Mach., C. M. Ry. 

"Will say I am glad indeed that Mr. J. J. Hennessey of the 
C. M. & St. P. Ry. Co., has brought up this subject for I feel 
there is absolutely no risk to run by figuring the variation in 
allowable heights of the center of draw bars from the rule, in 
fact, feel there would be a considerable reduction in our ex- 
pense of maintenance and should be passed upon as early as 

Mr. E. Fisher, Gen. Supt. and C. E., T. H. & B. 

"I fully agree with Mr. Hennessey that the variation in 
height of freight car couplers should be increased to at least 
four inches, two inches each way from the average height of 
2,2, inches." 


Locomotives for 


February, 1 906 

Experiment, Pennsylvania 

HE Pennylvania Railroad, in conformity 

Twith its record of being at the front in 
motive power practice, has purchased sev- 
eral locomotives built from the builders' de- 
signs, for experimental purposes, in types 
already well known and in use on several 
railways. Among these are the Atlantic 
type, Prairie type and Consolidation en- 
gines, all of which we illustrate in half-tone 
by courtesy of Mr. Theo. N. Ely, chief of motive power 
of the Pennsylvania lines. 

After the work carried out so successfully on the 
testing plant at the St. Louis World's Fair, a work en- 
gineered by the Pennsylvania road, and one that will be 
of the most far-reaching results in future locomotive prac- 
tice, the road decided to order two each of the four Ameri- 
can built engines shown, for the purpose of noting their 
performance while in interchangeable service with en- 
gines of similar classes of the road's design. 

In this exhibit is the DeGlehn four cylinder balanced 
compound of the Atlantic type built at the works of 
the Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Mechaniques, 
Belfont, France, at the order of the Pennsylvania road for 
test purposes at St. Louis ; also the American-Atlantic 
type engines which comprise one four cylinder 
balanced compound built by the American Locomotive 
Company on the Cole design, one of which was on the 
testing plant at St. Louis, and gave a fine speed perform- 
ance. The other two engines of the five in the lot, the 
Prairie type and the Consolidation, were also built by 
the American Locomotive Company. 

The DeGlehn engine is distinctly a foreign production, 
although there are Pennsylvania ideas interwoven in its 
design. It is a lighter machine than its American proto- 
types, and exemplifies the refinements worked out by M. 
Alfred DeGlehn in producing a locomotive with a mini- 
mum weight of driving gear by dividing the working 
stresses between the driving axles. This engine has the 
two high pressure cylinders outside of the frames and 

set back of the rear engine truck wheel, connecting to the 
rear driving axle, while the low pressure cylinders are 
between the frames and under the smoke box, connecting 
to the forward cranked axle. The cranks are at 180 de- 
grees. This engine has a separate valve motion for each 
system of cylinders and operated by the Walschaert 
valve gear. 

Number of pairs of driving wheels 2 

Diameter of driving wheels 80 3-16 in. 

Size of driving axle journals „ 8%. in. x 9 1-16 in. 

Length of driving wheel base 7 it.o}/ 2 in. 

Total wheel base of engine 28 ft. 6% in. 

Total wheel base of engine and tender 59 ft. 5 in. 

Number of wheels in engine truck 4 

Diameter of wheels in engine truck 37 13-16 in. 

Size of engine truck axle journals 5 15-16 in. x g% in. 

Spread of cylinders 84^ in. 

Size of cylinders h. p. 14 3-16 in. x 25 3-16 in. 

l. p. 23^ in. x 25 3-16 in. 

Steam ports h. p. i^ in. x 143-16 in. 

l. p. 1 11-16 in. x20^ in. 

Exhaust ports h. p. z l A in. x 14 3-16 in. 

L. p. 3^ in. x 20^ in. 

Travel of valve $ l / 2 in. 

Type of boiler Belpaire narrow firebox 

Minimum internal diameter of boiler $8 l A in. 

Number of tubes 139 

Outside diameter of tubes 2^4 in. 

Length of tubes between tube sheets .173% in. 

Fire area through tubes, square feet 4.73 

Size of firebox inside 39^ in. x 1 19^ in. 

Fire grate area, square feet 33.9 

External heating surface of tubes, square feet 2435.70 

Heating surface of firebox, square feet 181. 1 

Total heating surface of boiler, square feet . 2616.80 

Steam pressure per square inch, pounds 227^ 

Number of wheels under tender ' 8 

Diameter of wheels under tender 36 in. 

Size of tender truck axle journals 5^2 in. x 10 in. 

Weight of engine empty 147400 lbs. 

Weight on truck in working order 41250 lbs. 

Weight on first pair of drivers 44550 lbs. 

Weight on second pair of drivers 43300 lbs. 

Weight on trailing wheels 3490O lbs. 

Weight of engine in working order 164000 lbs. 

Weight of tender loaded 132500 lbs. 



•*? ^4 (*-V*. 


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February, 1906 





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February, j 906 

Ratio of heating surface to grate surface 77.1 

Ratio of external flue heating surface to firebox heating 


Tractive power with M. E. pressure equivalent to 4-5 

boiler pressure 19555 

Diameter of trailing wheels 60 11-16 in. 

Size of trailing wheel' axle journals 7% in. x 9% in. 

Walschaert valve motion. 

The Baldwin compound has all four cylinders in the 
same plane horizontally and vertically with the high 
pressure cylinders between the frames, coupled to the 
forward cranked axles which are set at 180 degrees with 
the low pressure cranks. The low pressure cylinders are 
on the outside of the frames and couple to the rear 
wheels. This engine has a valve motion operated by 
links, giving a direct motion. 

Cylinders, diameter, H. P 16 m . 

Cylinders, diameter, L. P 27 in. 

Piston stroke 26 in. 

Wheel base, driving 7 ft. 5 in. 

Wheel base, total ■ • 33 ft. 8 in. 

Wheel base, engine and tender 63 ft. 11 in. 

Weight in working order 195000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers . 120500 lbs. 

Weight on front truck 42400 lbs. 

Weight on trailing truck 33000 lbs. 

Weight of engine and tender 328000 lbs. 

Heating- surface of tubes 2698 sq. ft. 

Heating surface of firebox 166 sq. ft. 

Heating surface,' total 2864 sq. ft. 

Grate area 55.5 sq. ft. 

Axles, diameter, driving journal, front 10 in. 

Axles, length, driving journals, front 11 in. 

Axles, diameter, -driving journals, back g]/ 2 in. 

Axles, length, driving journals, back 13 in. 

Axles, diameter, truck journals 5^ in. 

Axles, length, truck journals 10 in. 

Axles, diameter, trailing 7 in. 

Axles, length, trailing n^4 in. 

Axles, diameter, tender journals 5^ in. 

Axles, length, tender journals 10 in. 

Boiler, outside diameter, first ring 67 in. 

Boiler, working pressure • 205 lbs. 

Fuel Bituminous Coal 

Boiler, thickness of sheets 11-16 in. 

Firebox, type Belpaire 

Firebox, length 1 1 1 in. 

Firebox, width 72 in. 

Firebox, depth, front 67 1-16 in. 

Firebox, back 64 1-16 in. 

Thickness of crown sheet y% in. 

Thickness of tube sheet y 2 in. 

Thickness, side and back sheets •• 5-16 in. 

Width of water space, front and sides 4 in. 

Width of water space, back 3^ in. 

Crown Staging 

Tubes, number • ■ . . . .261 

Tubes, diameter 2*4 in. 

Tubes, length 17 ft. 8 in. 

Exhaust nozzles 

Piston rods, diameter 

Tank, type Water bottom 

Tank, capacity, water 550O gals. 

Tank capacity, coal 25000 lbs. 

Valves, type Piston 

Wheels, driving, diameter 80 in. 

Wheels, truck, diameter 36 in. 

Wheels, trailing, diameter 50 ; n 

Wheels, tender, diameter .' 36 in. 

Tractive power 23300 lbs. 

The American Locomotive Company four cylinder 
compound of the Cole design has its high pressure cylin- 
der between the frames and forward of the smoke box, 
which location gives a main rod of a length to couple 
with the forward cranked axle. The low pressure cylin- 
ders are on the outside of the frames on the center line 
of the stack, and couple with the rear axles, the cranks 
of the two systems being set at 180 degrees. The valve 
motion is actuated by links. The first engine of this de- 
sign gave a fine speed and power performance on the 
St. Louis testing plant at the World's Fair. On com- 
paring the descriptive specifications of the Vanclain and 
Cole designs it will be noted that the engines are very 
similar in weight, heating surface and tractive power. It 
will also be observed that the Vauclain design has a 
higher percentage of adhesive weight to total weight 
than the Cole engine. 

Cylinder type Comp. Piston Valve, diam. 16 and 27, stroke 26. 
Track gauge, 4 feet, 9 inches, tractive power 23300. 
Wheel base, driving 7 feet, 5 inches, rigid 7 feet, 5 inches, 
total 31 feet, 11 inches. 

Wheel base total, engine and tender 61 feet, 4 inches. 
Weight in working order 200500 lbs., on drivers 1 17200 lbs. 
Weight in working order, engine and tender 325800 lbs. 
Heating surface, tubes, 2680.17 square feet. 
Heating surface, firebox, 181.4 square feet. 

Heating surface, arch tubes square feet. 

Heating surface, total, 2861.57 square feet. 
Grale area, 55.0 square feet. 

Axles, driving journals, main io l / 2 x 12, others 10^2 x 12. 
Axles, engine truck journals, diameter 6y 2 , length 12. 
Axles, trailing truck journals, diameter 7 inches, length 
1 1 y 2 inches. 

Axles, tender truck journals, diameter sA inches, length 
10 inches. 

Boiler, type Ex. W. T. O. D. first ring 67 inches. 
Boiler, working pressure 205 lbs., fuel Bituminous coal. 
Firebox, type Belpaire Wide Box, length 111 inches, width 
72 inches. 

Firebox, thickness of crown Y% inch, tube y 2 inch, sides 5-16 
inch, back 5-16 inch. 

Firebox, water space, front 4 inches, sides 4 inches, back 3^2 

Crown staying, Radial. 
Tubes, material Char, iron, No. 315, diam. 2 inches. 
Tubes, length 16 feet, 4 inches guage, pounds, 11 B. W. G. 
Boxes, driving, main C. S., others C. S. 

Brake, driver West. Amer. high ; truck West. Amer. speed 
reducing valve. 

Brake, trails, West. Amer. high speed Red. valve. 
Brake, tender, West, high speed ; air signal West. J. Red. 

Brake, pump, 9 1-3 inches L. P.; 2-reservoir 15 inches x 88 

Engine truck, 4 wheel, wrgt iron frame, swing center bearing. 
Trailing truck, Red, with inside journals. 
Exhaust pipe, single. Nozzles s 3 A, 5 5 A, 5 7 A- 
Grate style, Rocking. 

Piston, rod diam. 3 inches ; piston packing C. I. rings. 
Smoke stack, diam. 16 and 18% ; top above rail 14 feet, 11^2 

Tender frame, 8 inches and 10 inches steel channels and plate. 

February, 1906 



Tank, style, Water bottom. 

Tank, capacity, 5500 gallons. 

Tank, capacity, fuel, 10 tons. 

Valves, type, Piston; travel 6; steam lap 1 inch. 

Valves, ex. H. P. 5-16 inch, L. P. Y% inch. 

Setting y$ inch lead forward motion when cutting off at n 
inches of the stroke. R. H. crank pin to lead. 

Wheels, driv. diam. outside tire 90 inches ; centers diam. 72 

Wheels, driv. material, main C. S., others C. S. 

Wheels, engine truck, diam. 36 inches ; kind Std. St. Wks. 

Wheels, trailing truck, diam. 50 inches ; kind Spoke Center. 

Wheels, tender truck, diam. 36 inches; kind Std. St. Wks., C. 
I. spoke. 

The Prairie type engine has long been one of most 
satisfactory high powered and high speed machines used 
in passenger service. This one embodies all of the best 
points that have demonstrated their efficiency in actual 
work. It is a simple engine with the Walschaert valve 
gear, and has a maximum drawbar pull of 27500 pounds. 

Cylinder, type, simple piston valve; diam. 21^2, stroke 28. 

Track gauge, 4 feet, 9 inches ; tractive power 27520 pounds. 

Wheel base, driving 14 feet, rigid 14 feet ; total 34 feet, 
3 inches. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 64 feet, 6|4 inches. 

Weight, in working order 234500 pounds ; on drivers 166880 

Weight, in working order, engine and tender, 373800 pounds. 

Heating surface, tubes, 3678.9 square feet. 

Heating surface firebox, 202.7 square feet. 

Heating surface, total, 3881.6 square feet. 

Grate area, 55.0 square feet. 

Axles, driving journals, main, 10 inches x 12 inches; others, 
10 inches x 12 inches. 

Axles, engine truck journals, diameter, 6^ inches; length 
12 inches. 

Axles, trailing truck journals, diameter, 8 inches; length, 14 

Axles, tender truck journals, diameter S T A inches; length 10 

Boiler type, straight top. O. D. first ring 74^2 inches. 

Boiler, working pressure, 20O~pounds ; fuel, Bit. coal. 

Firebox, type, wide ; length, 108^ inches ; width, 72>Va inches. 

Firebox, thickness of crown, V% inch ; tube y 2 inch ; sides, 
?4 inch ; back, Y% inch. 

Firebox, water space, front, 4^/2 inches ; sides 4% inches ; 
back, 4 inches. 

Crown staying, Radial. 

Tubes, material, Char. Iron ; No. 322 ; diam. 2^4 inches. 

Tubes, length, 19 feet, 6 inches; gauge, pounds, 11 B. W. G. 

Boxes, driving main C. S. ; others C. S. 

Brake, driver, West. American truck with H. S. Re- 
ducing Valve. 

Brake, tender, Westinghouse; air signal, West. J. with H. 
S. Reducing Valve. 

Brake, pump, 9^2 inches L. H. ; 2-reservoir, 16 inches x 126 

Engine truck, two wheel swing, center bearing. 

Trailing, Radial with outside journals. 

Exhaust pipe, single. Nozzles 5% inches and sVa inches. 

Grate, style, rocking Lake Shore Standard. 

Piston, rod diam., 4 inches ; piston packing, C. I. rings, Dun- 
bar type. 

Smoke stack, diam., 18 and 2i?4; top above rail, 14 feet, iojHs 

Tender frame, 8 inches and 10 inches steel channels and 

Tank, style, water bottom. 

Tank, capacity, 7000 gallons. 
Tank, capacity, fuel, 10 tons. 

Valve, type, piston, 12 inches; diam., travel SV2 ; steam lap 1%. 
Valves, ex. C. I. % inch. 

Setting, 7-32 inch lead in full gear F. & B. R. H. crank pin 
to lead. 

Wheels, driv. diam. outside tire, 80 inches; centers diam., 72 

Wheels, driv. material, main C. S. ; others C. S. 

Wheels, engine truck, diam., 42y 2 inches; kind AL Co. C. S. 

Wheels, trailing truck, diam., 50 inches; kind, C. S. Spoke. 

Wheels, tender truck, diam., 36 inches; kind, Std. Steel 
Works C. I. Spoke. 

The Consolidation engine is one of the heavy freight 
engines which has been exceeded in hauling power by 
but few engines yet built, and they only by reason of 
being individual examples of monster machines. This 
engine is of the simple type and purely American in 
design. The description data with each engine will make 
plain the essentials of construction in a more clear and 
concise way than folios of written matter, and taken in 
connection with the half-tones will furnish all necessary 
particulars. These machines being representative of 
their classes will when placed on the Pennsylvania test- 
ing plant at Altoona, throw a strong sidelight on general 
efficiency, as well as some interesting specific informa- 
tion on heating surfaces. 

Cylinder, type, simple piston valve; diam. 23; stroke, 32. 

Track gauge, 4 feet, 9 inches; tractive power, 45700. 

Wheel base, driving, 17 feet, 6 inches; rigid, 17 feet, 6 inches; 
total, 26 feet, 5 inches. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender, 60 feet, l / 2 inch. 

Weight, in working order, 220000; on drivers, 198000. 

Weight, in working order, engine and tender, 360500. 

Heating surface, tubes, 3596.5 square feet. 

Heating surface, firebox, 177. 1 square feet. 

Heating surface, total, 3773.6 square feet. 

Grate area, 55.4 square feet. 

Axles, driving journals, main, 10 inches x 12 inches; others, 
9% x 12 inches. 

Axles, engine truck journals, diameter, 6 inches; length, 10 

Axles, tender truck journals, diameter, z J A inches; length, 
10 inches. 

Boiler, type, Str. top. O. D. first ring, 81^ inches. 

Boiler, working pressure, 200 pounds; fuel, Bit. coal. 

Firebox, type, wide; length, 106 1-16 inches; width, 7514 

Firebox, thickness of crown, Y % inch; tube, 9-16 inch; sides 
H inch; back, }i inch. 

Firebox, water space, front, 4^ inches; sides, 4% inches; 
back, 4% inches. 

Crown staying, Radial. 

Tubes, material, Char. Iron, No. 446; diam. 2 inches. 

Tubes, length, 15 feet, 6 inches; gauge, pounds, 11 B. W. C. 

Boxes, driving, main C. S. ; others, C. S. 

Brake, driver, West. Amer. 

Brake, tender, Westinghouse. 

Brake, pump, g J / 2 inches L. H. i-reservoir 18^x165. 1- 
reservoir 18^ x 147. 

Engine truck, two wheel swing cen. bearing. 

Exhaust pipe, single. Nozzles, 514, S 3 A, 6 inches. 

Grate, style, rocking, to shake in four sections. 

Piston, rod diam., 4 inches; piston packing, C. I. rings. 

4 6 


February, 1 906 

Smoke stack, diam., 20 inches ; top above rail, 14 feet, 9% 

Tender frame, 8 inches and 10 inches, steel channels and 

Tank, style, Water bottom. 

Tank, capacity, 7000 gallons. 

Tank, capacity, fuel, 13 tons. 

Valves, type, Piston, 14 inches dia. ; travel, 6 inches ; steam 
lap y% inch. 

Setting, line and line full stroke, front and back, R. H. crank 
pin to lead. 

Wheels, driv. diam., outside tire, 63 inches ; centers diam. 56 

Wheels, driv. material, main, C. S. ; others, C. S. 

Wheels, engine truck, diam., 33 inches ; kind, Std. St. Wks., 
C. I. Spokes. 

Wheels, tender truck, diam., 33 inches; kind, Std. St. Wks., 
C. I. Spoke. 

« «► » 

The Application of Card Index Systems to a 
Motive Power Office 

J. H. Wynne. 
Mechanical Engineer I. C. R. R. Co. 

WITH the rapid growth of modern railroads, the 
attention of their officers is being turned to 
simplifying methods of performing work as well as 
simplifying records, and thereby reducing the amount of 
clerical work to a minimum. Industrial corporations and 
manufacturers have long since recognized the usefulness, 
simplicity and practicability of the index system and card 
indices are rapidly becoming more popular in railroad 
offices. It could hardly be otherwise, and the reasons 
are obvious. 

In most railway offices, space is scarce and at a pre- 
mium, but the most serious objections to general office 
book records are that they are unwieldy, cumbersome, 
and they lack the possibilities for alterations and ex- 
pansion which card systems offer. Particularly in the 
cases of locomotive, car, machine tool, and pattern 
records, we find book records inconvenient for com- 
parisons over any period of time. 

Instead of cards, loose leaf systems of filing are fre- 
quently preferred, but personally the writer is partial to 
cards because they are more substantial, less liable to be- 
come lost or torn and may be more easily corrected with- 
out marring the paper. 

Our draftsmen and clerks have evinced great interest 
in changing from the book records to the card forms 
and have in several cases devised card forms which have 
been adopted. In this connection I would call your at- 
tention to a card which obviated the use of three 
book records, and which was devised by our account 
clerk. I refer to card No. 1. 

They are 2%xii^ inches and are what is known as 
"tenth cut" — that is, on ten consecutive cards the num- 
ber tabs have traversed the width of the drawer. The 
cards just fit the desk drawer, making it handy for entry 

*Paper presented before the Western Railway Club January 

or reference without necessitating the accountant leaving 
his seat. You will note three general heads, viz : "Trans- 
fers," "Repairs" and "Mileage." Under "Transfers" we 
find the date on and division (or shop) to which the 
engine was transferred; under "Repairs" the shop at 
which the repairs were made, class of repairs, dates in and 
out of shop, together with aggregate cost. Under "Mile- 
age" we find the mileage made each month together 
with the jurisdiction shop which reported it. 

Card No. 2 is a historical and current record of loco- 
motives. On the face we find the historical record and 
description and on the reverse side the current record. 
You will note that provision is made for eight (8) 
changes in number if necessary and that in the current 
record space is provided for twenty (20) shoppings for 
classified repairs. In the lower left hand corner of the 
historical record a space 2^x4^ inches is left for a 
diagram for the wheel base. Where there are enough 
engines in a class to warrant it, this diagram is stamped 
on the card ; otherwise there is a blue print pasted upon 
it, the blue print paper being of as light a weight as 

Your attention is called to the flexibility of this par- 
ticular record, especially in cases where numbers are 
changed. The old number is erased at the upper right 
hand corner, entered in the place provided under "gen- 
eral description" and the new number applied. You 
all know how changing engine numbers affects your 
book records. This is especially expensive to large rail- 
roads, particularly where the old numbers are wanted for 
reasons of classifications or re-grouping. 

This record will save us about $30 per annum for 
books and more than twice that sum in labor. In addi- 
tion to this, the changes in book records would probably 



Length Over 8111: 

Air Brakes 

Beating Oapaclty 

Toilet Booms 

Weight. Body 

Card No. 6. 















Reverse of Card No. 5. 

February, 1906 












TO . 







Central la 

'.. si Leula 





Wat Valley 






1 ' l^~~J 















8 -Jo 














J A-? 




4- IS 
























VI ay 










| U |y 
















- _ 








Card No. 1. 
















Worhlne pressure lbs material 


Oi«m. of 1st course 0- B. dome 1.6 

rod diam. 


Thickness of sheets barrel throat 

*' ■' roof" aides back 

Valve style 



Firebox length width 


stem packine 

" depth front back 


Eccentric throw 

sheets sides back crown tube 

/ IK TONS ON "\ 


DrMns wheel tire thickness material 

Crown stays crown bars . 

■* center diam. 

Stavbolts material Tio. flexible 

boa material 

stie journals 

•■ No. Diam, Gauge 



Engine truck style 


'" wheels 


Grate stvle area 

-• journals 


leneth width 

Tralline truck style 

wheel tire th 

Ick material 

Smoke stack diam. 1. B style 

" center 


helsht above rail 

" " axle journal 

Air signal Sander 

Tender frame material 

Dump Safety «alve 

Di A <SRArA oFWneeLB^c 

draft gear 

" brake en el no Smoke consumer 

Tank style 

tender Steam heat 

■* capacity coal 

Ions »ivlr»r gals. 

Bell 'inocr 

Tender truck style 

I Bio w-off cock Whistle 

' '• wheel 


Brick arch Pilot coupler 



Con\bustlon tubes Tender ■■ 

-turnal box 


Bke beam 



Additional special appliances 

Card No. 2. 











Brand ol 









Brand ol . 


Position 1 

Brand of 

Number & 




Class ot 


Mileage k 






Reverse of Card No. 2. 

























Card No. 3. 

involve tenfold more time on the part of the clerks than Again referring to the "current record" on the reverse 

this form. These cards are 6x10^ inches and are filed of the card we find not only the leading details of repairs 

consecutively "by engine numbers, suitable guide cards for a long time past, but also the dates, places at which 

being provided. repairs were made, costs, etc. We can see at a glance 

4 8 


February, 1906 

Illinois Central R. R. Co. 

Historical and Current Record D ~ „ ~ —J „ £ i~* ~ — X.T ~ 

of Freight cars Record or Car JNo. 



Date Bum. 

How Destroyed 

Date " _ 

Drawing No. 

Clearance Height. 

Material, Under Frame 




.Clearance Width. 



Length Over End Sills. 
Width Over Side Sills. 

Length Inside 

Width " 

Height " Cehter_ 
Air Brake 

Light Welght_ 



. Schedule- 

Brake Beams. No. and Kind. 

Outside or Inside. 

Oratt, Rigging 


Side Door, Style. 

End Doors, Number. 
6r »ln Ooore 

Body Transom 
Truck Bolster. 



Arch Bare, Size- 
Springs, Style 

Journal Box 

Sills, No. & Sizt 

Card No. 4. 




Body Side Bearings. 

Truck " 



- Maturia l 


.Dust Guard. 





(N AMEl,. 

Builder's No. . 


Scrapped at _ 
8otd to. 

Ratine 8ize of Machine. 

R. p M. of Counterahaft, — 

Dia of Briv. Pullv on Countenhaft,- 
Wldthof Faeeof Pullev on " 

H. P. Required to Drive Tool. 

Builder's Drawing No. , 

Rate of Depreciation, 

Card No. 6. 

1. c. 




Builder'* No.. 

Transferred to,- 

8cr«pped at_ 

Sold to 

Dia. of Cvi - 


Hone Power, . 

Rev. per Mtn 

Dia. and Width of Driver,. 

8'ze of Steam »ipo. 

" " Exhaust " , 

Builder'* Onw'nc No 

Rate of Depreciation, 

Card No. 7. 

I. C. R- F?. CO. 



Butlder. . — 

Builder's No 

Builder's Orawine No.. 

Transferred to.- 

ScraoDcd a.t_ 
Sold to 

_Working Pressure.. 


H, P 

Heating Surface, 

Grate Area, 

Style Grate, — 

Oiam. and Length o' Tube!.. 

Smoke Consumer, 1 — 

Dust Burner. 


Safetv va ve 

Card No. 8. 

these details for an extended period without going to 
the garret and searching through a pile of books, per- 
chance following through a series of changes in num- 
bers, thus risking errors or incorrect information. 

Card No. 3 is self explanatory as a pattern record. 
This same form is available both as a numerically or al- 
phabetically arranged file. There is a no more import- 
ant record in a Railroad Mechanical Engineer's office 
than a complete, simple and convenient pattern file. This 
is the same size as card No. 2, and as before stated, 
filed in duplicate; that is, one set is filed numerically by 
pattern numbers and the other alphabetically according 
to the name of the part. 

In card No. 4 we find a historical and current record 
for freight cars composed upon the same general lines 
as card No. 2. We have in preparation a similar record 
for passenger car equipment. Card No. 4 is 5x8 inches 
and is filed by consecutive numbers, the cards being sep- 
arated by guides placed at suitable intervals. 

As a convenient desk record for the Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Machinery in charge of the car department, 
card No. 5 has been devised. These give the general de- 
scriptions of the passenger car equipment and they are 
filed in numerical order. They are 3x5 inches. On the 
reverse side we find a current record for repairs, paint- 
ing and varnishing. 

Cards Nos. 6, 7 and 8 are self explanatory. It is abso- 
lutely necessary to have a complete record of shop ma- 
chinery equipment on a railroad system of any size. 
General descriptions such as would be provided on these 
three forms for machine tools, stationary engines, pumps, 
air-compressors, stationary boilers, etc., assist in obviat- 
ing unnecessary correspondence, provide data for arrang- 
ing for transfers of such apparatus from one shop to 

February, 1906 







Card No. 10. 





ENG. Nos. 




DnviNcj Box 

85- ?1 

Card No. 11. 









Boi_ster,TrucK-30TonComi<ion5ens . 

Card No. 12. 







ENG. Nos. 






.. ■. 




30/-304. ' 

N »■ 



Card No. 13. 

F 3.-205 



Two Ribs Lcn^tm w/5£ Zz De.ep/Vt Center In 
Place. Of One. I|"0e:e:p.To Preivelnt Breakage. 
Of Qrate 

Card No. 13. 



3/y&S BL»RN5iDE. MM 



Card No. 16. 







Excursion Car Plan s 



Card No. 14. 

another, as well as necessary information for ordering 
duplicate parts in emergencies and together form a de- 
tailed inventory. 

These cards are 3x5 inches and are filed by location 
and, where necessary, are arranged by departments or 
shops, the groups being separated by guide cards. 

Card No. 9 is a form used for recording water 
analyses. These are filed by operating divisions and are 
arranged alphabetically by names of water stations under 
each division. They are 3x5 inches. 

The trades and supplies catalogues are indexed on 
card No. 10, which is a common form. It also is 3x5 

We file our drawings by drawer and drawing number, 
the letter prefix denoting the size of the sheet. Cards 
Nos. 11 and 12 serve as indices for locomotive and car 
drawings respectively. The locomotive index is kept 
separate from that for cars, and either set is arranged 
alphabetically according to subject. To further avoid 
any confusion which might arise from the similarity of 
the two forms, card No. 11 is printed on salmon paper, 
while card No. 12 is white. As a check and a cross in- 
dex, card No. 13 is used for both locomotive and car 
drawings, same being filed in numerical order. 

Where foreign prints are preserved for reference, they 
are indexed by cards of the form shown on No. 14, al- 
phabetically arranged according to the subjects. Class 
JST6. 11 to No. 14 inclusive are 3x5 inches. 

Occasionally it is desired to know upon whose 
authority or for what reason changes in drawings (or 
patterns) are made. Accordingly when such changes 
are made, a brief description of the alteration, the draw- 
ing number, date and the name of the officer authorizing 



February, 1906 

same are entered on a card like that shown on sample 
No. 15, bearing a serial number. This serial number 
is placed within a little circle drawn in the lower right 
hand corner of the tracing. Should a discussion arise 
as to this particular feature on a drawing, by referring 
to a card index, we find the necessary information. 

Card No. 16 serves as a "follow up" system in con- 
nection with drawings issued with circular instructions. 
Cards of this form are filed in numerical order. They 
show the date issued, to whom sent and the number. 
They also serve the Mechanical Engineer or the Chief 
Draftsman as a check upon the person having the dis- 
position of blue prints directly in charge. They are 3x5 

in conclusion careful investigation of each case and 
good judgment will always determine whether it is best 
to maintain a book record or adopt a card system. 

40*Foot Furniture Car, Chicago, Milwaukee 
Sr St. Paul Railway 

IN THE February, 1904, issue of the Railway Master 
Mechanic we published a description of a 100,000 
pound capacity coal car built by the C, M. & St. P. Ry. 
at their West Milwaukee shops. This company has been 
building their own freight cars for some time and it is 
with pleasure that we illustrate herewith a 40-foot furni- 
ture car with increased side and end posts which they 
are now building. 

The inside dimensions of the car are 40 feet 1 inch 
long, 9 feet wide and 10 feet clear height. The door 
opening is 7 feet wide by 9 feet 3 inches high, making 
a car large enough for all ordinary purposes. The 
framing is of interest in that the end and side posts are 
especially strong. The two middle end posts, which are 
the usual weak point in car construction, are made of 
I beams with wooden fillers on the sides for nailing, etc. 
The corner posts are of 5x5 inch white oak and the side 
posts 4x4 inch oak. The diagonal braces are 6x2^ inch 
oak and %i inch iron rods. Two 3x3^ inch oak belt 
rails are used in the construction. The side plates are 
8 inches deep and have pieces 3x2^2 inches lag screwed 
on the bottom between braces and at the door opening. 

The sills are made up of 45-4x9 inch outside with four 
4^x8 inch intermediate and two 10 inch channels for the 
center. The latter are of the Hennessey patent design, 
and are shown in detail in one of the illustrations. 

The car is very low being only 2 feet 9^ inches from 
the rail to the bottom of sills. This necessitated a special 
bolster which in this case passes through the center 

The draft gear used is the Hennessey double friction, 
but on account of the lowness of the car it had to be in- 
verted, putting the friction springs downward. The 
details of the gear together with its application are clearly 
closely shown in the illustration. 

The special equipment of the car is Hennessey Friction 
Draw Gear, Chicago Improved Winslow Car Roof, Jones 
Side Door, New York Air Brake and Barber truck. 



February, 1906 
















February, 1906 











The Rich Jirch Bar Drill Press 

THE accompanying illustration is of an arch bar drill 
press in the shops of the C. B. & Q. railway at 
Aurora, 111. This machine is particularly interesting in 
that it drills the bars practically in as short a time as they 
can be handled. In the average arch bar drill press it is 
usually the case that the arch bars have to wait their 
turn on the press, but in this' case the machine has to 
wait for the material. In a recent test i 3-16 inch 
holes were drilled in 1 1-4 inch thick arch bars in 40 sec- 

As seen from the illustration, there are six spindles in 
the machine which can be adjusted in height and width. 
The greatest offset whicn can be obtained in height is 
21 inches, while the longest arch bar it will take is 7 feet 
5 inches. The greatest distance the center spindles can 
be spread apart is 24 inches. The greatest distance the 
end spindles can be apart is 18 inches. The feed is ob- 
tained by the table being raised upward by either power 
obtained through the vertical shaft at the right or by the 
hand wheel in front. There is a latch dog along side of 

the hand wheel which can be set to stop the feed at any 
point. The table is so thoroughly counterbalanced that 
it moves up or down very readily. Total vertical feed 
of the machine is 1 1 inches. 

The spindles are equipped with the regular Rich 
chucks, which are furnished to accommodate drills up to 
21-16 inches in diameter. They are made to accommodate 
the Rich high speed flat drill. For this purpose the 
chucks are hollow and all that is necessary to change 
from one sized drill to the other is to loosen the cap 
screw at the bottom and insert any other sized drill 
which is held firmly by screwing up the cap. These 
chucks are also adjustable so as to accommodate various 
lengths of drills. These drills are made of high speed 
tool steel and are found to be a benefit in work which does 
not require deep drilling, only that portion of the drill 
which the depth of hole requires being exposed to strain. 
The spindles are set in ball bearings with 9-16 inch steel 
balls. The feed screws in the table are also ball bearing 
besides being set in an oil socket. The greatest clearance 
from the top of the table at the lowest point to the spindle 
at the highest point is 24 inches. 

The machine is fitted with oil pump and pan around the 
base. It will drill from 7-8 inch to 2 1-16 inch holes. 
The gears are of steel cut from solid forgings. It has a 
three step cone pulley for 6-inch belt, but can readily be 
made for motor driving. The ratio of the shaft gear is 
4 to 1. 

This interesting machine is manufactured by the 
George R Rich Manufacturing Company of Buchanan, 
Michigan. , . . 


February, 1 906 



The American Palace Car "Columbia" 

THE car "Columbia," which is on a tour of exhibi- 
tion under the auspices of the American Palace 
Car Company, by whom it is owned, has excited the 
favorable comment of the traveling public at various 
cities where it has been seen. The novel points of the 
car — the wide difference between it and the cars now in 
service, consist of the fact that the car may be made 
a parlor car, a sleeping car, or a combination of either, 
at pleasure. The method by which this is accomplished, 
is in the disappearing berth system, in which the upper 
and lower berths are raised and lowered, and the storage 
of them beneath the floor of the car when arranging 
the latter as a parlor car, leaving the body of the car en- 
tirely free of berths for day service, since all accesso- 
ries used for berths and bedding are placed beneath the 
floor into a steel compartment provided for them, where 
they are ventilated by currents of clean fresh air during 
the day. 

In the facility with which the berths can be placed 
out of sight, or returned to their position for use, lies 
the principle which will make this type of car a necessity 
to the roads that care to make the strongest kind of a 
bid for patronage, as the car can be converted into a 
parlor or sleeper at will, and if the latter, it only requires 
three minutes to place the berths in position, while there 
is no "making up" of berths as it is understood in the 
old style car, they being all ready to receive the occupant, 
as they are spring beds, fresh and clean, of the kind that 
invite "nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep." If a par- 
lor car is required, it becomes that in every sense. The 
disappearing upper and lower berths being replaced by 
the most comfortable chairs, leaving the interior of the 
car shorn of all its functions for the night use — without a 
suggestion that it could even be made into a sleeper. 
Again the car . may be arranged with any number of 
berths on one side, and chairs on the other. 

This car is 64 feet 6 inches long, and 9 feet 9 inches 
wide, over sills. In one end is an observation room, 6 
feet 10 inches long with a berth lounge. Next comes the 
women's lavatory, saloon and lockers, occupying c) feet 
5 inches of space, being roomy and palatial in its appoint- 
ments. The parlor and sleeping space, which is also used 
as a dining-room when required, is 32 feet long, after 
which comes the men's lavatory, and at the extreme 
end is the kitchen, 7 feet long by 6 feet 9 inches wide, 
having a range and sink, also a pantry and refrigerator, 
the two latter adjuncts being outside of the space named. 
It is seen that this car has all the comforts of a hotel on 

The arrangement by which the berths are raised and 
lowered is a simple mechanical proposition, involving 
a large gear lying in a horizontal plane under the berth 
pocket and which also has the function of a winding 
drum for the cables to which the berths are attached; 
a pinion meshes into this large gear and is drawn by a 
sprocket chain from a driving pinion placed outside of 
the line of berths, the latter pinion being operated by 
a cranked wrench fitted to the vertical shaft of the driv- 
ing pinion. 

An important improvement in this car over the old 
style berths, is the abundance of room between the upper 
and lower berths, there being eight inches of additional 
space, so that the tallest person may comfortably sit on 
the bed and dress without fear of injury, and the same 






February, 1906 


liberal space is also found in the upper berths. The con- 
struction of the car permits the occupants of the uppers 
to regulate their own ventilation, as the windows ex- 
tend from ten to twelve inches above the berth, giving 
the same light, air, and opportunity to see outside, as 
that possessed by the party in the lower. By the location 
of the berths under the floor, and the system of trussing, 
the center of gravity is lowered, eliminating oscillations 
on curves at high speed. All these points, it is perhaps 
unnecessary to say, will be welcomed alike by the occa- 
sional traveler as well as the nomad who is obliged to 
be on the road a large part of his time. 

» ■» ■ 

Nashville, Chattanooga 8r St. Louis Ten* 


THE accompanying illustration of the N. C. & St. L. 
Railroad locomotive is the 27,000th locomotive 
turned out of the plant by the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works at Philadelphia. These works have just closed 
the most remarkable year in their history with an output 
of 2,250 engines and orders on their books to keep the 
works going day and night for several months to come. 
This record exceeds that of 1903 by thirty-eight locomo- 
tives and that of 1904 by 797. Of the 2,250 locomotives 
turned out, 140 were electric, and 150 compounds. Four 
hundred and eight of them were sent to Argentine, Ha- 
waii, Brazil, Porto Rico, Japan, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, 
Australia, San Domingo, Ecuador, Antiognia, Sweden, 
Africa and Nicaragua. 

The 27,000th locomotive is built for passenger service. 
It has 133,920 lbs. in drivers, with a total weight of 181,- 
380 lbs. This weight is about the same as some of the 
locomotives hauling the heaviest trains in the middle 


The general dimensions are as follows : 

Gauge, 4 feet, 8 l / 2 inches. 

Cylinder, 16 inches and 27 inches x 26 inches. 

Valve, Balanced piston. 

Boiler, type, Wagon top. 

Boiler, diameter, 64 inches. 

Boiler, thickness of sheets, 11-16 inch and ^4 inch. 

Boiler, working pressure, 210 pounds. 

Boiler, fuel, soft coal. 

Boiler, staying, Radial. 

Firebox, material, Steel. 

Firebox, length, 120 inches; width, 41% inches. 

Firebox, depth, front, 7$y 2 inches; back, 68J4 inches. 

Firebox, thickness of sheets, sides, Y% inch; back, 1/% inch; 
crown, 7-16 inch; tube, % inch. 

Firebox, water space, front, 4 inches; sides, 3 inches, back, 
3 inches. 

Tubes, material, iron; wire gauge, No. 11. 

Tubes, number, 256; diameter, 2J4 inches; length, 17 feet. 

Heating surface, firebox, 185 square feet. 

Heating surface, tubes, 2550 square feet. 

Heating surface, total, 2735 square feet. 

Heating surface, grate area, 34.8 square feet. 

Driving wheels, diameter outside, 66 inches. 

Driving wheels, diameter of center, 60 inches. 

Driving wheels, journals, front, 10 inches x ioj4 inches; 
others, 9 inches x 12 inches. 

Engine truck wheels, front, diameter, 30 inches; journals, 
5^2 inches x 12 inches. 

Wheel base, driving, 12 feet. Rigid, 12 feet. Total engine 
26 feet; total engine and tender, 55 feet, 9 inches. 

Weight, on driving wheels, 133920 pounds. 

Weight, on truck, front, 47460 pounds. 

Weight, total engine, 181380 pounds. 

Weight, total engine and tender, about, 280,000 pounds. 

Tank, capacity, 5000 gallons. 

Tender, wheels, No., 8; diameter, 33 inches. 

Tender, journals, 5 inches x 9 inches. 

Emptying Barrels with Compressed Jlir 

THE accompanying illustrations show a device used 
in the Rock Island shops in Chicago for transfer- 
ring oil or paints from the barrel to the tanks in the dis- 
tributing store-room. 

The device is very simple consisting of a casting cored 
out on the inside and a taper thread cut on the outside. 
Through the inside is screwed a pipe with very coarse 



7? w»j 




I [SpS 

jfl^kfri .,. Wj\^^1*BW-»-— ■■^WMI * ; f JL" " i^tff^^v 



^^V WHH 

■ : ': ^p^K,-^ 

jlBfejjSpi^^r^^Sj»^^H IC^^W^ - vHl *■ . ■ £&? RSktftov ^^^B ■ • - ^^b 


February, 1906 




further test of its stability on curve elevations, the load 
was dumped on the low side without disturbing its equili- 
brium in the least, with the outside rail 7 inches high, 
and freed itself of the load on the high side practically 


thread. A ^-inch pipe is screwed into the top. To this 
is attached a hose with regular freight car coupling. This 
is connected up with any air connection. There are 
some small holes drilled in the bottom of the casting to 
admit the air slowly on top of the contents of the barrels. 

This device is screwed in the bung hole as shown in 
the half tone and then air pressure applied. Care must 
be exercised so as not to apply too much pressure as it 
may result in bursting barrels. About five pounds is 
sufficient to do the work satisfactorily. 

The pipe going down into the barrel has a coarse 
thread through the casting as stated above. This is for 
raising and lowering in the barrel according to the 
size. The bottom has notches cut so that when it comes 
in contact with the bottom it will not stop the flow. 

We are indebted to Mr. Geo. Warlick for the privilege 
of describing this interesting device. 

■ ♦ » 

The First KjLng=Lawson Dump Car 

OUR half-tone shows the first King-Lawson dump 
car unloading 70,000 pounds of pig iron, while 
the car was only rated at, and built for a 50,000 pound 
load. The same car was afterward loaded with 60,000 
pounds of wet clay to test its stability, and also its ability 
to clear itself with a lading as sluggish as wet clay. In 




February, 1906 

I I" 



as quick as on the other. An order for ten cars, but of 
80,000 pounds capacity, resulted from these tests, for 
use on the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western. The 
lighter capacities have been abandoned in favor of the 
80,000 pound cars, since it has been found that they 
may be safely loaded with 100,000 pounds. One of these 
cars has just been sent to Panama for Government use 
on the canal, but not sold, as all cars of this build are 
leased only. 

The line drawings show the substantial character of 
the framing of this car as improved and now built. There 
are four sills only, the outer ones of which are 13-inch 
steel channels, while two center sills are of 13-inch 
steel channels, reinforced with two 13^-inch steel angles 
and plates, giving an extraordinary depth under the load, 
and in addition to this stiff construction there are 5- 
inch channels in the form of a transverse truss at points 
between the bolsters, which makes the car able to stand 
up under any amount of overload, and provides against 
undue torsion of the frame from inequalities of loading, 
as well as giving the necessary rigidity for the 18-inch 
lateral travel of the load when dumping. These cars 
are practically automatic in their action, since one man 
only is required to operate two cars. The provision for 
relief of abnormal bodies is well Worked out in the open- 
ing of the sides, which give instant relief to large boul- 
ders of too great a size to pass the normal opening at the 
sides. For rapid work in handling earth these cars have 
a record that has not yet been equaled, as a load is 
dumped and the cars are ready to move in less than 30 

These cars are built by the Middletown Car Works, 
Middletown, Pa., for the King-Lawson Car Co., „of 32 
Broadway, New York. 


February, 1906 



The Marsh Car Lighting System 

THE light in this system is produced by burning at 
the lamps a gas generated in a special carburettor 
which is placed beneath the car. The gas is simply air, 
carrying a certain amount of rhigolene. The air is taken 
from the air brake service. The rhigolene is contained 
in the oil tank underneath the car and the object of the 
details of this system is to bring the air and rhigolene 
vapor together in the carburettor so as to produce a gas 
suitable for illumination when burnt in a flat flame tip 
at the lamps. 

The supply of air is taken from the end of the 
auxiliary reservoir and enters the air tank after passing 
the governor valve. This governor valve serves the pur- 
pose of retaining the supply of air in the storage tank 
at such times when the pressure is withdrawn from the 
brake system. 

The air tank serves as a storage reservoir and its ca- 
pacity is such that when charged to the pressure ordin- 
arily carried in the air brake system the air contained 
therein will sustain the lights several hours after the car 
is detached from the train. 

After leaving the air storage tank it is conducted 
to the saloon where a valve is placed that controls the 
supply of air to the oil tank and carburettor and also the 
flow of gas from the carburettor to the lamps. Between 
this valve and the air storage tank is placed a gauge for 
indicating the amount of air in the storage tank in at- 
mospheres and also a pressure regulating apparatus for 
reducing the pressure of the air to about 1 pound, which 
pressure remains practically constant. 

When this valve is opened the air flows from the stor- 
age tank through the pressure regulator and before enter- 
ing the oil tank it branches — part of the air going by a 
small pipe to the carburettor. The main branch to the 
oil tank passes to the bottom of the oil and flows out into 
the oil through small perforations in the pipe and" rises 
to the surface, thus becoming impregnated with rhigo- 

It then leaves the oil tank and enters the carburettor 
where it is mixed with the air supplied by the small 
branch in correct proportions for rendering the gas suit- 
able for burning as a luminous flame. 

After leaving the carburettor the gas goes to the lamps 
through the valve before mentioned, which controls the 
supply of air to the oil tank and flow of gas to the 


■ i. Auxiliary Reservoir. (Part of Air Brake System) 

2. Governor Valve. 

3. Air Storage Tank. 

4. Gauge. 

5. Pressure Regulator. 

6. (a) Air Supply Valve. 6 (b) Valve controlling 
gas to the lamps. 

7. Branch connection to carburettor. 

8. Oil Tank. 

9. Carburettor. 

10. Lamps. 

11. Box underneath car holding oil tank, carburettor 
and extra oil tank. 

Details of apparatus, used as above listed. 

1. Auxiliary reservoir — A steel cylindrical tank used 
in connection with the air brake service and carrying 
a supply of air at between 75 and 90 pounds pressure to 
the square inch during the time train is in service. 

2. Governor Valve — A check valve made by the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company which allows the air 
to flow from the Auxiliary Reservoir into the Air Stor- 
age Tank until the latter contains air at same pressure 
as that in the Auxiliary tank. It then closes automatical- 
ly and prevents air from going back into Auxiliary tank 
when the pressure is diminished by application of air 
brakes or otherwise cutting off of air supply as when car 
is detached from train. 

3. Air Storage Tank — A cylindrical steel tank capable 
of holding about 200 cubic feet of air when charged at 
ordinary train pressure. 

4. Gauge— An ordinary gauge of dial form, showing 
the amount of air in the air reservoir in atmospheres. 

5. Pressure Regulator — A device carrying a spring 
and diaphragm which operates in such a manner that the 
high pressure in the air storage tank is reduced to and 
maintained at about 1 pound before going to the oil tank. 

6 (a) Air Supply Valve— This is a double valve ar- 
ranged so that by turning with a key the air is supplied 
to the oil tank and carburettor and simultaneously the 
gas is supplied to the lamps. 

6 (b)— The part of supply valve allowing flow of gas 
to the lamps. 

7. Branch Connection to Carburettor— A small pipe 
carrying a cock for controlling amount of air which it 
admits to the carburettor from the main air pipe supply- 
ing oil tank. 

8. Oil Tank— A cylindrical metal tank holding about 
5 gallons and having two openings at its upper end, one 
being half inch pipe tap size, the other one inch pipe 
tap size. Extending from the half inch opening to the 
bottom of the interior of the oil tank is a half inch pipe 
which ends in a pipe running diametrically across the 
bottom of the oil tank, perforated so as to allow the air to 
flow out into oil in fine jets. The half inch opening con- 
nects by means of a union to the air supply pipe. The 
one inch opening connects by means of a union to the 

9. Carburettor — A cylindrical metal tank of about the 
cubical capacity of one gallon and having at its lower 
end a one inch opening and at its upper end a one-half 
inch opening, also a small opening on one side. It is 
partially filled with steel turnings which facilitate the 
mixing of the air and rhigolene vapor. The one inch 
opening connects by means of a union to the one inch 
opening of the oil tank. The one-half inch opening is 
fitted permanently with the air supply pipe leading to the 
oil tank and admits air to the carburettor. 



February, 1906 


Lamps are of the same general form as those 
used in the Pintch Gas Lighting system with the differ- 
ence that the piping to the lamps is placed inside of the 
car to protect them from the weather, and also with the 
difference that the ordinary flat flame tip is used in the 
burners instead of a special one. 

The oil used in this system is a mixture of kerosene, 
benzine and petroleum ether, which latter body is com- 
posed principally of Pentane and isopentane and is gen- 
erally known under the name of rhigolene. 

This mixture is -so adjusted that it contains about 
85 per cent of rhigolene. 

The gas is a mixture of rhigolene with air in the pro- 
portion of about 89 per cent, of air to about 11 per cent, 
of rhigolene. 

the cast steel frames of I-section in one piece, which is 
the design of Mr. Flory, and evidences the closest at- 
tention to the weak points in the ordinary bar frame, 
by providing for stresses set up through the cylinders and 
those necessary to be absorbed laterally. The whole en- 
semble is one that shows a marked improvement over 
the wrought iron frame with a splice, notwithstanding it 
was redesigned and modified to suit the Walschaert valve 
gear, which is another of the specialties referred to 
above. The application of this gear to an eight-wheel 
engine is the first to that type in this country. 

The engines, of which there are three, are also re- 
markable as being the heaviest eight wheelers ever built, 
having a total weight of 158,000 pounds, and a driving 
journal load of 27,000 pounds, which gives an adhesion 
Heavy Eight* Wheel Passenger Engine, Cen- coefficient of 4-6? to hold down and make effective the 

tral Railroad of New Jersey 

THE requirements of speed on grades and curves 
that could only be met by a high drawbar pull 
and a wheel base offering a minimum resistance, were 
the conditions responsible for the design of the eight 
wheel culm-burner shown in our half tone by courtesy of 
the American Locomotive Company. The engine, de- 
signed by Wm. Mcintosh, superintendent of motive 
power, and B. M. Flory, mechanical engineer, is strictly 
modern in all details of construction, to produce an en- 

maximum drawbar pull of 23,120 pounds they are able 
to exert. The nearest approach to these machines with 
reference to type service and fuel on the D. L. & W. 
engines illustrated in the July issue of the Railway 
Master Mechanic. Comparative data of the two engines 
are appended herewith, also a descriptive specification of 
the engine illustrated. One of the most striking things 
in the design of these machines is the fact that the 
Amercan type is chosen as the fittest to do the work, 
in face of the record of the newer designs, that have 


gine that would do the work of a ten wheeler, which 
while able to haul the loads could not overcome the curve 
resistance as well nor be maintained at a figure possible 
in the type shown. 

The trains to be handled by these engines are made 
up of one combination baggage and smoking car, one 
coach and one parlor car, the weight of the engine tender 
and train being 551,500 pounds without passengers or 
baggage. The division operated on is 105 miles long, 
and an especially hard one to negotiate because of the 
stiff grades and curves and frequent stops. There is a 
rise of 1394 feet in a distance of 67 miles, which is con- 
tinuous with an average gradient of 20.8 feet per mile, 
with a maximum of 37 feet to 62 feet per mile in one 
direction, and a rise of 95 feet per mile in the opposite 
direction. The average speed figures about 30 miles an 
hour. Of the 36 stops, there are seven regular ones, 
and fifteen by the flag. 

Among the distinctive features of these machines are 

gone so far astray from this, the original American pas- 
senger locomotive, the wide, shallow firebox of course, 
lending itself most admirably to the perpetuation of this 

Cylinder, type, Simple slide valve; diam., 19 inches; stroke, 
26 inches. 

Track gauge, 4 feet, 8^ inches ; tractive power, 23120. 

Wheel base, driving, 8 feet, 3 inches ; rigid, 8 feet, 3 inches ; 
total, 23 feet, 1% inches. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender, 49 feet, 2 inches. 

Weight, in working order, 158000; on drivers, 108000. 

Weight, in working order, engine and tender, 283500. 

Heating surface, tubes, 1838 square feet. 

Heating surface, firebox, 167.6 square feet. 

Heating surface, total, 2005.7 square feet. 

Grate area, 81.6 square feet. 

Axles, driving journals, main, 9 inches x 13 inches; others, 
9 inches x 13 inches. 

Axles, engine truck, journals, diameter, 6 inches; length, 
12 inches. 

Axles, tender truck journals, diameter, 5 inches; length, 9 

February, 1 906 



Boiler, type, Conical conn., wagon top, C. C. W. T. ; O. D., 
first ring, 62% inches. 

Boiler, working pressure, 200; fuel, fine anthr. coal. 

Firebox, type, wide; length, 122^ inches; width, 96^ inches. 

Firebox, thickness of crown, Y% inch; tube, 9-16 and % inch; 
sides y% inch; back, y% inch. 

Firebox, water space, front, 4 inches ; sides, 4 inches ; back, 
3 l /2 inches. 

Crown staying, Radial, i}i inches. 

Tubes, material, Detroit seamless steel, No. 280; diam. 2 

Tubes, length, 12 feet, 6 inches ; gauge, pounds, 12 B. W. C. 

Boxes, driving, main, 9 inches x 13 inches ; others, 9 inches 
x 13 inches. 

Brake, driver, Westinghouse-American ; truck, West.-Amer. 

Brake, tender, Westinghouse ; air signal, West., Sched. J. 

Brake, pump, 9^ inches ; reservoir, 16 inches x 102 inches. 

Engine truck, Swivelling and swing. 

Exhaust pipe, Single. 

Grate, style, Water tubes. 

Piston, rod diam., z z A inches ; piston packing, Dunbar. 

Smoke stack, diam., 15 inches and 16% ; top above rail, 14 
feet, 8 l /> inches. 

Tender frame, 10 inches, channel steel. 

Tank, style, Water bottom. 

Tank, capacity, 5000 gallons. 

Tank, capacity, fuel, 12 tons. 

Valves, type, slide; travel, 5 inches; steam lap, 1 inch; XXX 
clearance, 1-16 inch. 

Setting, lead % inch. 

Wheels, driv. diam. outside tire, 69 inches ; centers diam. 62 

Wheels, driv. material, main, cast steel, Davis C. B. ; others, 
Davis C. B. steel. 

Wheels, engine truck, diam., 33 inches ; kind, Taylor steel 
tired spoke. 

Wheels, tender truck, diam., 33 inches ; kind, Taylor steel 

Jl New Freight Car Door and Hanger 

THE accompanying illustrations show a new car 
door and hangers as designed and patented by 
Mr. J. J. Hennessey, M. C. B., C. M. & St. P. Ry. at 
West Milwaukee. This consists of the regular car door 
supplied with special hangers, brackets and devices for 
lifting the door on rollers and at the same time having 
the door lifted from the car body. 

The operation is very simple, as all the operator has to 


do is to pull the lever shown in Fig. 1 in either direction. 
This pulls down on the rod to which the lever is con- 
nected, which in turn pulls the two rods leading to the 
hangers. The details of the hangers are shown in 
figures 4 and 5. In these the door is shown in the closed 
position at the left and in position for moving at the 

The diagonal rods shown in Fig. 1 are attached to the 
hole A Fig. 4. As the rod is pulled down the door is 
lifted up as shown. When the door is not to be moved, 
it hangs on the hooks shown in Fig. 5. This also shows 
how the weight of the door is placed on the rollers when 
raised and the precaution taken for getting the door off 
the track. The latter is impossible on account of the long 
projections on the inside of the rail. 

The bracket used in connection with these hangers 
is shown in Fig. 6. When the door is closed the bottom 
rests on a 45 degree angle forcing the door tight against 

1 'fijfflt 



the car body. As it is raised the bracket falls back, al- 
lowing the door to swing clear of the body. 

The operation of the door is so easy that a man can do 
it easily with one hand when a hundred and fifty pound 
weight is attached to the door. This easy operation is 
due to the fact that the door is away from the body of 
the car when moved and the ease with which the door is 
lifted is due to the great leverage obtained. 

It is practically impossible to move the door without lift- 
ing it by means of the lever as it rests solid against the 
side. This will do away with doors jarring off when not 
closed in transit. 

We are indebted to Mr. J. J. Hennessey for the draw- 
ings and description. 



February, 1906 


Joseph V. Haines, formerly master mechanic of the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas at Sedalia, Mo., died in that 
city on December 27, aged 80 years. 

Mr. E. Dawson has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Gila Valley Globe & Northern, with headquarters 
at Globe, Ariz., effective on January 1. 

James Mooney, formerly for many years master me- 
chanic of the Victoria division of the Southern Pacific, 
died on December 19 at Cuero, Tex., at the age of 92 

Mr. R. A. Johnson has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Sonora Railway, with office at Guaymas, 
Mexico, vice Mr. S. E. Kildoyle, resigned; effective on 
December 15. 

Mr. J. B. Elliott has been appointed general master 
mechanic of the Canadian Pacific lines east of Fort Wil- 
liam with headquarters at Angus Shops, Montreal; 
effectve on December 18. 

Mr. H. P. Durham has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power and machinery of the Tehauntepec Na- 
tional, with headquarters at Rincon Antonio, Mexico, to 
succeed Mr. Louis Greaven. 

Mr. W. W. Lowell, master mechanic of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy at Brookfield, Mo., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic at Saint Joseph, Mo., to suc- 
ceed Mr. Jacob Kastlin, resigned. 

Mr. Ellsworth Brown has been appointed assistant 
road foreman of engines of the Buffalo and Rochester 
divisions of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Buffalo, N. Y., 
vice Mr. S. A. Hurd, transferred. 

Matthew Patterson Wood, who was superintendent of 
motive power of the United States military railroads 
during the Civil War, died at his home in New York on 
December 24, at the age of 70 years. 

Mr. F. E. Kennedy has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the McCook division of the Chicago Burling- 
ton & Quincy at McCook, Neb., succeeding Mr. R. B. 
Archibald, resigned ; effective on December 19. 

Mr. J. E. Chisholm, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Chicago Great Western at Oelwein, la., has been ap- 
pointed general master mechanic of that road, with head- 
quarters at Oelwein, effective on December 14. 

Mr. Lacey R. Johnson, heretofore assistant superin- 
, tendent of motive power of the Canadian Pacific, has 
been appointed assistant mechanical superintendent, with 
headquarters at the Angus shops, Montreal, Que. 

Owing to ill health, an indefinite leave of absence has 
been granted Mr. P. J. Maguire, master car builder of 
the Louisiana & Western and Morgan's Louisiana & 
Texas Railroad, with office at Algiers, La. 

Mr. George Dunsmore, foreman of shops of the Erie 

at Susquehanna, Pa., has been appointed general fore- 
man of shops of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg at 
Dubois, Pa., in place of Mr. C. S. Diegel, who has been 
transferred to Rochester, N. Y., in a similar capacity. 

Mr. A. W. Byron has been appointed assistant master 
mechanic of the Buffalo & Allegheny Valley division of 
the Pennsylvania at Olean, N. Y., effective on January 
1. Mr. S. M. Hindman has been appointed general car 
inspector of that division, with office at Buffalo, N. Y., 
vice Mr. J. P. Yergy, promoted. 

Mr. C. Kyle, master mechanic of the Lake Superior 
division of the Canadian Pacific, has been transferred 
to Montreal, Que., as master mechanic of the Eastern 
division, succeeding Mr. J. B. Elliott, promoted. Mr. 
G. T. Fulton has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Lake Superior division with office at North Bay, Ont., in 
place of Mr. Kyle. Mr. Fulton hitherto has been gen- 
eral foreman of the shops at Carleton Junction, Ont. 

Mr. H. C. Shields, former master mechanic of the Le- 
high & New England Ry. Co., has been appointed super- 
intendent of the same road, with offices at Pen Argyl, 
Pa. Mr. Shields was formerly connected with the me- 
chanical department of the D. L. & W. R. R. and later 
with the C. R. R. of New Jersey. Mr. F. S. Anthony 
formerly of the Atlantic Coast Line has been appointed 
master mechanic. Mr. Shields will still have general su- 
pervision of the motive power department. 

The Man Who Sells Things is Entitled to a 


These are prosperous days in business circles. Printeries 
and binderies are busy making order books wherein can be 
entered the tremendous demands for materials of ah\ kinds 
flowing into the factories of our country. 

What does this prosperity mean in its generic sense? 
What causes railroads to buy cars by the thousands and loco- 
motives by the hundreds? It means and it is because there have 
been sales made of all kinds of material entering into the con- 
sumption of busy mankind in all quarters of the country. 

Sales necessitate transportation, transportation calls for power 
and vehicles, and so the results of sales ramify into every 
nook and cranny of civilization. 

Sales light the furnace fires, blacken the sky with smoke, 
set ponderous machinery in motion, quicken the demands for 
labor, and spread the smile of plenty over the land. 

He who sells things is the apostle of happiness, the bulwark 
of prosperity. 

Who fills the hotels, crowds the trains, and loads the freight 
cars with tonnage? The man who sells things. 

Of what commercial value is the most useful and wonderful 
device that was ever invented, unless it is exploited by the man 
who knows how to sell it? 

Oh, you who pride yourself upon the possession of inven- 
tive genius, cudgel your brains, burn the midnight oil, wallow 
in problems of skyhigh mathematics, produce, if you can, 
something for which you think a waiting world is languishing, 
and when it is done, unless you get next to a man who can 
make people believe they need it and sell it to them, your 

*Mr. George A. Post before the October meeting of the 
Pittsburg Railway Club. 

February, 1906 



trousers will be frayed at the edges, and your stomach will 
know the pangs of hunger. 

The be*st friend of everybody is the man who sells things. 
He who would sell things must be patient, tactful, broad- 
guaged, generous, good-natured and tireless. For him no 
whistle blows to sound the end of his daily toil. For him 
there are but few peaceful evenings at his home fireside. For 
him it is hustle, hustle, hustle. 

In his travels up and down the highways he seeks audience 
with and tells his tale to men of varying titles. In the railway 
trade he goes to presidents, general managers, superintendents 
of motive power, civil engineers, mechanical engineers, elec- 
trical engineers, sanitary engineers, engineers of tests, and in 
fact runs the gamut of every conceivable degree of titled im- 
portance, and, besides, he is ever and always up against that 
most august personality, the office boy, and to all of these the 
man who sells things comes under the general characterization 
of "Drummer" or a "Supply Man," terms that are not intended 
to dignify and are more or less terms of opprobrium. 

Now, I think that after a man has a record of service in 
selling things, has attended the severest of all schools, namely, 
contact with the world ; after he has been chilled to the marrow 
by refrigerated receptions ; after he has been tried out in the 
crucible of competition ; after he has overcome the mountains 
of obstacles that beset his path, and "made good," I think he 
should have a degree conferred upon him. 

Our universities are turning loose Doctors, Masters and 
Bachelors of this and that and the other thing, and Engineers 
of all kinds and descriptions, to gain which degrees the recip- 
ients have undergone not one tithe of the hard work and self- 
sacrifice of the man who sells things, and have not learned 
things, and have not learned half as much in the same period 
of time. 

Fit up the most luxurious offices, take a whole floor in the 
most conspicuous block in Pittsburg, go out and buy broad 
acres, and erect magnificent works, fit them up with all the 
most modern machinery and you would never pay the laboring 
man one cent, the landlord would evict you for the non-pay- 
ment of the rent of your luxurious offices, if the fellow with 
the carpet-bag, away from home, plunging through midnight 
blackness,, putting up with all sorts of discomforts, was not 
sending in his orders so that the wheels might go round and 
so that a cross-grained auditor might earn his salary by find- 
ing fault with the expense account. 

Let's give the man who sells things, so that the other fel- 
lows with degrees may receive their salaries promptly — a 

What shall it be? I confess I am fond of the "Engineer" 
style. Now, if I remember the definition of an "Engineer" as 
recorded in the dictionary, it is not confined to those who have 
to do only with technical work, but it also calls it "engineer- 
ing," where one carries through by skill and contrivance a 
business deal. 

What's the matter with calling him a "Commercial En- 

If there is anybody who knows more than the man who 
sells things about wheels within wheels, slipping a cog, eccen- 
trics, joints, bulldozers, lost motion, making connections, lay- 
ing pipe, pumping, plugging, and working under high pressure, 
just trot him out and we will give him a degree that will fit 

All honor, I say, to the man who sells things. When 
he is not abroad in the land there is "nothing doing." So sure 
as the rising sun foretells the coming of day, so does the ap- 
pearance of the man who sells things foretell commercial 
activity, and just in proportion as he succeeds the tide of pros- 
perity ebbs or flows. The man who brusquely turns him down, 
or who affects to be bored by his presence, or who bars him 
from his office, does an injustice to the interests confided to his 
care, and also robs himself of a large amount of information 
that he needs in his business. 

Chief Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's As- 
sociation of America 

The Secretary of this Association sends the following letter 
which we take pleasure in publishing: 

St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 25, 1906. 
Chief Joint Car Inspectors and Car Foremen : 

You are cordially invited to become active members of the 
above association. Dues are $1.50 per year. The Railway Master 
Mechanic is furnished each member twelve months gratis. An- 
nual conventions are held. The general freight car situation 
is threshed through from a national standpoint. At many large 
interchange points the M. C. B. rules are used as a basis with 
certain exceptions in the interest of the free and unincumbered 
movement of traffic. 

Air brakes are paramount in the mountainous districts. 
Thousands of points work strictly to M. C. B. rules, possibly an 
equal number run cars on records, there is nothing in M. C. B. 
rules about interchanging cars on record or credit. Why is it 
done, and with what results? It is paramount with all, every- 
where, to comply with government safety regulations, also M. 
C. B. instructions to repair men is the same everywhere. Uni- 
formity is the qne thing necessary with car men everywhere. 
The same avenue of information is open to all but we haven't 
the same opportunities and experience. 

The M. C. B. association is a body of precedent makers. 
Rules are changed at their will. Chief joint inspectors and 
car foremen must interpret and carry them out. We should 
all get together, exchange experiences and opinions and arrive 
at a common understanding. Universal and national — your in- 
fluence is needed in this movement towards the elevation and 
intelligent expansion of our department. The next annual con- 
vention will be held at Chicago, September, 1906. 

Would be pleased to hear from you. 

Yours very respectfully, 

D. T. TAYLOR, Sec. and Treas. 
1409 E. Grand Ave. St. Louis, Mo. 

The Chester B. Albree Iron Works Co. 

The Chester B. Albree Iron Works, established in Allegheny, 
Pa., in 1895, and known all over the United States as among the 
largest manufacturers of bridge railings and ornamental iron 
work for railroads and buildings, and as manufacturers of the 
Pittsburg Pneumatic Riveters, has been recently incorporated 
under a Pennsylvania charter. 

Additional capital and the erection of a large addition to 
the works on adjoining land, together with new equipment 
of the very latest design high speed precision machine tools, 
will enable the new company, which will be called the Chester B. 
Albree Iron Works Company, to continue the old lines of work 
to much greater advantage and to take up the manufacture of 
the Inertia Valve Pneumatic Tools, invented by Chester B. 
Albree, which the old company has spent three years in per- 

The chipping and riveting hammers will be put on the market 
as soon as the additions to the plant will admit. Experts who 
have seen them in operation in the works, during the last year, 
under regular, hard service conditions, state that for efficiency 
of section, and especially for simplicity of design, they are su- 
perior to any now existing, and promise to assume the lead of 
all others. 

The new company not only starts with the old members of 
the firm, Chester B. Albree and Ralph Albree, each thoroughly 
familiar with every detail of the business, but has as its Vice- 
President, Mr. Sumner B. Ely, who was formerly Chief Mechani- 
cal Engineer of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Company. His 
thorough knowledge of engineering and wide acquaintance with 
manufacturers and engineers will add greatly to the personnel of 
the new management. 

Among the directors and stockholders are Mr. Reuben Miller, 



February, 1906 


of the Crucible Steel Company, Mr. C. F. Holdship, President of 
the Equitable Meter Company and Mr. Frederick G. Ely, of the 
Pressed Steel Car Company, as well as other well known busi- 
ness men and capitalists. 

The new company will continue the policy of fair dealing and 
good work that has characterized the old firm from its inception 
and given it its reputable standing in the business world. 

The capital stock, fully paid up, is $200,000.00, and the officers 
and works will be at the old location, 11 16-1202 Market Street, 
Allegheny, Pa. 

■ ♦ ■ 

The Jlcme Rotary Thread Rolling Mnchine 

In this machine the threading dies, instead of being of the 
reciprocating type, are composed of one rotary or revolving die 
which runs continuously in one direction and one segmental 
die which remains stationary after it is adjusted to the job. 
The bolt or piece that is to have the thread rolled on it is passed 
between the two threading dies and carried around with the 
rotating die, which is mounted on the main shaft or spindle. It 
will be seen that the machine differs radically in construction 
from roll threaders of the reciprocating type. 

The illustration will make clear the general construction of 
the machine. The adjustment of the distance between the 
two dies, which of course controls the diameter, is effected 
by means of the hand wheels shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The 
segmental die is carried in a heavy block that is eccentric to 
the shaft, and by loosening one of the hand-wheels and tighten- 
ing the other, the adjustable die is advanced or withdrawn from 
the rotary one. The feeding mechanism is also clearly shown 
in the several views, and will be best understood from Fig. 3, 


where A is the rotary die, B the adjustable shoe carrying the 
segmental die, and C the driving spindle. 

The bolt D is placed in the jaws E, then the operator starts 
the bolt into the machine by moving a handle (extending out 
from the feeding carriage) attached to pawl F. This handle 
is shown in the half-tone and drops the pawl into engagement 
with notched disk G, which carries the oscillating carriage H 
forward and passes the work between the dies, the rolling be- 
ginning at once, and the jaws then opening automatically and 
allowing the carriage to drop back by its weight to the feeding 
position again. 

There are four opportunities for feeding in every rotation 
of the die, as there are four notches in the disk. The bolt or 
rod is fed into the machine horizontally so that bridge rods, car 
truss rods or other work of almost any length may have threads 
rolled on the end, and the heavy, compact construction enables 
the machines to be built to roll up to large sizes. It will be 
seen from Fig. 2 that at the rear end of the main spindle there 
are two spiral springs and means for putting them in tension; 
this is an important feature, as it keeps the dies in pitch. 

As the bolt enters and the rolling begins at different points 
on the dies, the breaking down, or the beginning of the thread, 
is not confined to one particular place, so that the wear is 
general and uniform over the whole die surface. The dies admit 
of fine adjustment for the required size of work, or to compen- 
sate for wear. 

The comparative merits of cut and rolled threads are well 
known generally by engineers ; still it may be of interest to 
give the result of a recent test of the two forms of thread, the 
material in both cases being machine steel : 
i?4 inches x 245^ inches cut thread — tensile strength 88,900 lbs. 

\X, ' / 



February, 906 


\ l /2 inches x 24^ inches rolled thread — tensile strength 95,850 lbs. 
The rolled thread is, of course, not adapted for every pur- 
pose, still the above test shows that where it may be used there 
is a great gain in strength and a consequent saving of weight 
and cost. The saving in weight of material is about 20%, that 
is to say, material 20% lighter than would be used if the 
threads were to be cut, may be used if the threads are to be 
rolled and there will be no loss of strength. There is also a 
gain of about 100% in time, at least twice as many bolts may 
be rolled as may be cut in the same time. 

To fit standard nuts the table of material required is about 
as follows : 

.500 13 .446 

.500 12 .441 

. .625 11 .562 

.750 10 .680 

.875 9 -798 

1. 8 .912 

1. 125 7 1.025 

1250 7 1. 150 

and so on. 

These machines are made in two sizes, 1 inch machine is 
complete with countershaft, wrenches and five pairs of dies, one 
each Y-2., Vz, Ya, 7 A, i inch. Weight, 10,000 lbs. Floor space 4 
feet, 10 inches x 6 feet, 6 inches. 

The 2 inch machine is complete with countershaft, wrenches, 
and five pairs of dies, one each 1, V/4, iVz, iH, 2 inches. Weight. 
20,000 lbs. Floor space about 7 feet x 9 feet. 

These interesting machines are manufactured by the Acme 
Machinery Co., Cleveland, O. 

















Ji Locomotive Turn Table Device 

The Pilling Air Engine Co., Detroit, Michigan, has brought 
out the device shown in the accompanying illustration for turn- 
ing a locomotive turntable. These can be placed on any turn- 
table within two hours and will not interfere at any time 
with the swing of the table. They are built to operate either by 
electricity or compressed air. That shown in the illustration 
is a 22-h. p. reciprocating, double-acting, oscillating engine run- 
ning at 650 revolutions per minute, and driving through a train 
of gears. The cylinders are 4 in. in diameter by 4^-in. stroke. 
The gears are cut from steel forgings. The frame of the de- 

vice consists of %-in. wrought steel plates, on which is mounted 
a 33-in. standard car wheel, with a cast iron cut gear secured 
thereto. The bracket is a steel casting and the spring used for 
traction is a drawbar spring. The traction is obtained by screw- 
ing down the stem to which the wheel is attached. 

The reason for using such a large engine is that the device 
can be run with a very low pressure, namely 30 lbs. The engine 
runs in oil, and has no parts which cannot be easily replaced 
by any machine shop. The engine is so connected that it may 
be run by means of air from a central plant or air from the 
locomotive through the train pipe. Many roads require the 
engines to turn themselves 'in order to test the air brake appara- 
tus before departure. The device has been installed on a number 
of railroads, including the Canadian Pacific, the Erie, the Hock- 
ing Valley, and the Big Four. There is one installed at Nyack 
on the Erie railroad, where it is handled by fifty-four different 
men in twenty-four hours. The engineer stays on the engine, 
the baggage man attends to the latch of the turntable and the 
brakeman connects the air hose from the train pipe at either 
end of the locomotive to the engnie. He then throws on the 
operating lever, as shown in the illustration, and swings the 
table. The makers state that the device is practically "fool- 
proof and can be handled by the most ignorant class of men. 

■ ♦ 

The Armstrong Bolt Driver 

The accompanying illustration of the Armstrong bolt driver 
is a very simple device for holding bolts in a lathe for turning 


and threading. The device is bolted to the face plate of the 
lathe, being adjusted to the various sized plates which are to 
be turned. 

Figure 1 shows it in operation. The extension washer be- 
tween the face plate and driver is used to adjust the position 
of the driver in order to adapt it with center of varying length. 
The head of the bolt is simply slipped in the jaws which hold 



it solid for turning. The drivers are made in three sizes, vary- 
ing in capacity from two to four inches. 

These are manufactured by the Armstrong Tool Company, 
Chicago, 111. 

6 4 


February, 1906 

Important Movement in Advertising 

The creation of a General Advertising Department for the 
New York Central Lines, and the placing in charge of that 
department the veteran railroad advertiser, George H. Daniels, 
who has been for nearly twenty years the General Passenger 
Agent of the New York Central Railroad, marks an era in 
the history of advertising in America. • 

The New York Central Lines are the first great system to 
create an advertising department which covers all the railways 
in their system, and the far-reaching consequences of such a 
movement cannot be appreciated at first sight, but this action 
on the part of the management of these lines emphasizes the 
value of advertising generally, and forces the conclusion of a 
strong belief in the efficacy of railroad advertising in particular. 
Some idea of the importance of this new department can 
be had when it is understood that it will control the general 
advertising in America and in foreign countries of the New 
York Central, Boston and Albany, Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern, Michigan Central, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and 
St. Louis, Rutland, and Lake Erie and Western railways and 
their leased lines, having their western terminals at Chicago, 
St. Louis and Cincinnati and their eastern terminals at New 
York, Boston and Montreal, and embracing more than twelve 
thousand miles of the best equipped railways in the world. 

Mr. Daniels has for many years been a firm believer in news- 
paper and magazine advertising, and, therefore, the organiza- 
tion of the General Advertising Department of the New York 
Central Lines is of importance to every legitimate publication 
in America, daily, weekly or monthly. 

In an address before the New York State Press Associa- 
tion a few years ago, Mr. Daniels made the point that the 
railroad is the advance agent of commerce and that railway 
advertising had been of immense value to American manufac- 
turers in calling the attention of the whole world to the excel- 
lent work done by our inventors and mechanics, as illustrated 
in the Empire State Express, the Twentieth Century Limited, 
and other great trains that connect the east with the west ; 
the average foreigner arguing that the men who are able to 
turn out such machines must be able to build almost anything, 
and that the farm machinery, and all kinds of industrial mach- 
inery made in America must be of the very best quality. Rail- 
road advertising has certainly been the means of bringing 
thousands of men here from foreign countries to investigate 
our manufactures and has wonderfully increased our foreign 

Every legitimate newspaper and magazine publication in 
America will have a direct interest in the General Advertising 
Department of the New York Central Lines, and every adver- 
tising agent on the continent will take a new lease of life be- 
cause of this endorsement of the value of advertising. 

Notes of the Month 

A man of thorough knowledge of mixtures and experienced 
in managing a finishing department is wanted as superintendent 
for a small brass foundry. Address "Brass" care Railway 
Master Mechanic. 

» ♦ » 

H. B. Underwood & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., manufacturers 
of special tools for railway repair shops, have issued a nice 
calendar for 1906. These are issued for railway and machinery 
men and they would be pleased to mail one on application. 

The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern has joined the ranks 
of the roads which are experimenting with gasoline motors to 
enable it to compete with electric lines. It has been feeling 
the competition considerably between Cleveland and adjacent 
towns, where there is a large suburban traffic. 

■ ♦ 

The Palmetto calendar received from Green, Tweed & Co., 
New York, is an artistic arrangement of the months of the 

year, held in place by the famous Palmetto Twist for small 
valve stems. This calendar has the advantage over others in 
that all the months of the year are on one page and does not 
necessitate the extra labor of removing a sheet every month. 

■ » 

The Grip of Things is the title of an attractive pamphlet 
issued by the Farlow Draft Gear Co., of Baltimore, Md. This 
deals with the application of the Farlow draft gear in compar- 
ison of the regular M. C. B. draft rigging. The pamphlet de- 
cribes the weaknesses of the latter system and points cut the 
advantages of the Farlow gear. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Locomotive 
Appliance Company, held in their offices in the Old Colony 
Building, Chicago, on Tuesday, January 2nd, Mr. H. M. Pflager 
of St. Louis was elected director to fill the unexpired term of 
Mr. Edward B. Lathrop, deceased. Mr. W. Ff. England was 
elected treasurer. 

« ♦ « 

Mr. Henry E. Shaw, of Boston, well known in railway circles 
for his devotion to the problem of balancing the reciprocating 
parts of locomotives, has presented to Purdue University a 
model locomotive embodying his latest design. The model is 
constructed on the sale of one inch to the foot, and is an ex- 
cellent piece of work. 

» ♦ » 

Dogs is dogs, cats is dogs and rabbits is dogs, but turtles is 
insects. In like manner a son of Ireland tried to prove that 
guinea pigs were pigs inasmuch as the express rate for pigs 
was five cents more than the rate on guinea pig. The experi- 
ences and red tape of this wonderful tale are fully illustrated 
and described in a small book with title "Pigs is Pigs," printed 
for private distribution by the Railway Appliances Company 

• ♦ » 

The General Ry. Supply Co., St. Louis, has recently been 
organized. They handle railway, mill and contractors sup- 
plies. Mr. W. Ff. Davis, general manager of the firm, was 
formerly associated with the Frisco System, Terminal R. R. 
Assn. of St. Louis, and Mexican Central R. R. in their pur- 
chasing departments. His wide acquaintance and experience in 
this field will be of advantage in the railway supply business. 
They report a very satisfactory business. 

♦ ■ 

The Dayton Pneumatic Tool Co., Dayton, Ohio, manu- 
facturers of the "Green" Pneumatic hammer, report their 
business for 1905 as having been most satisfactory. Notwith- 
standing the fact that there is a tendency toward the end of 
the year to delay purchases until after the beginning of the 
new year, an unusually large number of orders was received 
in December. The Company has recently ordered additional 
machinery for its Dayton works, which will increase their 
capacity to about 300 hammers per month. 

» ♦ » 

Philadelphia is now in the enjoyment of her first subway, on 
Market street, and will soon have the luxury of an elevated 
service to the suburb of Wayne, which is under construction 
by the Philadelphia & Western, which will make it a four-track 
line, at a cost of about $15,000,000. It is the intention to equip 
this line with the third rail, and operate it as an electric prop- 
osition to start with, afterward using steam locomotives if the 
volume of business is such as to warrant the change. It will 
be noted that this plan is quite the reverse of present-day pro- 
cedure. . 

» ♦ 

Among railway supply firms, that of Hay & Hayward of 
St. Louis, Mo., has recently been organized. Both members of 
the firm have a large acquaintance among railway officials, Mr. 
Hayward having been until recently secretary and treasurer 
of the Commonwealth Steel Company, and Mr. Hay having 
been identified with the railway supply business for several 
years. Previous to this he was connected with the manufacture 
of rails and heavy railway material by the largest steel com- 

February, 1906 



panies. Their acquaintance and experience in this field places 

them in a position of advantage which few firms enjoy. 

■ » ■ 

The American Locomotive Co., New York, have issued a 
special pamphlet devoted to the application of the Walschaert 
valve gear. The pamphlet gives the advantages of this gear 
over the Stephenson valve gear under present conditions. Six 
large locomotives are illustrated equipped with this gear. Dia- 
grams explain the application of the motion and a table shows 
relative weights of Stephenson and Walschaert gear for three 
locomotives. Service results are included and the pamphlet 
also presents a general description for adjusting valves and 
methods of laying out a Walschaert gear, which was prepared 
by Mr. C. J. Mellin. 

The familiar Coes screw wrench is one of the best finished 
articles found in every day use in a shop, aside from the fact 
of its being put up in a mechanical shape that defies the "strong 
armed" genius to put it out of commission. The knife handle 
wrench, the steel handle wrench, and the key model wrench 
constitute a triumvirate in steel that covers every possible want 
in the wrench line. The two latter wrenches are all steel and 
therefore adapted to work of a character that would preclude 
the use of a wooden handle. The Coes Wrench Co., Worcester, 
Mass., want to tell all about these wrenches — how they origi- 
nate them, and how they are built. 

On another page of this issue will be noticed the advertise- 
ment of The American Skylight & Iron Works, 215 Randolph 
Ave., Jersey City, New Jersey, a firm which has earned an 
enviable reputation as manufacturers of skylights, ' which 
have been successfully used in all sections of the country for 
the past twenty years, in fact, is recognized as the best system 
of skylights in America, being suited for fireproof and wood 
structures, factories, mills, railroad stations, and shops, and es- 
pecially for Government and Public buildings, and it is an 
interesting fact to state that this system of skylights is now 
being placed on the U. S. Capitol Building at Washington. The 
manufacturers invite correspondence and will gladly submit 

estimates and full particulars upon request. 

. ♦ . 

The change of base of the Dean of Railway Passenger 
Agents, Mr. Geo. H. Daniels — he of the charming personality— 
to the management of the advertising department of the New 
York Central Lines, is one of the moves of that Corporation 
that pleases his friends, and that is evrrybody, whether they 
know him or not, since his new duties will leave him in New 
York a greater portion of time than when in the arduous posi- 
tion he leaves. Twenty years at the head of a passenger de- 
partment of a road like the New York Central entitles it's in- 
cumbent to a surcease of the things that vex and make life 
a burden. It is with pleasure that the announcement is made 
that the most prominent publishers and advertising firms of 
New York are to honor Mr. Daniels with a banquet at the 
Waldorf-Astoria on the evening of February 20. A general 
committee of sixty-six has the affair in hand, and propose to 

make it one of the events of the recipient's busy life. 

. ♦ ■ 

The announcement has been given out by the Grand Trunk 
Railway System that arrangements have been made for the 
adoption of electric traction in the St. Clair tunnel, the con- 
tract for which has been awarded to the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company ; the work is to be started at once 
and brought to completion as quickly as possible. The system 
that will be adopted is known as the alternating current sys- 
tem with overhead conductors — the conductors in the interior 
of the tunnel being placed upon the walls, and in the railway 
yards they will be supported by steel bridges. The trains will 
be operated by alternating current locomotives, capable of haul- 
ing passenger train on the grade at the rate of 20 to 25 miles 
an hour, and a freight train of 1,000 tons at the rate of ten 
miles an hour. The interior of the tunnel and the yards on 

both the United States and Canada sides of the St. Clair River 
will be lighted by electricity from the power that will be gen- 
erated in the extensive power house that it will be necessary 
to erect. 

The length of the tunnel proper is 6,025 f eet , and of the open 
portals or approaches, 5,603 feet additional, or more than two 
miles in all, one of the longest sub-marine tunnels in the world. 
It is a continuous iron tube, nineteen feet, ten inches in diam- 
eter, put together in sections as the work of boring proceeded, 
and finally bolted together, the total weight of the iron aggrega- 
ting 56,000,000 pounds. 

The work was commenced in September, 1888, and it was 
opened for freight traffic in October, 1891, a little more than 
three years being required for its completion. Passenger trains 
began running through it December 7, 1891. 

It cost $2,700,000.00. 

As soon as the fire which destroyed the D. L. & W. terminal 
was under control hundreds of laborers, together with neces- 
sary material, were rushed to the scene and late the same even- 
ing one ferry slip had been repaired and placed in temporary 
commission. This slip is now being used for boats between 23rd 
and 14th Street, Hoboken. Boats to and from the Lackawanna 
Train Terminal in Hoboken are using the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road terminal at 23rd Street about 200 feet north of the burned 
structure, and service is now being maintained on the usual 
schedule. It is expected that a second slip will be in shape 
for use within the next day or two, when boats to and from 
the Hoboken Train Terminal will at once utilize it and the 
Company will thereafter be able to handle its own patrons. The 
work of rebuilding the burned building has already begun. It 
is the plan of the Company to restore the terminal as soon as 
possible. In appearance it will be substantially the same as 
the former building, the same features being retained in the 
steel work, and such new features being introduced in the dec- 
oration and interior fittings as will make the new terminal abso- 
lutely fireproof. That portion of the steel work of the old 
building which has not been seriously damaged will be utilized 
and the Company has already placed orders with the Steel firm 
which furnished the original structural steel to at once supply 
whatever new steel is necessary to take the place of the old. 
Longitudinal concrete fire walls will be built from the fire level 
to below water line at the North end separating the Lackawanna 
from the Erie, and also at the South end to separate the Lacka- 
wanna from the Central Railroad of New Jersey building. Two 
similar longitudinal fire walls will be built beneath the new 
structure, these four to act as barriers to a possible spread of 
fire in' future and to guard against a repetition of experi- 
ence when the fire spread so rapidly beneath the flooring and 
proved difficult to subdue for that reason. While the new 
structure is being erected a temporary waiting room 50 by 75 
feet will be provided and work on this was started yesterday. 

Railway Association and Club Meetings 
for February 

Canadian Railway Club, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que., 
Feb. 6. 

Car Foreman's Club of Chicago, 26 Van Buren street, Chi- 
cago, Feb. 13. 

Iowa Railway Club, Feb. 20. . 

New England Railroad Club, Pierce Hall, Copley Square, 
Boston, Feb. 13. 

New York Railroad Club, 154 West 57th street, New York, 
Feb. 16. 

North-West Railway Club, Ryan Hotel, St. Paul, Feb. 13. 

Railway Club of Pittsburg, Monongahela House, Pittsburg, 
Feb. 23. 

St. Louis Railway Club, Southern Hotel, St. Louis, Feb. 9. 

Richmond Railroad Club, Richmond, Va., Feb. 8. 

Pacific Coast Railway Club, San Francisco, Cal., Feb. 17. 

Western Railway Club, .Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, Feb. 19. 



February, 1906 

The Origin of the "Jlubberset" Brush 

Although there has been a mushroom growth, within the 
last fifty years, of really good paints, varnishes, etc., little at- 
tention has been directed to the brush. The painter has wel- 
comed all improvements in paints, etc., but he has been meekly 
submitting to the use of a brush that shed bristles all over 
his work every time it was used. 

The reason for this is that the ordinary or old-style brush 
is put together with rosin or common cement to hold the 
bristles. This kind of setting simply can't stand the chemical 
action of paint and other li- 
quids. After it is used a short 
time, the setting crumbles and 
becomes porous and unadhes- 
ive. The bristles begin to drop 
out and in many cases the 
whole brush falls apart. 

The Rubber and Celluloid 
Harness Trimming Company, 
of Newark, N. J., realized that 
there was a crying demand for 
a brush that would remain ab- 
solutely intact. They began 
various experiments to supply 
this demand, in connection 
with the manufacture of their 
regular products. These ex- 
periments cost them thousands 
of dollars before a single brush 
was really perfected and placed 
upon the market. 

They well knew that soft 
vulcanized rubber, in its na- 
tural state, was so very adhes- 
ive, that when any two sur- 
faces were brought together, 
they became, by slight pres- 
sure, one mass that simply 
could not be separated. Here 
then, they concluded, was the 
ideal method of setting the 
bristles of a brush. A lot of 
sample brushes were made and 
sold. But ere long several 

very serious disadvantages presented themselves. They were 
as follows: (i) The soft vulcanized rubber became rigid 
and inflexible in cold weather. (2) It became softened and 
decomposed in the sun and hot weather. (3) It became easily 
soluble and quickly dissolved when brought into contact with 
any kind of grease or oil. 

The makers then realized that unless the rubber could be 
hardened it would be impracticable for their purpose. After 
lengthy experiments this difficulty was overcome by combin- 
ing sulphur with rubber, which acted as a dryer. This com- 
position of rubber and sulphur formed what is now known as 
hard vulcanized rubber or vulcanite. The rubber is vulcanized 
by heat in such a way that it does not injure the bristles in any 


Here then was the really successful setting. They went a 
step further in addition to the setting, and also bound the 
brush with rubber. This style of brush then, the hard rubber set 
and bound brush, was the successful outcome of the inventors' 
long experiments. These brushes were then made in large 
quantities and widely sold. Thousands were used by painters 
for year without losing any bristle, cracking or falling apart. 
The recommendations to this effect became so general that 
these three features were guaranteed. 

The rubber used in these brushes is brought from the Com- 
pany's own caoutchouc or rub- 
ber tree plantation, in Para, 
South America. This Para 
rubber is the purest and most 
valuable rubber that can be 
procured. It is sent to the 
makers in the crude state and 
is refined, prepared and vul- 
canized in their own establish- 

The bristles are selected and 
sent to them at regular per- 
iods by the firm's agents in 
Russia, Germany and France. 
They are procured from the 
backs of the wild hog, which, 
on account of the long, thin 
and silvery texture, are con- 
sidered the very finest bristle 

The manufacturers of the 
"Rubbejrset" brush have been 
fortunate in securing, as their 
representative, Mr. A. L. 
Holtzmann, who has had wide 
experience in the brush busi- 
ness. Just before joining the 
forces of the "Rubberset" 
Company, he represented one 
of the largest brush manufac- 
turers in the country. Mr. 
Holtzmann especially caters to 
railroad business and he stands 
ready at any time to demon- 
strate the merits of the "Rubberset" to all purchasing agents and 
master painters. 

The "Rubberset" Brush Company will be glad to send cata- 
log of their brushes, with discounts, in answer to all requests. 

John F. Allen, 370-372 Gerard Avenue, New York, report 
sales of their well known "Allen" riveters during December 
as follows : American Car & Foundry Company, three riveters ; 
Scully Steel & Iron Company, three riveters; Berger-Carter 
Company, two riveters ; Mitsui & Company, two riveters; Snare 
& Trieste, one riveter ; Pettibone, Mulliken Company, one riv- 
eter; Buffalo Brake Beam Company, one riveter; Schreiber & 
Sons Company, one riveter. 

Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by 
M. C. Painter, M . <£L O. R. R. 

Official Organ of the Master Car 

The matter of maintaining a passenger equipment in a cleanly 
condition while in service is almost of equal importance with 
the painting of it. Much effort is made to remove the soot and 
grime from the exterior, but thus far we have not learned of 
any effort being made to prevent such accumulation in the first 

Devoted to the Interests of 

Master Car and 

Locomotive Painters 

and Locomotive Painters' Association. 

instance. If such could be prevented partly if not wholly, it 
would conduce to the improved appearance of the equipment 
to say nothing of the consequent reduction of labor cost for 
cleaning. It seems to be the prevailing impression that the 
greater part of the dirt and grime that collects on the side of 

February, 1906 



a coach is deposited by the smoke from the engine as it passes 
along the sides of the car, possibly this is the correct view, but 
according to our observation much if not the most of this grime 
comes from the roof, and from the dust and cinders that collect 
behind the screens, and in case of rain the first flow of dirty 
water from the roof over the sides of the car possibly finds the 
varnish in a partly plastic state, caused by the heat of the sun, 
to which much of the dirt adheres. If in case of rain the first 
flow of dirty water could be deflected from the sides of the 
car, the subsequent flow would be comparatively clean water, 
and would soil the sides of the car but very little. This could 
be effected by placing a strip of tin along the upper edge of the 
crown mould with outlet for the water at either end of the car. 
The camber of the car would naturally cause the water to flow 
toward each end of the car, and thus prevent overflowing before 
the roof had become sufficiently washed in order that if the 
subsequent flow of water did overflow the water break, it would 
be comparatively clean water, and would not soil the varnish 
on the sides of the car. It is possibly true that the swaying or 
lateral motion of a coach in motion would somewhat interfere 
with the regular flow of water through any channel that might 
be devised for that purpose, but if it succeeded in carrying off 
the dirty water, which would be the first to run off the roof, 
its purpose would have been accomplished. 

Another menace to the cleanliness of a car is the dust and cin- 
ders that are permitted to collect and remain behind the deck 
screens from one shopping to another. They not only retain 
moisture indefinitely after once becoming wet, and thus causing 
decay of paint, etc., but after rain water has filtered through 
that mass of coal dust and then trickles down the side of the 
car, it is very probable that it will not only leave a grimy deposit 
on the surface, but that it will also prove injurious to the paint 
and varnish. This trouble could be easily obviated by hinging 
the deck screens and opening them after each run, and blowing 
out the cinders with compressed air. An instance recently oc- 
curred in the writer's experience which clearly demonstrated 
that much of the dirt and grime on the sides of a coach comes 
from the roof. A coach had been recently varnished in the 
paint shop and, after allowing the usual time for drying, put 
out in the yard to make room for another car, but the roof for 
some reason had not yet been painted, although it had been 
swept free of all loose dirt and cinders, about the second day 
a heavy rain thoroughly washed the roof, which dirty water 
after it had flowed over the sides of the car left the surface in 
a condition that almost necessitated rescrubbing and varnishing. 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop: 

I was pleased to note in December's issue of Railway Mas- 
ter Mechanic, that brother E. L. Younger, of Baring Cross, 
Arkansas, in his communication entitled "Cleaning Locomo- 
tives," strongly refers to the need of some mechanical help ap- 
pliance that will supersede the generally practiced slow process 
of hand labor cleaning the frame or lower running parts of the 
locomotive undergoing paint renewals ; also Mr. Younger's 
very flattering call upon the writer as a possible expert man- 
ipulator of air operated labor saving machinery, which very 
forcibly recalls a little experience -we had along the line of 
labor economy effort several years ago in an endeavor to har- 
ness a small air operated boring machine for just such sug- 
gested cleaning purposes, which as a rank failure, we think 
was sufficient to dampen our youthful ardor against all such 
proposed future undertakings for the balance of our allotted 
car paint shop life. 

Encouraged by your very considerate invitation to help Mr. 
Younger out, I will tell my story as follows : 

The scheme consisted in making up a home-made set of 
brushes of round formation, using the centers of common scrub 
brushes for purpose, which were shaped and securely hailed 
to turned up blocks of wood, the completed round brush when 
attached to machine having a diameter of some six inches 
This round bristled creation was our scrub brush and we wish 

to assure our fellow associate readers that there was some- 
thing doing when our device, backed up with one hundred 
pounds of air, was set going into the business of removing the 
old dirt, grease, etc., from a locomotive tank or cab ; also some- 
thing doing in the way of throwing dirty soap water and pumice 
stone all over the shop; also operator, who immediately de- 
manded ten dollars a day, and at those wages, we to guarantee 
him free medical attendance in the event of his system becom- 
ing clogged up with allopathic chunks of indigestible soap. 

The proposed locomotive frame cleaning device was rigged 
up on the same machine, but instead of the round built brush, 
an ordinary 6-0 stiff painter's car scrub was set screw secured 
in shaft end of machine and benzine used as the grease, etc., 
removing agent. The method of supplying soap dilute or ben- 
zine to machine was fairly well accomplished and controlled by 
means of a syphon hose rigged suction attachment connected 
with a bucket or can setting at feet of operator. 

The machine cleaning of the locomotive frame, etc., was 
also a failure, owing to the flying dirty and disagreeable odor 
of the benzine; also to the fact that the revolving brush would 
only loosen up the piled grease where free from burnt incrusta- 
tion, which could only be removed by the scraping knife ; also 
that all such machine cleaned surface had to be hand wiped after 
with waste. 

In conclusion, we have no desire to claim that our past 
failures in attempt to mechanically remove the dirt and grease 
from the shopped locomotive should be accepted as final — that 
such cannot be accomplished by others who may be better fitted 
with mechanical ability, as we have an abiding faith that such 
required machine can and will be invented in time — that it is 
only the matter of the coming of a cheaper and lighter built 
machine; also the co-operative help of the brush manufacturer 
who must meet the demand for special brush shapes best adapted 
for purpose. We also sincerely hope that the attempt of the 
next experimenter will be crowned with that success which 
was denied the reputed wind machinery crank of our Associa- 
tion in the person of 

W. O. Quest. 

. . ■» ■ : — 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop: 

In answer to your query : "How often do you revarnish the 
inside of your cars ?" In answering this, I will say that when 
I was handling passenger work here, I made it a practice not 
to revarnish the interior of a coach under 3. or 4 years, and 
not then if it did not require it. If the car had been properly 
brought up from the foundation and received three good flowing 
coats of varnish and had been rubbed down and polished, 
we would scrub the car perfectly clean. When I say perfectly 
clean,. I mean, get all ' the dirt out of the corners and beads 
and not take into consideration the amount of work done, but 
the quality. We would then refinish all parting .strips, blind 
stops, and the tops of the seats and seat arms and window 
sills that were marred. We then oil over the whole interior 
with a non-drying oil and wipe perfectly dry w-tih clean waste. 
A car treated in this way, 'I think, lasts longer and looks much 
better than if varnished every twelve months, which .is the 
practice with some roads. We all know too much varnish on 
the inside is a detriment and will crack much sooner than if 
it had fewer coats. It is true there are cases where you have 
to refinish some of - the panels between the windows. Even 
so, that is no reason you should varnish parts that are in first- 
class condition. We have had our cars run five or six years 
without revarnishing. Others that would not run over two 
years. I However, on an average, three or four years is about 
right, providing the car has been properly treated in the first 
place, i 

A. J. Bruning. 
L. & N. Ry„ Evansville, Ind. 

* ♦ * 

Dear SfR and. Associate : 

It has been decided that the meeting of the Advisory Com- 



mittee, Master Car and Locomotive Painters Association be 
held February 22nd, (Washington's Birthday) in New York 
city at the Hotel Astor, corner Broadway and 44th street, at 
9:00 A. M. 

It is the earnest desire of the Committee to make this a 
large and enthusiastic gathering and all members of the As- 
sociation, whether members of the Committee or not, are ur- 
gently requested, if possible, to grace the occasion with their 
presence. All will be welcome to participate in the deliber- 
ations, and the Committee solicits suggestions in the way of 
subjects for discussion at our next meeting to be held at 

May we count upon you to be present, or, if that is impos- 
sible, at least write the Chairman of the Committee offering a 
list of suggestions for papers and queries which, in your opin- 
ion, should receive consideration. The Committee will not be 
able to accept all the material offered, but will do its utmost 
to select therefrom what appears to them as apropos and best 
suited to the interests of our Association. Doubtless some of the 
suggestions will prove themselves of value for future conven- 

Come, Brother, ease your mind, make your wants known 
and, at the same time, help out your Committee. Come to 
the meeting, if possible, but by all means, write the Chairman. 
Do it now. 

May we count on you ? 

Fraternally yours, 

B. E. Miller, Chairman. 

« ♦ » 

W. Ji. Kelly 

W. A. Kelly, with Keystone Varnish Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., 
is a brother of R. J. Kelly, general foreman of Long Island 
shops, Morris Park, N. Y., was born in Trenton, N. J. Learned 
trade of car painting with Jackson & Sharp Co. of Wilmington, 
Delaware. Has held position of M. P. with Long Island 
R. R. Floating Equipment Dept, Mass. Car Co., Ashburnham, 
Mass., Bridge Division, Brooklyn L, New Orleans Rys. Co., 
and was inspector of car painting for Interborough R. T. Co. 
during the building of their steel equipment at Berwick, and 
also inspected the painting on Long Island steel cars for the 

February, 1 906 

Westinghouse-Church-Kerr & Co. "Bill" said he would like 
to sell something that no one else had and now he's got it and 
got it good and intends to tell everyone he can see how good it 
is and prove it, and declares if he don't prove it he will fold his 
tent and silently steal away. 


Jin "Mil-Sorts" Letter 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop: 

I have half a mind this morning to write you an "all-sorts"' 
letter, partly as "a guarantee of good faith," and also to let 
"the boys" know that I do not belong to the tribe of bears that 
crawl into their holes and lie dormant, sucking their paws for 
cold comfort, during the winter months. 

The first two numbers of the Railway Master Mechanic 
have come to me under your editorship of the "Railroad Paint 
Shop," and I must say that it gives me "a funny feeling" to be 
out of that place and see somebody else there, I had been in 
it so long. It seems like someone making love to my wife, or 
"seeing myself as others see me," as it were— like a preacher 
in the pew with one of his parishioners in the pulpit preaching 
to him. And still I'm not jealous! Well, I'm getting a mighty 
fine rest out of it anyhow and, with lots of ozone every day 
and an accumulation of phosphorescence on the brain, I begin 
to cleave to the pen again. But I want to tellyou that since 
I quit compulsory writing it has been the easiest thing in the 
world for this clam to crawl into his shell and shut it after 
him, and the hardest thing to keep up his private correspond- 
ence. There is something to the logic that the more one has 
to do the easier any one task is performed; and the less one has 
to do the harder it is to do anything at all. There is nothing 
like crowding things up to the old mill to make the chips fly 
and get the best results from it. 

I am writing you this letter for publication largely because 
I want to set an example to the boys to ■"do to you as they would 
be done by," and "do it fust," as David Harum says ; or to do 
to you as they didn't do by me very much. If our membership 
would only take a few minutes of their time to crawl out 
of their shells with their pens in their fists and jot down some- 
thing that they know about, we would have one of the most 
interesting departments that is published. I judge this be- 
cause everybody takes an interest in painting, ladies and all ! 

With so much preliminary, will now dive into other matters. 
To say that we on the B. & M. are not humping ourselves 
to get our equipment through to make up for the loss of the 
Somerville shop, which put out 436 cars last year, is to draw it 
mildly. Every shop of the five remaining ones is doubling 
its output practically, only one of them being on piece- 
work ; and that one the last line acquired by lease, viz : the 
Fitchburg. And it goes without saying that some of the day- 
work shops are not taking much of the dust in the race from the 
piece-work shop, notably, "the frozen north" where Jim Gohen's 
"Nestor" of the Association holds forth. They say the cars 
themselves are so sort of "nervous" that they can't sit still in 
his shop. Well, when a shop puts out over four times in 
number per month what it holds, there's something doing. And 
all the shops are exceeding three times their capacity, when 
twice the capacity is a good output. Of course, we are not 
doing many heavy jobs at that; still we are doing more than put- 
ting our hands on the cars and "wishing them well." Our output 
for the last month at the five shops was 236 cars, of which 
Lawrence put out 38 from a ten-car capacity, Salem 41, same 
capacity, Concord 76, from a twenty-car capacity, and Fitch- 
burg 71, with a twenty-four-car capacity, and Lyndonyille 10, 
with a space for only three, as the space for one is given up 
to loco, tanks. So it goes. We hope to be "on easy street" 
when the robins sing next spring. 

We are going to have a new shop some time (?) but don't 
tell the neighbors, as they might be down to see it before it is 
done. One million cold dollars have been appropriated for a 
mammoth car and locomotive shop combined, to be located near 
the Hub of the Universe and the heart of the Commonwealth. 
The plans are being perfected and it is said that the coach re- 

February, 1906 



pair and paint shops will hopse close to one hundred cars at 
once, the paint shop alone spreading its wings over about half 
that number. Things will be lively when that Iong-looked-for 
day comes. But then ground isn't broken yet ; and I may get 
my head broken for saying much about it until it is, so I'll 
quit, except to say that it ought to be the best paint shop in 
the world, as doubtless it will be. 

By the way, "Jim" Gohen has been down this way lately on 
his initial trip for "Cleanola," and it seemed queer to be enter- 
tained by him as a veritable "supply man." He was being 
"chaperoned," he says, about New York and down here at Bos- 
ton by Benson E. Brown, whom we were glad to see again 
since the convention and his recent illness. "Jim" and I lunched 
together, of course, and talked and talked until the turkey got 
cold. He speaks well of his success in his new sphere already 
and is getting into swing, doing no visiting on this trip. Fie 
ought to succeed if anybody can. 

"Terminal Cleaning" is to be the subject next Tuesday night 
at the New England R. R. Club and a paper is to be read by 
some New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. man, I hear. 
Pity we can't have present some of our convention "spellbinders" 
on this subject, such as Gohen and Butts, and Gohen ought to 
be doubly interested now. I may write something about it 
when it is over, if they "hit it up" pretty well. 

I may say in passing that five years ago the B. & M. adopted 
Roman letters and numerals for its passenger equipment, and 
their application having been so far advanced it was de- 
cided this Fall to "make it unanimous" by wiping out the rest 
of the old block letters. Also all letter-board stripes at either 
end of the lettering are being abolished, leaving only two }i- 
inch gold bands around the car body, one below the windows 
and the other near the bottom of the car. This seems to be 
striping enough to relieve the monotony of so much blank. 
Pullman-colored space. I see the N. Y. Central has got down 
to only one band, and that about an inch wide near the bottom 
of the car. It seems to be getting so near the bottom that all 
is likely to drop off some day ! What a change from former 
days ! 

The B. & M. has also decided to paint the ceilings of the 
rest of its round-top passenger cars, of which they own nearly 
a hundred; and less than a score has been done. These cars 
when new were finished in mahogany throughout and were 
all right while the mahogany was new and light in color; but 
as they advanced in age (being 15 to 20 years old) the wood 
grew dark and oppressive and the cars were very unpopular. 
Nobody wanted them. Now they are generally praised. The 
management was loath to paint over so much good mahogany, 
but it seemed the only thing to do to relieve the gloom, and 
the decision seems to have been well taken. They are painted 
a light tint of olive green — almost a pea green. 

In closing, allow me, Bro. Pitard, to congratulate you with 
the success already attained in your new "stunt." I hope your 
courage will not fail you to interest others to write for you, 
and that you may interest your readers in what you write your- 
self. I may try again when the spirit moves, if the length 
of this does not paralyze you. With renewed love to my old 
readers, I am, 
Lawrence, Mass., Dec. 7, 1905. Chas. E. Copp. 

Mr. W. J. Russell 

Mr. W. J. Russell, a half-tone of whose photograph appears 
herewith, was born in Wilmington, Delaware, in 1854, moved 
west and located at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and started his ap- 
prenticeship with T. J. Rodabaugh, then with the P. F. W. & C. 
Ry., now the Pennsylvania, in May, 1869, and worked up to 
assistant foreman. He took his present position as foreman 
painter of the G. R. & I R. R., in April, 1881. He joined the 
M. C. & L. P. A. in Chicago in 1882, and has missed very 
few meetings since. 

MR. w 


J\{otes from the' Field 

The Erie shops at Buffalo are moving along with plenty of 
work in the shops, and things are working smoothly, being quite 
well systematized under the guiding hand of our old friend 
Billy Orr. 

Mr. E. L. Younger, of the Missouri Pacific at Baring Cross, 
Arkansas, informs us that they are busily engaged in renumber- 
ing their engines on account of a new classification, and the 
work is to be completed by January 1st, 1906. 

Mr. H. L. Mann, Master Painter at Urbana, 111., on the Big 
Four, working a force of forty painters, is rapidly changing 
their cars from the former yellow standard to the Pullman color, 
which the company have adopted as their latest standard. 

Mr. Robert Shore of the Lake Shore, Master Painter of the 
Collinwood shops, at Cleveland, Ohio, has been doing consider- 
able traveling lately over the system, investigating the condition 
of the passenger equipment, and also supervising the terminal 

Mr. Henry Wright, father of our associate member, Mr. J. 
D. Wright, resigned recently after many years of faithful -service 
at the Mattoon, Illinois, shops on the "Big Four." He was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. J. H. Russell who had been with Mr. Wright over 
twenty-five years. 

Mr. A. P. Dane, our secretary and treasurer, informs us that 
the bound volume of the proceedings of the Cleveland conven- 
tion, was ready for delivery on Dec. 18th, 1905. Possibly our 
readers will have received their copy ere this reaches them ; if not 
drop Mr. Dane a line and he will doubtless provide for you. 
» ♦ » 

Mr. J. T. McCrackin, well known to the members of the 

Master Car Painters Association is filling the position of Mas- 
ter Car Painter of the Manhattan Elevated and Interboro Co., 
New York City, with his usual success. All the equipments of 
the Subway and Elevated Railways are painted tuscan red. They 
have been turning out five cars per day. 

When the next warships sail from the Brooklyn Navy Yard, 
they will bear on their sides and in their paint store rooms 
the largest single order of white lead ever placed by the United 
States government. The purchase was made from Hammar 
Brothers White Lead Company, of St. Louis, Mo., for the 



February, 1906 

Brooklyn Navy Yard. The order filled an entire train, which 

was run through special over the Lackawanna Line in four days. 

■ ♦ • 

Mr. W. H. Dutton, Master Painter of the Lehigh Valley 

Railway and his genial assistant, Mr. M. C. Hillick, at Sayre Pa., 

always keep open house at their shops, and a pleasant visit is 

assured any of the boys who may chance to call upon them. Their 

shop accommodates- 34 cars, and is . usually full. They paint 

their coach sash the Pullman color, the same as the body of the 

car, and also stripe their cars a la Pullman. 

The shops of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at 
Elkhart, Ind., under the supervision of Mr. Frank Paulis, Master 
Painter, are turning out twenty-two engines per month. Loco- 
motive work only is done at this shop. Mr. Paulis comes of 
a family of painters, his father and two brothers having been 
Master Painters. One brother is still in the business in Houston, 
Tex., at the Southern Pacific shops, and has charge of the paint- 
ing at that point. 

We have recently added to our stock room, a "Painters' Cabi- 
net." It consists of an eight ounce bottle of all the different 
dry pigments (natural and chemical),, that enter into the various 
make-ups of painter's colors. The bottles have a large mouth, 
with glass stoppers, and are carefully labelled. This is not a 
necessary adjunct to the paint shop, but it is a source of much 
information regarding the characteristics of the different pig- 
ments. It is also an elementary lesson for the beginner, the ap- 
prentice, and even the painter who has but a vague acquaintance 
with such things. 

» ♦ ■ 

The Deleware and Hudson shops located at Oneonta, New 

York, are very busy putting their passenger equipment through 

the shops. Their coaches are painted a dark Pullman color, with 

duplicate Pullman striping. The initials of the road, D. & H., 

are placed in the center of the car in gold script letters, while 

the numbers are placed near each end according to usual custom. 

The shops are under the management of Mr. A. J. Bush, who 

was in attendance at the Cleveland convention for the first time, 

and joined the ranks as a regular member. 

We desire to publish in the next issue of the official organ, 
a fac-simile of the style of letters used in lettering the passen- 
ger cars on all the railroads embraced within the membership 
of the association. The initial letters only are all that is re- 
quired. They should be penciled in black on light colored 
thin paper, in order to be easily reproduced. It will not only 
be interesting to our readers to see the various styles of let- 
ters in contrasting position, but they may be retained as a 
reference in case it should be desired by any road to adopt 
any of the various styles. These will make quite a display, 
and will possibly occupy considerable space. All our members 
will doubtless be sufficiently interested to have their road rep- 
resented in the category ; if so, we shall be pleased to receive 
from each a copy of their standard letters without further 
notice. Possibly we will present these in supplement form. 

One of the interesting news events of the paint trade this 
week is the announcement that the Georgetown Chemical Works, 
of Georgetown, S. C, has commenced to market its product, 
which will be known as the "Allpine" brand turpentine. 

The company has already under way the work of boxing 
Over 400,000 long leaf pine trees in South Carolina, and has 
what is said to be the most modern turpentine plant in the 
country. By a special process, all of the insoluble rosin is ex- 
tracted from the product and most of the odor is removed 
so that none of the nauseating smell that characterizes the 
average turpentine. This process, it is understood, also in- 
creases the power of the product as a paint solvent. 

Most of the output will be marketed in five gallon square 
tin cans, two of which will be packed in a wooden case. These 

cans are air-proof and non-leakable, so that the heavy item of 
waste and deterioration from leakage and evaporation is elim- 
inated, while they are most convenient and economical to handle. 
Heavy users will be supplied with sealed iron drums that hold 
about 55 gallons each. 

The entire output of the company will be sold by the 
Charles E. Sholes Company, the well known dealers of 164 
Front Street, New York. 

■ ♦ ■ 

Elsewhere in this issue is published a very newsy letter from 
our predecessor in the editorial chair, Mr. C. E. Copp, in which 
he expresses a wish to see our members come forward to the 
support of the Official Organ, in which we coincide with him 
most heartily. It has been our effort to do this since taking 
the reins, but we have not yet succeeded to our satisfaction in 
getting them to "laugh out in meetin,' " as Mark Twain once 
related of an incident of one of his humorous lectures. He 
was giving one of his funny talks in some of the rural dis- 
tricts, and through some misunderstanding his audience got the 
impression that he was a preacher or that his talk was of the 
sacred order, and although Mark did his best to provoke his 
audience to laughter they did not crack a smile. The humorist, 
much chagrined, brought his lecture to a close, and was ap- 
proached by one of his auditors, who said to him, "Mr. Twain, 
if it hadn't been for the women, I would 'a laughed right out in 
meetin.' " Although there are no women or anything else to in- 
timidate our members, we have not yet been able to get them 
to speak out in "meetin,' " on the other hand, if it was left to 
the "women folks" to do the talking (we mean those of the 
friends of our association) it is possible that but one invitation 
is all that would be necessary. We digress for a moment just 
here, to remark concerning the loquaciousness of the gentler 
sex, that it is said of them that they would not make success- 
ful lawyers, for the reason that they are too fond of giving 
their opinion free of charge. It is rather to be regretted that 
their knowledge of the use of color does not as a general 
thing extend beyond its use in supplying some of the physical 
defects of nature, otherwise they might talk for the official 
organ, when their liege lords chose to remain silent. It is pos- 
sible, however, that a little urging from them of their liege 
lords might move them to activity along this line, even when 
the spirit failed to move them. Still we have hopes, and believe 
that we will soon succeed. There is already evidence of re- 
turning life, as the doctor might say of a doubtful patient, and 
with a little patience and careful nursing, we hope to have them 
on their feet ere long. First, Bro. Younger led off, and next 
in order comes Bros. Butts, Keil and Copp. Who next? It is 
said of the Dead Sea, that notwithstanding that it takes in 
all the water from the surrounding country, but gives out none, 
yet its surface ever remains over thirteen hundred feet below 
sea level, and again there is a scriptural quotation (directly the 
reverse of the above, but points the same moral), which says. 
"There is that that scattereth, and yet increaseth." Further 
comment on these is unnecessary. Let us hear from you. 

■ ♦ « 

Query Department 

"Why do wooden panels which have stood for years in pas- 
senger cars, showing no sign of wood checking, almost in- 
variably check from the bottom edge after being burned off and 
repainted ?" 

"Why does varnish frequently check in close parallel 
lines crosswise with the grain of the wood, and why does the 
cracking at other times assume a circular or irregular form? 
What are the different causes leading to the different forms 

of cracking?" 

B. E. Miller. 

March, 1906 



Established 1S7S 


Published by the 

BRUCE V. CRANDALL, President, CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-President 

O. W. BODLER, Secretary 

Office of Publication, Rooms 409=410 Security Building, Corner 

Madison Street and Fifth Ave., Chicago 

Telephone - - Main 3185. 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City 

Telephone - - 3524 John. 

A Monthly Eailway Journal 

THE number of couplers seen at the "rip track" and in 
the scrap heap, removed on account of the upper pin 
lug being broken, emphasizes the advisability of the more 
general use of a bottom pin lug so designed as to help the 
lower portion of the pin from falling in the event of its 
being broken, or the use of pins of such length that they 
may be seen easily by the car inspector. 

When a knuckle pin breaks, the head holds the upper 
portion in place and the lower portion falls on the right 
of way. This places all the strain on the upper lug and 
it soon gives way under the added load. If the broken 
pin can be detected and replaced before the lug gives way, 
the price of a coupler and the labor of renewal are saved, 
as well as preventing a defect which would hold the car 
out of service temporarily. 

If a knuckle pin is provided of such length as to extend 
at least two inches below the bottom of the lower lug, it 
would be plainly visible to the inspector and he could 
tell at a glance the condition of the pin. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price, $1.00 a year; to foreign countries, $1.50, _ - 

free of postage. Single copies, 10 cents. Advertising Locomotive Boiler Design 

•rates given on application to the office, by mail or in read before North -West Railway 

person. m y r j 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall M. Club on Jan'y 6, '06, by Mr. Van Alstyne, superin- 

Company. tendent of motive power of the Northern Pacific Railway, 

Paoers should reach subscribers by the first of the month , (0 , . .„ . , . T . r> - i tV ■ >> 

at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or on Some of the Essentials in Locomotive Boiler Design, 

failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very there are points that will attract renewed attention to the 

gladly sent. ^ locomotive boiler, which is a subject on which the author 

Entered at the Post Office in C hicago as Second-Class Matter. has been most closely in touch, having been chairman of 

the committee on boiler design for the A. R. R. M. M. A. 

„ T His suggestion to use a long combustion chamber (60 

Vol. XXX Chicago, March, 1906. No. 3 . ■ ^ && , & . . . V 

inches), will cause those acquainted with early boiler de- 

: sign to reminisce, for the combustion chamber has played 

an important role in boiler improvement in the past, and 

Contents having had its brief day, disappeared, but that fact does 

not in the least controvert the finding of the author of the 

Locomotive Boiler Design ■. 71 paper. 

Journals and Bearings for Cars ...72 m& rec ommendation for a greater depth of firebox, 

What Inducements do Railroads Offer to the Mechanical 1 ■> -,i ,, 1 ,- 1 , , 

_.,■■- coupled with the combustion chamber means a larger 

Graduate ? 72 _ , , . , . , . . , . , 

T . . . firebox volume, for that is the ultimate result of such a 

Increase m Variation in Height of Couplers II 72, 

Simultaneous Telephony and Telegraphy on the Northern desi ^ n ; and is ° ne ° f the factors that governs the design 

Pacific Railway, by J. C. Kelsey -.76* °^ engines built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works when 

Four Cylinder Compound Passenger Engine, Paris, Lyons, untrammeled by the purchaser. It will be noted that the 

Mediterranean 77* combustion chamber also reduces the length of tubes, 

The Missouri Pacific Shops at Sedalia, Missouri 79* serving the double purpose of increasing the volume 

Some of the Essentials in Locomotive Boiler Design 87* and heating surface of firebox, and insuring a higher 

Steam Motor Coach. Great North of Scotland Railway 88* heating surface at a point where it is most effective. In 

Pacific Type Engine, Oregon Short Line 00* t u a • * j 4. i-r ^ 1 j 

p ■ 1 tn e design presented to exemplify the changes suggested, 

a xt ^ n Y "■ ' ' " ,'/r " i '• * the flue heating surface is given at 3,1 ^ square feet, the 

A JNew JFlue Cleaning Machine .. 92* 

The Improved Friction Counter Shaft : "...'93* combustion chamber heating surface at 121 square feet, 

Self Measuring and Computing Oil and Gasoline Outfits. . . . .93* and tne fir ebox heating surface at 213 square feet. 

The World's Fair and the Result 93 Why the firebox and combustion chamber are made 

Nipple and Pipe Mill Machine 94* separate elements it is not plain, since they are one for 

Bang's Automatic Oil Cup 94* all practical purposes, and should therefore be treated 

Portable Hydraulic Presses 95 * as a unit In that case thg totaJ firebox h t j surface 

Star Metal Polish 06* i_ r , ■ , , 

t^.v, 1 r. -j n -T- c- , W • becomes 334 square feet, or about nine per cent of the 

Interborough Rapid Company Test Subway Engines 96 , ,, . , ; . ., . , K , 

Notes of the Month 6 heating surface, which is a value very closely in ac- 

kailway Association and Club Meetings for March ......... ! 9 8 COrd with P ractice whi ch obtained before inordinately 

Technical Publications 90 ^ on S A ues were used, and is not far from the recom- 

Railroad Paint Shop I00 mendations of the Master Mechanics' Association. 



March, 1906 

Journals and Bearings for Cars 

IN OUR foreign exchanges are noted spasmodic at- 
tempts to reduce car journal friction by means of 
roller bearings, the experiments made on the London, 
Brighton & South Coast a few months since having 
awakened renewed interest in the subject from which it is 
expected results will be attained that will warrant applica- 
tion of the principal to move passenger train cars. The 
tests so far conducted seem to have been highly satis- 
factory when measured in terms of drawbar pull and coal 
consumption, but to those unfamiliar with the mechani- 
cal features of the devices used to accomplish the end 
of reducing journal friction, there appears to be some 
vague elements as to cost of application and also main- 
tenance, both of which are not available to those interest- 
ed in the problem in America. 

The first attempt to eliminate journal friction, of 
which we have any account, was in this country about 
fifteen years ago, when a roller bearing device was ap- 
plied to a street car, and which was a success in opera- 
tion, although the cost was such as to bar it from gen- 
eral application. The design of this device embodied a 
series of rollers about 3/2 inch in diameter which bore on 
the journal and also on another series of rollers carried 
in a frame which in turn was surrounded by the journal 
box. The device was crude in its mechanical features, 
and costly to build, since it was of immense proportions 
and heavy. Its abandonment was due to great cost and 
want of interest at the time, but those who witnessed its 
operation saw the practicability of the scheme. 

It is the opinion of those posted in train operation, that 
there is no detail of a car that has as much influence on 
the earning increment, as the condition of the bearings, 
that sustain the load. A low coefficient of friction is 
never existent between the ordinary car journal and its 
bearing, except for periods too short to have weight in 
considering relative values. It is well known that under 
the most favorable circumstances, the relief from a hot 
box is of the most evanescent character. The causes 
therefor are as familiar as reasoning from cause to effect 
can make them, but the fact remains that the friction co- 
efficient is too high for coal running, otherwise the ther- 
mal conditions would not vex and make trouble for the 
train crew. 

How to avoid the loss of time and the delays due to 
the hot box has been the theme of many club papers, 
and there has been no more discussion of any phase of 
train service than that of prevention of hot boxes. It 
has had the attention of the best engineering talent in its 
design, and the same difficulties still obtain, no matter 
what the care involved in preparing the surfaces in con- 
tact. Many remedies are prescribed, and for individual 
cases there are no doubt solutions found for it in a way. 
In general the problem is unsolved, and will remain 
so until a means is provided for reducing the friction. 
The roller bearing does all this, but whether it will ever 
be made a practical proposition for heavy train equip- 
ment remains to be seen. There are also anti-friction 
metals that are efficient in aiding to keep the temperature 
of a box down to safe limits, when properly applied and 

looked after, but their use is not as extensive as they 

« ♦ ■ 

What Inducements do Railroads Offer to the 
Mechanical Graduate 

THE subject of the technical graduate in railway 
work has been discussed before the Master Me- 
chanics' Association, before railway club meetings, and 
in the technical press, both editorially and by corre- 
spondents, yet there is one point that has been always 
conspicuously absent from these discussions, and this 
point is most vital. 

Many railroad men seem to overlook the fact that a 
technical graduate is capable of advancement in other 
than railroad work and that the other fields of mechanical 
engineering offer far greater encouragement in both 
remuneration and rapidity of advancement. Further 
than this there are many manufacturing and supply con- 
cerns that are glad to secure the services of technically 
educated young men who have had several years' experi- 
ence in railroad work, and will pay them accordingly. 

When a young man is preparing himself for the future 
by taking a college course in mechanical engineering, he 
realizes that he is laying the foundation only, and he 
usually decides upon the branch of mechanical engineer- 
ing to which he wishes to devote his time, in order that 
he may grasp every opportunity tp obtain experience in 
that particular line, whether it be electrical, marine, mill, 
railroad work or what not. 

After working for experience during several years fol- 
lowing graduation, the young man in railroad work be- 
gins to compare his rate of progress with that of his class- 
mates who have devoted their time to other branches of 
mechanical engineering, and he is discouraged to find 
that he has been outdistanced by them as regards both 
remuneration and responsibility of position. 

The young railroader then looks further and considers 
the salaries of motive power officials, comparing them 
with similar positions in other lines. He finds the latter 
more remunerative than those he is spending his life 
and energy to attain. And is surprising that the result 
of his investigation is discouraging when a locomotive 
engineer in a plug run, working two days out of three, 
receives a check at the end of the month from fifteen to 
twenty dollars larger than the pay check of the division 
master mechanic? 

A young man naturally looks upon the money that 
he has paid to obtain a college education — sometimes he 
has earned it himself — as an investment and he is justi- 
fied in anticipating some interest on his capital. 

If there is any doubt that this investment brings a 
smaller rate of interest to those who follow railroad 
work, look up the records of any class of any engineer- 
ing institution of good standing, and compare the pro- 
gress and salaries of the graduates who are employed in 
railway mechanical work, with those of the graduates 
who are engaged in other mechanical fields. 

Under such conditions what inducements do the rail- 
roads offer the technical graduate? 

March, 1906 



Increase in Variation in Height of Couplers. II 

N PAGE 35 of the February issue of the 
fj Railway Master Mechanic appeared the re- 
marks of Mr. J. J. Hennessey on the change 
in variation in height of couplers made at the 
October meeting of the Western Railway 
Club, together with the opinions of some of 
the members of the Master Car Builders' As- 
sociation. Below are more expressions of the 
Master Car Builders' members which were 
received too late to get in the February issue. Notable 
among these is one by Mr. Wilson Worsdell, chief me- 
chanical engineer of the Northeast Railway of England. 
He calls attention to the fact that they allow a variation 
of 3 y 2 inches with perfect safety. Another interesting 
fact is that the representative members of the Master Car 
Builders' Association who are in favor of changing the 
variation represent 320,329 cars, while those opposed 
represent 121,364 cars. 

Mr. Wilson Worsdell, Chief Mech, Eng., North East Ry., of 


"Our experience with the automatic couplers is somewhat 
limited, our principal stock which i.s so fitted is that employed 
for the East Coast trains between England and Scotland; we use 
a buckeye coupler having a knuckle 9 inches deep divided into 
two lugs by a central slot 1^ inches deep. We find the cen- 
tral slot is advantageous for admitting the end of a three-link 
coupling chain for emergency use. The variation in the height 
of the couplers is only slight, because the varying loads due to 
passengers, etc., do not bear a high proportion to the total 
weight, and it is also desirable to keep the sill plates of adja- 
cent vestibules in good line. 

We are using a number of Cloud's central vertical plane 
couplers on 40 tons coal wagons, these have a double engage- 
ment by means of solid 4 inch knuckles on 9 inch projections, 
a difference in level of 2 x / 2 inches will bring the top of the knuckle 
flush with the top of the coupler head with which it is engaged. 
These wagons have a flexible system of bearing springs and no 
trouble has been experienced, or is expected from variations in 
the height. Our ordinary stock is fitted with the customary side 
buffers and central drawhooks, all placed at such a height that 
the center line of the gear is in the same horizontal plane with 
the middle of the depth of the underframe. On an average 
our wagon bearing springs deflect about 2 inches with the load 
and we do not stop wagons for repairs so long as they stand 
within i l / 2 inches of their normal level, we thus having a working 
range of about 3^2 inches, if this is exceeded it is probable that 
the cross strains induced by the want of alignment will have 
a damaging effect on the buffing gear. It appears to us that 
this want of alignment in the transmission of the buffing shocks 
will be the factor determining the allowable difference in level." 

From a Superintendent of Motive Power. 
"We have ' investigated the subject of "changing variation 
in height of M. C. B. coupler proposed," and recommend that 
the change be made increasing the variation ]/ 2 inch each way 
from the present mean height of coupler, 33 inches. This will 
make the minimum height 31 inches and the maximum height 
35 inches, At the same time, a change in the length of face. 

of M. C. B. knuckle must be made from 9 inches to 10 inches. 
We advocate these changes to provide a more prompt and sat- 
isfactory exchange of cars at interchange points and to elimi- 
nate much of the work and expense now required to keep 
couplers within the limits of height originally prescribed for 
equipment, much of which is now obsolete. We specially rec- 
ommend it because it can be done without detriment to existing 
equipment and without additional risk and danger to employes 
in train and yard service; also without increased liability of 
accident to the equipment when in service. 

The increased maximum height will be specially applicable 
to new freight equipment when first placed in service without 
lading and the decreased minimum height will apply to old 
equipment loaded to its maximum capacity and will permit of 
strict application of M. C. B. rules and interstate commerce law, 
both of which are now violated when much of the new equip- 
ment is placed in service. 

In our opinion, the only object attained by keeping strictly 
within the limits now standard is to avoid collisions caused by 
trains parting and the tendency to maintain couplers and draft 
gear in perfect order. Also the closer all center lines of coup- 
lers conform to the mean height of 2>3 inches, the lenst draw- 
bar pull is required to move any train. For practical purposes 
we believe this can be accomplished as effectually by making 
the changes recommended and at much less delay to traffic, and 
expense of equipment. The matter should be properly brought 
before the M. C. B. Association at the next annual meeting, 
and the Interstate Commerce Commission should be notified 
so that their representative can be present to co-operate in this 

Mr. J. W. Fogg, M. M., C. T. T. R. R. 

"Referring to the subject of the variation in height of freight 
car couplers : 

"Will say that this is a subject which I consider a very im- 
portant one indeed, and in perusing the article by Mr. Hennes- 
sey, I feel that he leaves but little in addition to be said on 
the subject as he has covered the points very thoroughly in- 
deed, and I do not see that I can say anything which would add 
to his remarks. I heartily agree with Mr. Hennessey, saying 
standard height of thirty-three inches was introduced quite a 
number of years ago and in the day when the cars were equipped 
with the common link and pin draw bars and which had com- 
paratively small opening in the mouth. At the present day we 
are using the M. C. B. coupler with the solid knuckle with a 
wearing face of nine and sometimes ten inches. Also, at the 
present time we have the steel cars, and to adjust the height 
of such car, makes in most cases, an expensive piece of work. 
Mr. Hennessey has very truly and clearly shown a natural set- 
tlement in a car of over four inches. The law governing the 
three-inch variation is brought about by recommendation of 
the Master Car Builders' Association, and I therefore believe 
the recommendation for a four-inch variation would be proper 
and would undoubtedly meet with the approval of the majority 
interested. I think this subject brought up by Mr. Hennessey 
is a vital one to the interests of railroads and it should not 
escape the proper attention of the convention of Master Car 
Builders' Association at Atlantic City, June 13th to 15th, 1906." 

« ♦ 

Mr. W. R. McKcen, Jr., S. M. P. & M., U. P. R. R. 
"Would recommend that the maximum height of couplers 
from top of rail to center of coupler shank be changed to 35 
inches, and the minimum to 31 inches It would be perfectly 
safe to adopt these heights, and believe it would save the rail- 
road companies a large amount of money now spent in alter- 
ing heights of cars before offering them in interchange," 



March, 1906 

Mr. J. F. Dunn, Supt. Meek Dept., 0. S. L.; S. P. Co.; U. P. Co. 

"I do not see any necessity for changing the maximum 
height of couplers on freight cars, as I see no advantage to be 
derived therefrom As you are aware, it is the present custom 
f jr the couplers on new cars leaving shops to be 35 inches in 
height, as they will come down one-half inch as soon as any 
tension is placed on the springs. 

"Would, however, recommend that the minimum height be 
reduced from 31^ to 31 inches, which would relieve us of con- 
siderable trouble and expense raising cars to meet the present 
requirements. This would give us a variation of 3^ inches, and 
a mimimum bearing on the face of couplers of 5V2 inches, which 
we think would be satisfactory." 

Mr. M. J. Drury, M. M., A. T. & S. F. Ry., Coast Lines. 

"Relative to the increase in variation in the height of coup- 
lers : From my experience I cannot agree with you in giving 
more variation in the height, even with the knuckles having 
a wearing surface on the face of 8 inches. We find that there 
is considerable variation at the present and makes it very hard 
on the coupler and pin, especially on our long trains that we 
pull out of this point, and if we were to allow more variation, 
the liability would be increased, in either pulling to top hole 
out of the coupler, or bending pin which goes through coupler 
and knuckle. At least this is my opinion of the matter" 

Mr. David Van Alstyne, Meek Supt, N. P. Ry. 

"I do not believe it is at present necessary to increase the 

height of couplers and would refer you to proceedings of the 

North-West Railway Club for December, 1905, in which you 

will find some recommendations on the subject which I made." 

Mr.- N. L. Smitham, M. M., T. C. R. R. 
"I fully indorse Mr. Hennessey's argument in favor of morr 
allowance in heights of car couplers." 

Mr. Geo. W. West, S. M. P.. N. Y. 0. & W. R R. 

"I am heartily in accord with Mr. Hennessey's address 
before the Western Railway Club on the subject of increasing 
the variation in height of freight car couplers. The conditions 
that establish the present limit of variation are entirely changed. 
There is at the present time, no occasion for a man or men 
going between the cars to guide the coupling link and practical 
car men all agree that if we had a greater height above the rail, 
we could get body and truck bolsters capable of carrying our 
present loads with much less amount of material. We ought 
to gradually work the maximum limit to thirty-six inches. 
This would enable us to have our passenger and freight cars all 
of the same height and give us a little more room between the 
trucks and the bodies on our passenger cars as well. With the 
solid knuckle, there could be no bad effect from making a 
maximum height of 35 inches at the present time. 

"There is only one thing in which I do not quite agree with 
Mr. Hennessey, and that is in the minimum height. I do not 
believe we should encourage any lower limit than thirl y-one 
and one-half inches." 

Mr. IV. E. Fowler, M. C. B., C. P. Ry. 

"I certainly agree with Mr. J. J. Hennessey in his remarks 
on this subject at the October meeting of the Western Railway 
Club. It is a well known fact that the reason of the limited 
variation of 3 inches as established between the maximum and 
minimum heights of center line of couplers was, that at the time 
the limit was established, the link and pin draw bar was practic- 
ally the standard, and it was practically impossible to couple two 
of these draw bars with a greater variation between them than 
3 inches, unless a crooked link was used, which was neither safe 
nor desirable. 

"My observation leads me to state that there are very few 
cases of uncoupling due to variation in height of couplers. 
Also with the longer wearing face of the knuckle, and the 
elimination of the slot, there is far less danger than formerly 

to the knuckle breaking, due to the strain upon only one-half 
of its surface. 

"The variation in height due to wear of the parts of the 
truck as stated by Mr. Hennessey, is, I think, within the limit 
of every day experience. This being the case, I would recom- 
mend that the maximum height be extended to 35 inches and the 
mimimum be contracted to 31 inches. 

"I feel satisfied that there will be no bad results from this, 
but rather that it will facilitate the interchange of loaded cars, 
and consequenly reduce the cost of carrying freight generally." 

Mr. J. E. Irvin, M. M., M. C. & C. R. R. 
"I heartily agree with Mr. Hennessey's remarks and believe 
the change would be beneficial to all parties having anything to 
do with operating and maintaining freight cars." 

Mr. E. N. Benedict, G. F. C. D., C. B. & Q. Ry. 
"Regarding Mr. J. J. Hennessey's figures, will indorse all he 
states and add Y% inch drop for draw bar, for hanger pins bear- 
ing and hanger, in swing motion truck; also *4 i ncn an( i over 
for shrinkage in swing motion truck bolsters if made of oak. 
or oak and iron plate. The wearing away of all material is 
common and universal in cars constructed of wood, while 3 
inches is rather wide range, yet it is a question whether it is 
sufficient, if cars are allowed to run two to three years without 
adjusting the height." 

Mr. John Tonge, M. M., M. & St. L. R. R. 

"Concerning variation in height of freight car couplers, would 
say, that I have drawn a red line through the introductory re- 
marks, which, to my mind, has no place or weight in the con- 
sideration. Would say also, that it is the plain coupler known 
as the M. C. B. coupler that we should consider at this time. 
It is no use talking about past conditions that are obsolete at 
the present time. In my mind, we should only consider the 10- 
inch faced knuckle and perfecting the modern car. I do not 
think any argument brought up wherein the old equipment is 
brought in to support the opinion, is of any weight, and has no 
place in the argument, for the reason that these cars are being 
destroyed at a very rapid rate, and it is useless to consider adopt- 
ing any elastic regulations in order to cover the old equipment, 
when in a very short time we will have to erase the same from 
the files, for the reason that the old equipment has been de- 

"I think it is a very far-fetched comparison to refer to a 
single trip on the road in noting the up and down movement of 
couplers. While the up and down movement of the couplers 
would not be as excessive on a modern car as on an old car, 
I think this is another good reason for not considering the old 
car, when considering a modern car with a 10-inch faced 
knuckle. A permanent set of springs, and the wearing of brass 
journal bearings, etc., referred to, I think was duly considered 
and I do not believe that there is any need for change to be 
made further than that the association make request on railroad 
managers to instruct their car service departments that the 
10-inch face knuckle should be used from and after any given 
date that in their judgment they consider wise to recommend." 

Mr. T. H. Curtis, Supt. Mack, L. & N. R. R. 
"There has always been a discussion as to the desirability 
of having 3 inches variation, a great many parties desiring that 
the variation be changed to 4 inches in order to expedite the 
movement of traffic, claiming that it was necessary at times 
to put cars in the repair tracks for change in height of couplers 
and citing if the variation allowed had been a little greater it 
would not have been necessary to have shopped the cars. 

"Should we change from 3 inches to 4 inches, we will have the 
same argument before us, citing that it is necessary to shop cars 
account of improper height of coupler. 

"I am not in favor of changing the variation in height of 

"If a car is substantially built with the proper kind of metal 

March, 1906 



draft gear, body bolsters, etc., required for the heavier equip- 
ment, a variation of 3 inches in the height, when the car is still, 
is sufficient. This variation of 3 inches in the height of draw 
bar is liable to vary nearly an inch when the car is running. 
If a car is under load at its mimimum height of 31 }4 inches, 
a low place in the track may cause this car to drop below 31 


"In your article you mention the fact that a large number of 
roads are using the solid knuckle. It would be very much to 
the credit of all roads if every one was required to use a solid 
knuckle, as a large number of cars are running with the open 
knuckle and causing breakages by pulling on one lug only. I do 
not think that consent should be given for change in variation 
of heights of couplers from that authorized by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission unless all of the cars in the United 
States are equipped with a solid knuckle having at least a 9-inch 
face. It is my opinion that we will come to this standard in a 
few years and with that event will be the adoption of a strong 
and substantial draft rigging, and stability of trucks and springs 
which will not make it necessary to change the standard height 
of couplers. 

"As a general rule a large portion of the agitation in regard 
to the change of standards is brought about by switching roads 
which have no terminal repair facilities and desire to handle 
equipment in any way possible in order to deliver it to another 
road." • 

Wm. Percy, M. C. B., W. C. Ry. 
"I fully agree with Mr. Hennessey, that on account of the 
changed conditions since the present limit was established the 
variations between the minimum and maximum height should be 
increased from three to four inches. I hope the Master Car 
Builders' Association will be successful in bringing about this 
change at the next convention of the association." 

• « > • 

Mr. Wm. Miller, G. F. C. R., Erie R. R. 
"Would say that it is my opinion, too, that it would be better 
if a greater variation in height of couplers was made allowable. 
The present limit of 3 inches between the maximum and mini- 
mum height of M. C. B. couplers from the top of rail brings 
many cars to the repair tracks that would otherwise remain 
in service. The loss caused by delay of equipment on account 
of this amounts to a great deal during the year, especially roads 
having mostly the old style equipment. 

"Inasmuch as nearly all roads are now using solid knuckles 
with from 9 to 10 inches face, the variation allowable in height 
of couplers, in my opinion, can safely be changed from 3 inches 
to 4 or 5 inches. 

"I consider 5 inches variation in height of couplers from 
top of rail with knuckles 10 inches face, as recommendable and 

» ■» ■ 

Mr. E. L. Lovejoy, Supt., P. & R. F. Ry. 
"I quite agree with Mr. Hennessey that there should be more 
than three inches variation between the maximum and minimum 
height of M. C. B. couplers. I believe that with a solid knuckle 
five-inch face, or possibly ten-inch face, that the variation could 
be increased without any liability of accident, account of rough 
track, etc." 

Mr. H. Mandeville, G. F. P. C. L, Penna. R. R. 
"While I have the greatest respect for Mr. Hennessey per- 
sonally, and for his judgment mechanically, I cannot agree with 
his ideas on this subject. It is certainly a step backwards. Our 
mimimum height is now too low for good service. I strongly 
advocate increasing the minimum height one inch, making it 
34 inches, and increasing the shop limit one inch ; this would 
allow the spring manufacturers a chance to make a stronger 
and better spring. ' With better springs, the increased one inch 
in the shop limit would allow the cars to settle when loaded to 
a more uniform height of drawheads." 

Mr. W. W. Kent, G. M., Chattanooga Southern R. R. 
"We are in favor of increasing the variation to four inches, 
making the maximum 34 and the minimum 31 inches, and will 
be glad to see that move adopted." 

Mr. W. /. Haynen, M. M., D. T. & I. Ry. 
"I concur entirely with Mr. Hennessey's views that the present 
variation of 3 inches between the maximum and minimum height 
of couplers is not sufficient with the present equipment and 
the heavy loading it receives on all railroads, especially in view 
of the fact that we have all increased the size of the wearing 
face of the coupler knuckles in service. Our road at present 
uses both 9-inch and 10-inch knuckle face. 

"I would not change the minimum height of draw bars, but 
would favor the continuation of 31 % inches, but would increase 
the maximum height from 34^ to 2,^/2 inches. This, I think, 
would be sufficient to avoid holding up of cars at heavy inter- 
change points." 

■ ♦ « 

Mr. W. O. Thompson, D. S. M. P. N. Y. C. & H. R. R. 
"I would be in favor of having the minimum and maximum 
heights of our couplers 31 and 35 inches, but to do this I do not 
believe it is safe to have a knuckle with less than a 11-inch "face 
and believe that a 12 inch face would be better. 

Mr. O. F. Zeng, M. C. B., U. R. T. Co. 
"Beg to say that I am in favor of increasing the present varia- 
tion of 3 inches between the maximum and minimum height of 
M. C. B. couplers and agree with Mr. Hennessey in his re- 
marks made at a recent meeting of the Western Railway Club." 

Mr. F. Huf smith, S. M. P. & R. S., I & G.N. R. R. 
"I fully concur with Mr. J. J. Hennessey's remarks before 
the Western Railway club. My experience has been that 3 
inches variation of couplers for freight cars is not sufficient 
and should be increased at least one inch more, or to four inches, 
for the reason that every thing from wear and load has a ten- 
dency to lower the car in a very short time below the minimum 

Mr. H. L. Tringer, G. F. C. D., Seabord Air Line. 
"Referring to the article by Mr. Hennessey relative to in- 
creased variation in height of freight car couplers, beg to ad- 
vise that I am opposed to any increase in the variation in 
height of couplers, as the per cent of solid knuckles used in the 
South is very small, and the damage in switching the cars with 
greater variation in height of couplers would necessarily increase, 
and we would have more broken couplers, due to the small 
striking surface on account of the increased variation in the 
height of couplers. Further, in looking over records handled at 
our Interchange points, I find that we have only one car within 
the past twelve months set back on account of coupler being 
too low. 

In the matter of new cars being too high, that is only the 
case in cars being improperly designed. If a car is properly 
designed and built so that the center line of coupler does not 
exceed 34% inches from the rail, it will be a long time before 
any adjustment will have to be made in the height of this car. 
The trouble with a good many of the cars today, is due to the 
design being such that the car cannot be raised or lowered 
without having to practically rebuild the trucks. What we want 
is a car so designed that all of the parts used in its construction 
will properly carry the load and stand the wear and tear, and 
at the same time, car to be so constructed that it can be easily 
adjusted to the proper height if it should be necessary. Further, 
our experience has been, that a car with a center of coupler 
31 Yz inches above rail coupled to a car 34H inches above rail, 
is all the variation that can be handled safely in delivering cars 
from bridges to barges. If the tide happens to be low, any 
greater variation than this, cars will come uncoupled. 

This happened twice on two large roads near us, where in 
one case the cars after getting loose ran over end of the barge 

7 6 


March, 1906 

and went overboard, Causing the loss of five cars and their 
freight, and in the other case, one car went over, causing the loss 
of the car and it's freight. 

Orders have now been issued that when the tide is very low 
links and pins are to be used in putting cars on barges. As 
you readily see, that an increase in the Variation in the height 
of freight cars would mean an increase in the use of links 
and pins, and an increase in the cost of switching. 

R. A. Billingham, S. M. P., P. S. & N. 

"Would say that I favor a maximum height of 35 inches and 
a minimum of 31." 

Mr. D. O'Leary, M. M., Pacific Coast Co. 

"Referring to Mr. J. J. Hennessey's remarks on the height of 

freight car couplers. I will state that I fully concur with Mr. 

Hennessey's opinion in regard to this matter, and hope that it 

will be taken up with the Master Car Builders Association, and 

put into effect." 

. ♦ « 

Simultaneous Telephony and Telegraphy on 
the Northern Pacific Railway 


THE telephone has become a most important factor in 
our business and social life. It has completely revo- 
lutionized the business methods of the traditional butcher, 
baker and candle stick maker. It has been generally 
accepted by the farmer, who from his isolated home can 
learn the market prices at any moment, and can thereby 
sell his product at the most advantageous price. The 
salesmen is in constant touch with the customer, and 
the buyer in touch with his favorite wholesale house. 
The department store, with its numerous floors, and 
numerous patrons, connects the credit man and the sales- 
man by telephone, and by suitable devices, operated over 
the telephone line, keeps records of the transaction, and 
saves the time and steps of the customer. It thereby 
relieves the elevator service, and affords relief beyond 

Electric railways have demonstrated the usefulness of 
the telephone for train despatching. Steam roads have 
not looked with favor on this method on account of the 
lack of recording features. But there are numerous 
ways in which the telephone can be used by the railroad, 
which will relieve the telegraph office of traditional con- 
gestion. It is said that one railway system, during a 
threatened telegraphers' strike, had a provisional order for 
3,000 telephones, placed with a prominent telephone 
manufacturer, so that every telegraph key could be re- 
placed in short notice. The calling off of the threatened 
strike rather indicated the moral influence of the tele- 

The eastern railways operate their telephone system, 
in conjunction with the Bell Telephone Co., and have not 
played a great part in the development of the telephone 
on a strictly independent basis. It remained for the 
Northern Pacific system, under Mr. O. C. Green, Super- 
intendent of telegraph service, to originate a strictly inde- 
pendent system of their own, which possesses many un- 
usual features. 

The telephone service was first tried between Tacoma 
and Seattle. So immediate was its success demon- 
strated that service between Duluth and St. Paul was 
authorized and completed. A line to Staples and 

Combined Telephone and 
Telegraph Line 




~~ fi. 



0- - 

- cc 





5 _ 

- 1- 



Fig No. 1 

St Paul 







I — 1 — r 











/-x 75 J 

\ 75 

J 8 



J 6 







Brainerd from St. Paul followed. Then Staples to 
Fargo. Also Livingstone to Helena ; and Helena to 
Missoula, and Roslyn to Tacoma. 

It will surprise the reader to learn that there are now 
but three short gaps between St. Paul and Portland. 
There is a gap between Cow Creek and Spokane, 
125 miles in length. This construction has been author- 
ized, and the line will soon be in operation. Another gap 
lies between Ellensburg and Pasco, also 125 miles in 
length. There is also a gap between Tacoma and Port- 
land, of forty miles. With these gaps closed, the North- 
ern Pacific railway will be the first concern to give ser- 
vice from the Mississippi to the Pacific. 


The beauty and novelty of the Northern Pacific sys- 
tem of communication lies in the combined use of the 
telephone with the quadruplex telegraph service from the 
north and west. Figure 1 indicates a telephone line, of 
metallic nature, between St. Paul and Staples. On this 
line, there are twenty-three telephones, at the different 
cities and stations along the railway. Possibly, there are 
section houses connected to this line at important points. 
The metallic telephone line, running east and west, is the 
circuit between Fargo and Staples. There are eighteen 
telephone stations placed along this stretch. If there 
is a telephone call from St. Paul to Fargo, the St. Paul 
operator calls Staples, whose operator connects the Fargo 
line, and if Fargo wants Duluth, they call Staples, who 
in turn calls St. Paul, who relays to Duluth. 

The quadruplex stations at St. Paul receive their four 
different mesages over this telephone wire. While Fargo 

March, 1906 



talks to Staples, and another party in Staples talks to St. 
Paul, there are telegraph messages being sent over this 
same circuit to Winnipeg, Mandan, and all western 
points. Truly, a marvelous use of one pair of wires. 
Forty-one telephone stations, and four separate telegraph 
communications, over two wires certainly shows effici- 

The ordinary method of combining telephony and 
telegraphy is to bridge the telephone line with sufficient 
impedance, and to tap the middle point of the coil, for 
the telegraph service. This would not unbalance the 
telephone line, nor would it allow the clicking of the 
telegraph key to be heard on the line. When Mr. Green 
came to operate his quadruplex circuit, he found that the 
iron of the bridged coil impeded the quad so seriously as 
to make it useless. He very boldly cut the iron out of the 
coils, which allowed the quad currents, so complex in 
character, to have a non-inductive path, and consequently 
speeded up the telegraph service. But cutting out the 
iron is contrary to telephone men's injunctions. But it 
has been demonstrated that the iron is not necessary, 
for the forty-three telephones give the best possible 
transmission, and ringing too, in spite of this non-in- 
ductive bridge. 

The Figure 1 shows the four quad stations at St. Paul, 
with the non-inductive bridge on the telephone line, 
tapped at the middle point. At Staples, the middle point 
of the bridge is tapped, and the telegraph stations cut in. 
At Staples, on the Fargo line, the telephone line bridge 
is tapped at the middle point, and the telegraph service 
connected. At Fargo, the line is again bridged, the mid- 
dle point tapped, and one telegraph circuit goes to Win- 
nipeg, and the other westward to Mandan. 

Figure 2, indicates what might be called a telegraph 
terminal box. There are six pairs of coils, the first being 
composed of two non-inductive coils of 800 ohms each. 
These pairs range down to ten ohms each. The terminal 
point C is connected to one terminal of the telegraph 
set. The points under A and B are connected to the 
respective sides of the telephone circuit. If the telegraph 
service is called for, between St. Paul and Staples, the 
St. Paul operator connects, for instance, the 800 ohm pair 
across the telephone line at a convenient place. The 
Staples operator connects his 800 pair across his end of 
the telephone line, and the middle point C to the tele- 
graph instrument. If they find 800 ohm coils too high, 
it is but a short step to the 400, or 100 ohm bridges. 
There is no interference with the telephone service, and 
none on the telephone line is aware of the change in the 
bridge. This clever device is characteristic of the tele- 
graph man, and reveals plainly that he is prepared at aU 
times to give service under the most heartrending con- 


Mr. Green has adopted what may be termed a "Wreck- 
ing Set." It is a special telephone set, equipped with a 
reel and a rod, with a flexible cord, which enables the 
wrecking crew to have immediate connection with the 

headquarters of the officials. There are ten crews to be 
similarly equipped. Eventually, each passenger and 
freight train may be thus equipped, so that any standing 
train may have instant communication with any official 

There is also a local telephone system, so that each 
official may have access to the telephone lines. The use 
of the telephone has lightened the load of the telegraph 
office, and leaves them more time for important work. 
The roadmaster may talk to the section man, without 
calling on the telegraph office. The engineer can call the 
master mechanic without bothering the telegraph office. 
In other words, the telephone has become indispensable 
to the railroad interests. 

Mr. Green has been interviewed by railroad men from 
all over the world on his usage of the telephone. All 
indications point to its general adoption. When tele- 
phone conversations between two different pairs of peo- 
ple, or even three or four or five pairs of talkers, and four 
telegraph messages, take place simultaneously over the 
same pair of wires, it stands to reason- that its use is guar- 

All telephone apparatus used on the road has been 
made exclusively by the Kellogg Switchboard and Supply 
Co., of Chicago, which company has succeeded in keep- 
ing pace with these heavy requirements. That this Kel- 
logg instrument performs so well under such difficult 
conditions, both in ringing and talking, the railroad offi- 
cials will cheerfully agree. The Kellogg company has 
many of the largest railway sytems using its apparatus 
exclusively. Their wisdom has been lately verified, in- 
asmuch as the Italian government, after most rigid tests, 
has recently ordered two thousand telephones, for just 
such difficult work as is required by the Northern Pacific 

Four Cylinder Compound Passenger Engine — 
Paris, Lyons, Mediterranean 

THe exposition of 1905 at Liege was notable for a 
transportation exhibit which embraced productions 
of more than ordinary merit. Among the locomotives were 
to be seen compounds of various designs, and of these 
which attracted much attention were the high-speed four- 
cylinder ten wheel engines of the Chunin de fer de Paris 
a Lyon & ala Mediterranee, drawings and particulars 
of which are presented herewith by courtesy of Engineer 
in Chief Chabal. 

The locomotive exhibited by the P. L. M. was one of a 
lot of twenty recently constructed and designed for haul- 
ing the fast trains on the grades of the line from Paris 
to Nice, where there are long ascents of 8 m/m per metre, 
or 42.24 feet per mile. They were built at the works of 
M. M. Schneider & Co, at Cruesot, from designs fur- 
nished by the Railway Company. 

These engines are distinguished for their employment 
in this special service of six connected wheels. The three 
coupled wheels have the same diameter of 78^4 inches as 
the preceding engines, and are like those of the compound 
system of four cylinders, each pair acting on two differ- 



March, 1906 


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ent axles, of the design of 1888 by M. Ad. Henry, and 
shown by this company at Paris in 1889. This company 
has today in service, or in construction, 591 locomotives 
of this system, and 140 that are different only in that the 
four cylinders act on one axle, making a total of 731 
compound locomotives. 

The high pressure cylinders are 13.38 inches in dia- 
meter and located outside of the frames, connecting with 
the middle pair of wheels, while the low pressure cylin- 
ders are 21.26 inches in diameter, located between the 
frames, and connect with the first pair of wheels by means 
of a cranked axle, the cranks of which are on the same 
side of the axle and have coincident axles, but are at 180 
degrees with the high pressure crank pins. All pistons 

have a stroke of 25.59 inches. All of the high pressure 
pistons are, by this arrangement of cranks, at the front 
end of their cylinders when the low pressure pistons are 
at the back end of their cylinders, producing a balance 
of the horizontal forces and an equal distribution of crank 
effort between two axles. 

In order to get a reasonable length of main rod for the 
low pressure cylinders, the latter are carried forward of 
the high pressure cylinders a distance equal to about one- 
half the stroke. The valves are of the piston type, the 
high pressure being 7 7-8 inches in diameter, and the low 
pressure 11 inches in diameter. These dimensions, it will 
be observed, are much less than followed in this country 
for the same type of valve. The valves are actuated by 

March, 1906 




the Walschaert gear, and the cutoff is governed by a 
screw reverse which gives a fixed steam distribution. 
Maximum travel of the high pressure valve is 5.7 inches, 
and that of the low pressure is 4.92 inches. 

The boiler is of the Belpaire type of steel, having a 
copper firebox with an outside length of 118.89 inches 
and an outside width of 47 inches. The grate slopes down- 
ward at the front at an angle of 17 degrees, the back' end 
passing over the rear axle. The cylindrical part of the 
boiler is made in two rings having a maximum internal 
diameter of 59 inches. The tubes are steel of the Serve 
type, of which there are 138, 2^4 inches outside diameter, 
and 13.12 feet long. 

In accordance with foreign practice, the frames are of 
the slab type, and in this case made of steel plates 1.10 
inches thick. There is a transverse brace at the front of 
I section, another at the rear at the corners, formed of 
plates, and three intermediate braces, of which one is of 
plates at the corners and two of cast steel ; also one at the 
low pressure cylinder. The engine truck is center bear- 
ing with equalizers and has steel tired wheels 39.37 inches 
in diameter. It is equipped with the air brake. 

The exhaust is variable by means of a cone, which is 
manipulated from the cab, and on this road is made to 
perform its proper function in fuel saving. Provision is 
made to use live steam in the low pressure cylinders when 
necessary. The engine is furnished with the Graham 
steam sander, and also has the Westinghouse-Henry auto- 

matic airbrake on all wheels, a compound air pump of the 
Company de Fioes-Lille furnishing the compressed air. 
The engine is also equipped with two speed indicators, 
one being of the railroad's standard and one being of the 
liquid type, which registers on a gauge in the cab; in 
addition to these modern appliances, the engines are 
equipped with a steam heat system for train service. 

The coupling of the driving axles at 180 degrees, as 
has been stated, reduces to the minimum the effect of the 
disturbances due to inertia forces. The maximum mo- 
ment producing nosing at the speed limit of 74.5 miles 
per hour, (120 kilometres), =60.73 fo°t pounds. The 
amplitude of this action, independent of the speed, at 
39.37 inches (one metre), from the center of gravity,= 
8.66 inches; the amplitude, .independent of the speed, 
at the center of the truck,=30 inches. The maximum 
effort producing pitching action, at the above speed limit 
of 74.5 miles per hour,= 10.39 f°°t pounds. The ampli- 
tude of this action, independent of the speed,= 14.37 
inches. These results are obtained by the complete equi- 
librium of the counterweights at the point of lifting effort. 

The weight of this engine in working order is as fol- 
lows : On truck, 44,423 lbs ; on driving wheels, 102,343 
lbs; total weight, 146,790 lbs. With a co-efficient of ad- 
hesion of .25. The drawbar pull capable of being exerted 
is 25,580 lbs., of which it is seen that the French engine 
is more powerful than many of our passenger ten-wheel- 
ers of much greater weight. The drawings will repay 
inspection and study, since they represent a machine that 
has many interesting points of design, which, though 
strange to our practice in many particulars, still give a 
valuable line on the progress of the French engineer in 
the development of the steam locomotive. 

The Missouri Pacific Shops at Sedalia, Mo. 

IN ORDER to concentrate their repairs in one general 
plant the Missouri Pacific concentrated their work 
in one general shop at East Sedalia. For this purpose 
the new shops illustrated and described here were erected 
last summer. 

The general layout of the buildings is clearly shown 
in the illustration. This shows the main line running 
southeast of the shops. A side track connected with the 
main line directly south of the erecting shop connects 
with all the yard tracks. The most easterly building is 
the paint store room, which is very close to the paint 
shop. The latter is located at the northern end on the 
east side of the transfer table pit. It is directly opposite 
the coach repair shop, which makes it an easy matter to 
transfer a car for painting without running the whole 
length of the pit. Directly south of the coach shop, also 
bordering the west side of the transfer table pit, is the 
locomotive erecting machine aud boiler shop. The plan- 
ing mill is one hundred and forty-three feet west of the 
coach shop and locomotive shop. North of the planing mill 
are racks for bar and sheet iron and flues. These racks 
are alongside of the blacksmith shop. The oil house and 
power house are south of the smithshop, and storeroom 



March, 1906 


and office building are south of these. The casting and 
freight car repair sheds are west of the planing mill and 
the scrap bin and water tower are west of the power 

The buildings are constructed of brick, resting on con- 
crete foundations. The steel columns and roof trusses 
are common to all the buildings. All of the down spouts 
are of 4%-inch well casing. The roofs are all laid on 
4x6-inch pine jack rafters and consist first of 2-inch 
pine planks, over which is a layer of asbestos roofing 
paper. Then comes a layer of i-inch tongued and 
grooved boards, covered with four-ply felt and gravel 

The paint shop is 100x312 ft. and has fourteen tracks. 
The building is 70 ft. back from the transfer table, leav- 
ing room for an ordinary coach. The tracks extend 
within about 24 ft. of the back wall, leaving a large clear 
space for transferring material, etc. The construction of 
the building is clearly shown in the cross-section and the 
photograph. These show two rows of columns the 
whole length of the buildings with the middle very 

slightly raised. A row of windows is placed along the 
sides of the raised section. The doors lift up in place of 

There is no power provided in this building other than 
a 2-inch compressed air service connection. The build- 
ing is lighted by fifteen enclosed arc lamps hung from the 
ceiling with the standard hanger used throughout the 
plant. For extension lights, twenty-six Chapman plug 
receptacles are mounted on the steel columns. 

The heating of the building is by means of the hot air 
system. This system was supplied by Wm. Bayley & 
Sons Co., of Milwaukee, and consists of a 9x4^ ft. fan 
with top and bottom horizontal discharge outlets. The 
heater has 9,700 feet of one-inch pipe arranged in ten 
sections, and a 30 horse power motor which is controlled 
by a Cutler-Hammer compound starting and regulating 
rheostat, giving a speed of two to one to the fan. The 
galvanized iron ducts extend the whole length of 
the building from the fan outlets, with branch ducts to 
the lines of columns where the discharge pipe drops 
down to diffusers. These are clearly shown in the half- 
tone. The bottom of the diffuser is solid and of such 

March, 1906 



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March, 190b 

shape that the hot air does not strike the floor and raise 
dust. The end is 2 feet above the floor. 

The paint store room is a brick building 40x60 feet, 
divided in the center by a brick fire wall. It is 60 feet 
from the paint shop, which is sufficient as a fire precau- 
tion. The building is devoted to the storing and mixing 
of paints and the cleaning and buffing of the metal fix- 
tures of the coaches. 


The coach shop is 312x100 ft. with a 20 ft. extension 
on the west side for the storage and repairing of trucks. 
It is two stories in height with the center bay open the 
greater part of the length to admit light from the win- 
dows along the sides of the raised part of the roof. The 
upholstering, brass cleaning and other light work is 
carried on at present on the second floor. Provision is 
also made on this floor for cabinet work. The doors 
are similar to those of the paint shop in that they lift 
up in place of swinging. 

The only power in the building consists of a 2-inch 
air pipe with Y^ -inch risers at alternate posts between 

The artificial lighting is by means of arc lights, of 
which there are nineteen on the first floor arid twelve 
on the second floor. Those on the first floor are 
hung from the ceiling about midway between columns at 
a height of about fourteen feet from the floor. Six of the 
lamps on the second floor are hung on the edge of the 
balcony to throw part of their light on the first floor. 
The other six are distributed so as to give the best light 
possible on the balcony. In addition to this there are 
fifty-two Chapman plug receptacles on the two floors. 
The bay for truck work is lighted by four arc lamps. 

The heating of the building is different from that 
usually employed for this purpose and results will be 
watched with interest. Instead of the fan system, direct 
radiation is employed. For this purpose colonial radia- 
tors are used, being put horizontally beneath the windows 
wherever possible, and vertically on the pilasters if the 
horizontal space could not be obtained. Exhaust steam 
is used for the heating. 

At the southwest corner an electric elevator is installed 
for handling material between the two floors. 


This building is 135x752 ft. It is divided into two 
bays, one of which is 62 feet and the other 73 feet wide. 
The former is used for machine tools and the latter for 
erecting. There are thirty-four pits on the erecting 
side, ten of which are used for boiler work. The space 
on the machine side corresponding to these ten pits 
completes the boiler shop space. There are two cranes on 
the erecting side, furnished by the Shaw Electric Co., 
one of which is of 120-tons capacity; the other is a 15- 
ton capacity high speed. The cranes are high enough 
from the floor so that a boiler can be carried to and from 
the boiler shop over the locomotives. 

The building is so constructed that good light is ob- 

tained. This is easily seen by referring to the half-tone. 
This shows a line of windows along the raised portions 
of the roof above the crane as well as several rows along 
the walls. The doors leading out to the transfer table 
are of the lifting type used in the coach and paint shop. 
The machines in the machine shop are served by jib- 
cranes. This method was necessitated on account of 
driving all the tools by group drive. The group drive 
was put in on account of using the machines in the 
smaller shops which were abolished in order to con- 
centrate the work in one plant. The groups are of such 
size that the motors range from 10 to 40 horsepower. 
There is only one exception to this which is found in the 
motor driving the wheel lathe group. Nearly all the 
machines are driven from the main shaft, which is 730 
feet long, and divided into nine sections, each section of 
which is driven by a separate motor. Bolted couplings 
terminate the ends of each length of shafting, so that the 
number of sections can be quickly changed in order to 
take care of any motors giving out. 

Besides the tools brought from the other shops the 
following new ones were installed : 

2 Putnam extra heavy 90-in. driving wheel lathes. 

1 24-in. Cincinnati pillar shaper. 

1 Newton No. 2 vertical milling machine. 

1 Gisholt turret lathe 5-in. hollow spindle. 

2 Barnes 42-in. drills. 
2 Barnes 34-in. drills. 

1 Knecht Bros, friction sensitive drill. 
1 Yankee 3-in. wet drill grinder. 
I Springfield surface grinder, 70-in. table. 
1 Norton grinder I2x72-ins.,with 20-in. gap. 
1 Norton No. 2 universal tool grinder. 
1 Norton No. 2 floor grinder. 
1 National i^-in. double bolt cutter. 
1 Newton No. 309 nut facer. 
1 Newton No. 310 nut facer. 
1 Saunders No. 5 pipe machine. 
1 26-in. Pedrick and Ayer valve seat planer. 
1 3/4-in. Pedrick and Ayer loco, cylinder boring bar. 
1 Whiton two-spindle centering machine. 
1 Watson & Stillman 250-ton crank pin press. 
1 Bradley 300-lb. strap hammer. 
1 Bradley 150-lb. strap hammer. 
1 Williams & White No. 7 bulldozer. 
1 Ajax 3>^-in. heading and forging machine. 
1 Hilles & Jones No. 5 single motor driven punch. 
1 Hilles & Jones No. 5 single motor driven shear. 
1 Ajax i^-in. heading and forging machine. 
1 Ajax i-in. rapid bolt header. 
1 Foote-Burt & Co. 6-spindle arch bar drill. 
1 National I^-in. double bolt cutter. 
1 Hilles & Jones No. 2 plate planer. 
1 Hilles & Jones No. 3 single punch, 42-in. throat. 
1 Hilles & Jones No. 5 single shear, 25-in. throat. 
1 Chambersburg 12-ft. 6-in. 5-pressure hydraulic riv- 

1 Chambersburg 10-ton right angle traveling crane. 

March, 1906 



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Chambersburg hydraulic accumulator. 
Chambersburg steam-driven, double-acting, hydrau- 
lic pressure pump. 

Greenlee Bros. 16-in. universal wood worker. 
Fay & Egan No. 62 variety wood worker. 
No. 12 Fay & Egan four-side moulder. 
S. A. Woods 30-in. surfacer. 
Fay & Egan No. 129 six- roll cylinder planer. 
Fay & Egan vertical car tenoner. 
Fay & Egan No. 6 tenoning machine. 
Fay & Egan car gaining machine. 
Fay & Egan hand gaining machine. 
Greenlee Bros, mortiser. 
S. A. Woods No. 300 mortiser. 
Greenlee four-spindle horizontal boring machine. 
Fay & Egan No. 3 cut-off saw. 
Fay & Egan No. 2 cut-off saw. 
Fay & Egan No. 3 swing saw. 
Fay & Egan No. 3 self-feed rip saw. 
Fay & Egan No. 1 band saw. 
Fay & Egan No. 3 band saw. 
Fay & Egan No. 3 scroll saw. 
Automatic saw sharpener. 
Fay & Egan No. 3 band saw setter. 
' Fay & Egan knife grinder. 
Fox trimmer. 

Superior setting down machine. 
Raymond wiring machine. 
Raymond large turning machine. 
Raymond small turning machine. 
Buffalo 20-in. groover. 
Moore double seamer. 
Niagara No. 2 header. 

2 each, blowhorn, candle mould, square and No. 3 
hatchet stake. 

each, Bleakhorn, needle-case, double seaming and 
common creasing stakes. 

8 Niagara No. 8 hand shears. 
4 Niagara No. 8 circular shears. 

3 Niagara No. 6 bench shears. 
2 Sturtevant H-i plain forges. 

1 Sturtevant No. 2 Monogram blower. 
1 48-in. double steel tire car wheel lathe. 
1 42-in. x 18-ft. Pond engine lathe. 

8 4 


March, 1906 

T&r£Gr0r*/ &0*f 



FIG. I3- 







I 36-in. x 14-ft. Pond engine lathe. 

1 28-in. x 14-ft. Pond engine lathe. 

2 24-in. x 12-ft. Pond engine lathes. 
2 18-in. x 8-ft. engine lathes. 

2 16-in. x 10-ft. engine lathes. 

2 16-in. x 10-ft. special tool room lathes. 

2 14-in. x 5-ft. plate turning lathes. 

2 "A" Fox Monitor Improved No. 2 turret lathes. 

1 15-in. x 6- ft. square arbor brass lathe. 

2 double loco, car axle lathes. 

1 42-in. x 42-in. x 16-ft. Pond planer. 

1 36-in. x 36-in. x 30-ft. Pond planer. • 

2 84-in. Niles boring and turning mills. 
1 51-in. Niles boring and turning mill. 

1 42-in. boring and turning mill. 

1 Horizontal boring machine. 

2 car wheel boring machines. 

1 90-in. wheel press, 400 tons capacity. 

1 Universal milling machine. 

1 6-ft. radial drill. 

1 5-ft. radial drill, Universal. 

1 90-ft. Quartering machine. 

1 3500-lb. steam hammer. 

1 1600-lb. steam hammer. 

1 Universal splitting shear. 

1 5-ft. radial drill. 

The lighting on the erecting side is done with arc 
lamps set on posts between the pits. The posts are put 
through the center of the vise benches and are supplied 
with Chapman receptacles five feet above the floor. The 
machine shop is lighted with seventeen arc lamps hung 
from the roof trusses and an incandesent lamp over each 
machine tool. 

The heating of the building is by the hot air system 
with ducts carried beneath the floor, Two separate 
systems were installed by Wm. Bailey & Sons Co. 
of Milwaukee. The Webster vacuum system of steam 
heating is applied for the return to the power house of 
the condensed steam. Openings are provided along the 
columns and also in the west end of the pits. The open- 
ings alongside the columns have deflectors provided so 
as to throw the air in two directions and not interfere 
with the workmen. 

The building is provided with a 6-in. high pressure 
steam line which runs from the power house and which 
supplies the two fan engines and the no-ton hydraulic 
riveter in the boiler shop. A 14-in. low pressure steam 
main for heating the other shops passes through this 
building on its way. The exhaust steam from the hy- 
draulic riveter may be thrown into this main. The com- 
pressed air is brought from the power house in a 4-in. 
pipe. A 4xi2-ft. long reservoir is provided in this 
to equalize the pressure. The distributing pipes are 
laid under the floor with risers coming up at each column 
so that air may be used in either bay. 

This building is 80x268 feet and so located that the 

March, 1906 



lumber is easily accessible, and at the same time ac- 
cessible to the coach shop, freight car shop and tracks. 

The machinery is driven by five motors in 30 and 40 
horse power units. The shafting was run across the 
building on account of the construction of the machines. 

The lighting is by means of twelve arc lamps for gen- 
eral illumination, and an incandescent lamp over each ma- 
chine. The heating is by means of direct radiation 
with Colonial wall radiators. Webster motor seal valves 
and thermostatic traps eliminate air and condensation 
from the supply lines and maintain a circulation in the 
radiators, discharging the water into the return piping 
system which runs underground inside the building and 
connects directly to the return main in the yard. The 
supply piping is carried over head on the roof trusses, 
having branches connecting with the radiators. 


The smithshop is 100x244 feet with a ventilator in 
the roof. At first it was decided not to heat this building, 
but later it was decided that a small amount she mid be 
provided to keep the temperature moderate during the 
night so as to have it fairly comfortable to start to work 
in the morning. It was estimated that the heat from the 
fires would be sufficient to keep it warm enough during 
the day. It is intended to put all the exhaust steam from 
the steam hammers into the heating system when it is 

The machinery in this building consists of bolt headers 
and threaders, a bulldozer, a six-spindle drill press, etc. 
These machines are driven by a 30 and two 20-horse- 
power motors from line shafting. A punch and a shear 
are driven individually. Two No. 10 Sturdevant 
pressure blowers driven by a 60-horsepower motor sup- 
ply air blast for forges and furnaces. The furances are 
of the crude oil burning type. 

A 6-in. high pressure steam line runs over head on 
iron poles out of doors from the power house, to the 
blacksmith shop, furnishing steam for the operation of the 
five steam hammers which range in size from 800 to 
3,300 lbs. There are also two Bradley power hammers 
driven from a line shaft. A compressed air line runs 
around the east and north sides of the building, sup- 
plying the air for hoists and furnaces. There are forty- 
five forges in the shop. The lighting is by means of 
eight arc lamps, while the foreman's office is supplied 
with incandescent lamps. 


The office and storehouse building is 50x201 ft., with 
a large platform on the east end. It has two stories, a 
basement and attic. It is the intention of the company to 
install an elevator in the building, to serve the basement 
and the first and second floors. The lights in the store- 
room are dropped from the ceiling between the shelves 
and racks built in for storing material. The office on 
the second floor has two arc lights, and numerous incan- 
descent lamps for illumination. 

The building is heated by direct radiation will) 
Colonial radiators in the store-room, and two columns 
St. Louis type radiators in the halls and smaller offices. 


The oil house is lighted by incandescent lamps, the 
wiring being in conduit with cut-out and fuses located in 
a cabinet outside the building. The lamps are suspended 
from the ceiling at the end of a conduit hanger, in vapor- 
proof enclosing globes. The building is heated by 
wrought-iron pipe coils, supported on the walls under the 
windows of the first floor, and hung from the ceiling in 
the basement. 

The oil is stored in large tanks in the basement and de- 
livered to the serving faucets on the first floor by com- 
pressed air. 


The power house, which is shown in sections, is 
84x138 ft. It is divided into three rooms as follows: 
Engine and dynamo room, pump room and boiler room. 
It is well located with reference to the center of distribu- 
tion of power, considering the combined air, steam and 
electrical power. The oil house and store house are near 
by, and there are two 12-in. driven wells, 850 ft. deep, 
just west of the building. A 317,000 gallon steel tank 
on a concrete foundation near the building forms a reser- 
voir of ample capacity for continuous operation. Coal 
is delivered in cars directly from the company's mines 
to a siding south of the boiler rooms, the spur and coal 
bunker being of sufficient length to permit three cars 
being unloaded at once. 

The boiler room is 48x84 ft., and the floor is two feet 
below the yard grade. On the south side of the room 
there is a 20x84-ft. coal bunker, from which the coal is 
shoveled into the boilers. There are five Aultman & 
Taylor vertical header water-tube boilers of 340 horse- 
power each. They are set in two and a half batteries, 
the brickwork of the half being arranged for future ex- 
tension. Four of the boilers are equipped with Mans- 
field chain grate stokers, while the fifth is fired by hand. 
This is for the purpose of firing shavings and other 
refuse from car work. The boilers are provided with 
Reliance water columns and Kerchner low water alarms, 
and 4-in. check safety valves. Automatic stop and check 
valves protect the 8-in. feeders to the main steam header. 
A water arch protects the bridge wall of each stoker- 
fired boiler. Each blow-off pipe has two. blow-off valves, 
first a Homestead plug valve type and then a Meyer 
angle valve. 

The chimney is located twenty-five feet west of the 
power house, and the gases are carried to it in a steel 
breeching. It rests on a separate foundation, and is 
constructed of hollow segmental bricks. It is 175 feet 
high and 7 feet in diameter at the top. It was designed 
and built by the Alphonse G. Custodis Chimney Con- 
struction Co. 

Between the boiler room and engine room is the pump 
room, which is 20x84 ft. Its floor is at the same level 



March, 1906 

as the boiler room floor and is of concrete laid on a cin- 
der fill. The pumps, heater and major piping are in this 
room, and so arranged as to give the simplest pipe con- 

The 12-in main steam-header is on I beams 17-ft. 
above the floor of the pump room. Long radius return 
bends of 8-in. pipe lead from the auto-stop and check- 
valves on the boilers to the main header. All steam 
connections leaving the main header are taken from the 
top of the pipe through angle valves. The engines and 
compressor are supplied directly from the main header, 
protected by a Crane steel steam separator A 6-in. 
auxiliary steam header in the pump room supplies steam 
to all the pumps and, when desired, to the reservoirs of 
the compound engines. Cross connections and dividing 
valves are used in the main and auxiliary headers. 

The 6-in. high pressure steam pipe for the shops may 
be supplied either from the main auxiliary or both 
headers. All of the high and low pressue steam piping 
and hot water piping in the powerhouse is covered with 
Keasbey & Mattison's sectional magnesia covering. All 
high pressure steam piping under ground and in tunnels 
is waterproofed with Keasbey & Mattison's asbestos 

In the west end of the pump room is a 2oxi2xi6-in. 
Fairbanks-Morse fire pump, with a capacity of 1,500 
gallon per minute, at 100 lbs pressure. The suction is 
connected with both the tank and the city main ; valves 
being provided so that the shop system may be fed with 
either city, tank or fire pressures. Two I2x7^4-in. 
Fairbanks-Morse boiler pumps of 40,000 cubic feet 
per hour capacity, are installed. A Webster Star open 
heater supplies hot water for boiler feed. 

The Damon system for returning the condensation 
from the high pressure steam piping to the boilers is 
employed. This system is connected into the boiler feed 
piping so that the water of condensation is continuously 
returned to the boilers. Two 8xi2xi2-in. Marsh 
vacuum pumps draw the return condensation of the en- 
tire heating system of all buildings and discharge this 
hot water into the feed water heater. 

Along the north side of the pump room is a pipe trench 
4 feet 3 in. wide and 3 feet 6 in. deep in which all the 
cold water mains are carried. All pipes carrying high 
or low pressure steam and water from the powerhouse 
to the various shops are brought into this trench and 
leave the building at either end of it. At its east end the 
trench opens into a concrete tunnel leading to the ma- 
chine shop. The return mains from the heating system 
also enter this tunnel outside the powerhouse and are 
carried to a point close to the vacuum pumps. 

Tbe engine room floor is 7 ft. above the pump room 
floor, and has a basement under its entire area. A part 
of the piping is run in this basement. The floor is 
48x84 ft., and occupies the northern end of the building. 
The floor is of concrete with cement finish, carried on 

steel framed into the building walls and machine founda- 
tions. It is served bv a 12-ton Shaw hand traveling 

Three 14 and 24x36 inch cross compound, non- 
condensing Murray-Corlis engines are direct con- 
nected to Western Electric 200 k. w., 250 volt D. C. gen- 
erators. For nights and light loads there is a 13x22x26 
in. Westinghouse cross-compound engine direct con- 
nected to a Western Electric 100 k. w., 250 volt gener- 

Compressed air for the plant is supplied by a Rand 
Imperial compressor, with cylinders 18 and 30, 28 and 
17, by 24-inch cross-compound steam and two stage air, 
with a capacity of 2,000 cubic feet per minute at 120 
R. P. M. 

The 6-panel switchboard was built by the Western 
Electric Co., and distributes electrical power for all pur- 
poses to shops and yards. The feeder lines run up the 
wall back of the board and out to the transmission line. 

Power and lighting feeders leaving the powerhouse 
are carried on 35-ft. iron poles set in concrete. Seven 
feeder circuits control all of the lights of the plant, the 
lines being carried their full size from the switchboard 
to the panel boards located at the centers of distribution 
of each building. 

The motors are practically all mounted on brackets, 
supported on the" brick walls of the buildings. The 
starters are of the Cutler-Hammer Co. universal type, 
the fuses, switch and starting rheostat being mounted 
on a single slate panel. All motors of 50 horse power or 
over are supplied with circuit circuit-breakers instead of 
fuses. The motors used throughout are of the Western 
Electric Co. semi-enclosed type, shunt or compound 


This is merely an open shed of wooden roof construc- 
tion. It is 70x400 ft. 


A 75-foot transfer table, supplied by the Whiting 
Foundry Equipment Co., of Harvey, 111., serves the loco- 
motive, coach and paint shops. It is electrically operated. 

The work was divided up in smaller contracts by the 
railway company instead of letting it in one large con- 
tract. Then it was simply based on labor cost with the 
railway company furnishing the material. The grading 
was let to Henry Daumkoff, Little Rock, Ark. The gen- 
eral plans and designing of the building was done by J. 
W. Schaub, 1730 Monadnock Block, Chicago. The steel 
construction and erection was done by the American 
Bridge Co. ; the concrete work was done by E. Crebo, 
Kansas City, Mo., and the brick and carpenter work by 
Wyatt & Donavan, St. Louis, Mo. The contract for the 
installation of the complete power, lighting, heating and 
compressed air systems was awarded to the Arnold Co., 
Chicago, to whom we are indebted for the description 
and photographs illustrating the shops. 

March, 1906 



Some of the Essentials in Locomotive Boiler 


WHEN we consider that boiler repairs constitute 
one-third of the cost of locomotive repairs, fuel 


one-half of the total cost of locomotive operation, and 
that one-half of engine failures are directly or indirectly 
chargeable to boilers, we cannot fail to realize the im- 
portance of directing a large part of our effort in loco- 
motive design toward the production of a boiler which has 
the minimum cost of repairs, maximum efficiency and is 
the most reliable. Some of the results to be sought for 
in good boiler design are : 

1 Reliability and economical maintenance, i. e., free- 
dom from cracked sheets, leaky seams, leaky and broken 
staybolts and leaky flues. 

2. Continuous development of maximum horsepower 
within the capacity and endurance of the average fireman. 

3. Efficiency approaching as closely as possible to that 
of the best stationary boilers. 

Reliability and low cost of maintenance depend chiefly 
upon freedom of circulation around the firebox. Since 

forced and somewhere below which is the maximum re- 
liable capacity of the boiler, and so far as the firebox is 
concerned it would appear that forced circulation is very 
desirable if it could be made practicable. 

The greater the length of the firebox the greater the 
volume of water required to pass from the barrel of the 
boiler into the water legs, hence the side sheets and stay- 
bolts of a short firebox are less likely to give trouble 
than a long one. The tendency, therefore, should be to- 
ward a decided increase in depth of throat and width of 
water space and as short a firebox as is consistent with 
necessary grate area. The result will be an exceedingly 
heavy and bulky boiler at the firebox, necessitating the 
use of trailer truck, which it is likely will eventually have 
four wheels instead of two. 

With reference to flues considerable observation leads 
me to believe that a comparatively wide bridge, say, one 
inch, or possibly more, is desirable for large boilers be- 
cause of the greater stiffness of the flue sheet and prob- 
ably better circulation between flues. But wide spacing 
does not cure leaky flues, which are the most difficult boiler 
trouble to control. I think it can be satisfactorily shown 
that the rolling of a flue into a sheet is a watertight job 

section ff-B 





circulation depends upon the head creating it and the 
size of the passages through which the water must flow 
from the barrel of the boiler to water legs around fire- 
box, it follows that the greater the depth of firebox and 
the wider the water legs the more rapid the circulation. 
This depth should be obtained by maximum depth of 
throat sheet and not by raising the crown sheet at the ex- 
pense of steam space. 

Experience with smoke consumers and fuel oil has 
demonstrated the inability of the ordinary locomotive fire- 
box to withstand the heat of perfect combustion, no 
doubt due to the fact that natural circulation is unable 
to supply the firebox with water rapidly enought to pre- 
vent overheating. It is doubtful if it is possible through 
natural circulation, under the best possible conditions, to 
construct a boiler whose firebox will withstand the heat 
of perfect combustion, but when coal is burned in the 
ordinary manner, the better the circulation the less the 
firebox troubles. It is probable that there is a point be- 
yond which the speed of natural circulation cannot be 

*A paper read before the Northwest Railway Club at St. 
Paul, Minn., on January 9, 1906. 

to withstand almost any degree of heat, provided the flue 
and flue sheet can be made to expand and contract to- 
gether, and therefore that when flues leak the conditions 
are such as to make the flue try to expand more than the 
sheet and in so doing it is compressed and made smaller 
than the flue hole in the sheet. The length of flue, quality 
of water and coal, method of firing and working injectors, 
weather and severe service, all have an influence on the 
leakage of flues and this influence is, I believe, exerted 
chiefly through their effect on the size of the nozzle. 
Whatever causes, therefore, have the greatest tendency 
toward reducing the nozzle would be the most productive 
of leaky flues, and these I believe to be poor coal and 
severe service. The smaller the nozzle the more severe 
the blast and the greater the blow pipe action on the end 
of flues, making them hotter than the sheet which com- 
presses them so that they they are smaller than the sheet 
when they cool down. So far as my investigation goes, 
the great majority of leaky flues are below the center line 
of the boiler, indicating that the short flames of highest 
temperature enter the lower flues. Hence the need for the 



March, 1906 

greatest possible depth of firebox below the flues so that 
these hottest flames cannot reach them. 

Any other means of keeping the intensest heat away 
from the flue ends will have the same good effect on flue 
leakage, and recent experience with a combustion cham- 
ber which sets the flue sheet three feet ahead of the 
throat sheet has shown a marked decrease in flue leakage. 
Of utmost importance, however, is the care of boilers, 
The most poorly designed boiler is made better by more 
care, while the best designed boiler will not do well if 
neglected, and some of the important features in good 
care of boilers are regular and thorough washing out and 
blowing off, washing out and filling up with hot water, 
uniform boiler feeding and avoidance of working injec- 
tors as far as possible when the engine is not working 
steam, removal of broken staybolts promptly, and in- 
telligent expanding of flues. Water treatment has done 
much to reduce boiler troubles, but it has its limitations 
and in my judgment should not be attempted until the 
possibilities of design and systematic maintenance have 
been exhausted. 

To sum up, it seems to me that the locomotive boiler 
in its fullest development will be much larger and heaver 
in proportion to the barrel than it is now. It is quite 
likely that it will be necessary to carry the overhanging 
weight back of the drivers on a four-wheel trailer truck. 

The tendency for road engines, either freight or pas- 
senger, will be to make the dead weight due to increased 
size of boilers a larger percentage of the total weight. 
This increased dead weight, however, should not be a mat- 
ter of concern so long as it increases the reliability and 
efficiency of the boiler. The limiting capacity of the fire- 
man is sufficient reason in itself for striving in every way 
to increase boiler efficiency, either through better boilers, 
superheating or compounding. 

I thing it is not overdrawing it to say that no heavy 
road engine should be built with weight on drivers more 
than 70 per cent of the total weight, and the lower this 
percentage is the more reliable and efficient the engine 
will be, it being understood, of course, that as much of the 
dead weight as possible is put into the boiler. 

A cut of a heavy Pacific type locomotive is presented 
to illustrate the principles set forth in this paper. The 
heating surface is, tubes 3.133 square feet, combustion 
chamber 121 square feet, firebox 213 square feet, total 
3,527 square feet. The grate area is 48 square feet. 

• ^- o- 

Steam Motor Coach — Great North of Scotland 


THIS coach has accommodation for forty-six passen- 
gers, who enter through a side door near the end. 
The seats are placed crosswise in the car, similar to 
street car seats. The coach and locomotive combined 
are 49 feet 11^2 inches long over all, 12 feet 11 inches 
high and 9 feet 4 inches wide. The total wheel base is 
43 feet , including the engine truck whose wheel base is 
10 feet. The total weight loaded is 47 tons. 

The interior of the coach consists of one compartment, 
and is finished in kauri pine match boarding below the 
bottom light rail, and in mottled kauri pine panels with 
teak facias and mouldings above. It is lighted by Stone's 
system of electric lighting, the lamps being arranged in 
pairs down the 'enter. The electric current is generated 
by a dynamo suspended from the underframe of the car 
and driven from the axle of the motor truck. 

The locomotive as shown is attached to the coach. In 
order to keep the wheel base within 43 feet, a vertical 
boiler was suggested and after considering the conditions, 
Messrs. Barclay, Sons & Co. placed the order for this 


March, 1906 




with Messrs. Cochran & Co., Arman. The boiler is 
shown in detail in the illustrations. It is 6 feet in diam- 
eter and 9 feet 6 inches high. It has a great area of 9 
square feet with a heating surface of 500 square feet. 
There are 295 tubes, each i 1 /* inches, outside diameter 
by 3 feet nj4 inches long. The steam pressure carried 
is 160 pounds. 

The engine is of the detachable type. The cyclinders 
are 10 inches in diameter by 16 inches stroke. The valve 
gear is of the Walschaert type, the valves working on 
slanting faces above the cylinders. The engine fram- 
ing is of steel 1 inch thick, with a strong central cross- 
stay as shown, and the boiler rests on pads on the fram- 
ing. The wheels are 3 feet 7 inches in diameter. 

The coach frame runs forward under the foot plate 
and carries a pivot-piece which rests on movable bolsters 
working between sliding faces, and resting on springs, 
the whole being carried on knife-edges. This arrange- 



ment has the effect of minimizing the vibration of the 
engine, and permits the coach to be detached if desired. 
The springs which support the end of the coach are six 
in number, four of which always bear the load, the re- 
maining two being available for taking up any abnormal 
movement, which make the part of the coach nearest to 
the engine easy riding. 

The brake used is the standard Westinghouse type 
as applied on the whole of the Great North of Scotland 
system. There is also a steam sanding apparatus. 

The materials used in the construction of the boiler, 
engine, etc., were required to stand the following tests : 
Boiler plates 26 to 28 tons per square inch breaking stress, 
with an elongation of from 37 to 40 per cent in a length 
of 2 inches; the copper plates had to have an ultimate 
strength of 14 tons per square inch, with 55 per cent 
elongation in 2 inches, and the boiler tubes were required 
to stand an internal hydraulic pressure of 1,000 pounds 
per square inch. The cylinders were made of best close- 
grained, tough, cold-blast cast iron, the pistons of similar 
metal and the slide valves of Stone's bronze; while the 
gun-metal parts were constructed of a. mixture of 5 
parts copper and I part tin. This mixture was used for 
the journal bearings, and the journal boxes were made 
of cast steel. 

The wheels are of Siemens-Martin cast steel, and the 
tires of Siemens' open-hearth steel, having a breaking 
tensile strength of from 42 to 45 tons per square inch., 
with an elongation of not less than 25 per cent in 2 inches. 
The breaking tensile strength of the axles was specified 
to be 32 tons per square inch, with an elongation of 33 
per cent in 2 inches. The coupling, connecting and pis- 
ton rods had an ultimate tensile strength of 35 tons per 
square inch, with an elongation of 25 per cent in 2 inches. 
The breaking strength of the steel castings was from 28 
to 32 tons per square inch with an elongation of 25 per 
cent in 2 inches. 

Fuel for the boiler is carried in a bunker at the back 
of the cab, and storage for 600 gallons of water is sup- 
plied, partly under the coach and partly in a tank in the 
coal bunker. The coal capacity is 15 cwt. 

A velocity of 30 miles per hour can be attained in 20 
seconds and speeds up to 60 miles per hour are obtain- 
able with the powerful cylinders. This amount of power, 
however, is not provided in order to gain speed, but for 
adding trailers, which are applied during the rush hours 
of the day. 

To enable the coach to be driven from either end, there 
is a Chatburn's telegraph arrangement between the cab 
and the vestibule at the rear end of the coach. There are 
also levers connected to a rocking shaft, which com- 
municate motion from the back of the coach to the 
throttle lever in the cab. 


Diameter of clyinders 10 in. 

Stroke 16 in. 

Valve gear — Walschaert type 

Diameter of wheels 3 ft. 7 in. 



March, 1906 

Wheel-base of engine 10 ft. 

Boiler — Cochran vertical type 

Inside diameter 6 ft. 

Thickness of plates 23-32 in. 

Height over all 9 ft. 6 in. 

Number of tubes 295 

Outside diameter of tubes iy 2 in. 

Length of tubes 3 ft. 1 1 *4 i n - 

Total heating surface of boiler 500 sq. ft. 

Steam pressure 160 lb. per sq. in. 

Height from rail to top of stack 12 ft. 11 in. 

Capacity of coal-bunker 15 cwt. 

Capacity of water-tanks 600 gallons. 

Pacific Type Engine, Oregon Short Line 

THE locomotive illustrated by our half-tone repre- 
sents an order of twenty-eight engines now under 
construction at the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the 
Oregon Short Line. They are simple machines with 
every modern device making for efficiency, and are built 
with reference to interchangeability of parts, in accord- 
ance with the standards adopted by the Harriman Asso- 
ciated Lines. 

Staying of the crown is by means of inverted T bars 
with sling stays, and the tubes as in all engines of this 
type are long — in this case twenty feet, a situation which 

Staying Inverted T iron crown base 

Firebox — Material Steel 

Length • • 108 in. 

Width 66 in. 

Depth front, 68 in ; back, 64 in. 

Thickness of Sheets, sides, y% in. ; back, ^ in. ; crown, 

Y% in. ; tube, Yz in. 

Water Space front, 5 in. ; sides, 5 in. ; back, 5 in. 

Tubes — Material Iron, Wire Gauge, .125 M. M. 

Number, 245 ; diameter, 2^4 in. ; length, 20 ft. 
Heating Surface — Firebox 174 sq. ft. 

Tubes 2874 sq. ft. 

Total . 3048 sq. ft. 

Grate Area 49.5 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — Diameter Outside jy in. 

Diameter of Center 70 in. 

Journals main, 10 in. x 12 in., others 9 in. x 12 in. 

Engine Truck Wheels (front) diameter, 33^ in. 

Journals 6 in. x 10 in. 

Engine Truck Wheels (back) diameter, 45 in. 

Journals 8 in. x 12 in. 

Wheel Base — Driving 13 ft., 4 in. 

Rigid 13 f t., 4 in. 

Total Engine 33 ft., 4 in, 

Total Engine and Tender 63 ft., 10^ in 


will no doubt be relieved by a return to a practice long 
obsolete, but which has been recently suggested as a 
means for improving boilers with inordinately long tubes, 
namely, the combustion chamber. 

These engines are capable of exerting a drawbar pull 
of 30,000 pounds under any condition of rail, having 4.7 
pounds of adhesive weight per pound of traction power, 
and can therefore be relied upon to get away from a sta- 
tion without loss of time. They are handsome examples 
of a clean cut, simple American engine, put up with the 
characteristic regard of the builders for withstanding the 
hard knocks of an exacting service. The following spe- 
cification fully explains the details of interest: 

Gau ge 4 f tj gy 2 in . 

Cylinder 22 in. x 28 in. 

Valve Balanced Piston 

Boiler— Type Straight 

Diameter 70 in. 

Thickness of Sheets n-16 in. and % in. 

Working Pressure 200 

Fuel ,;,.., Soft coal 


Weight — On Driving Wheels 141,000 lbs. 

On Truck, front 37,000 lbs. 

On Truck, back 44,000 lbs. 

Total Engine 222,000 lbs. 

Total Engine and Tender about 384,000 lbs. 

Tank — Capacity coal, 10 tons ; water, 9,000 gal. 

Tender — Wheels, No. 8, diameter 33^ in. 

Journals 5^ in. x 10 in. 


Mr. W. A. Hopkins has been appointed electrician of 
the Wabash, with headquarters at Springfield, 111. 

Mr. J. T. Sheahan has been appointed master carpenter 
of the Wabash at Moberly, Mo., succeeding Mr. James 
Stannard, resigned. 

Mr. A. Bardsley has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Gulf & Ship Island, with office at Gulfport, Miss. 
in place of Mr. M. S. Curley. 

Mr. W. C. Dailey has been appointed roundhouse fore- 
man of the Missouri Kansas & Texas at Smithville, Tex., 
in place of Mr. H. Kistner, transferred. 

March, 1906 



Mr. F. S. Anthony has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Lehigh & New England, with headquarters at Pen 
Argyl, Pa., succeeding Mr. H. C. Shields, promoted. 

Mr. L. L. Bentley has resigned as mechanical engineer 
of the Lehigh Valley to become vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Oswego Boiler & Engine Company 
of Oswego, N. Y. 

Mr. A E. Yohn has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Huntington & Broad Top Mountain, with office 
at Saxton, Pa., in place of Mr. C. R. Yohn, resigned. 

Mr. Robert McMeen has been appointed road foreman 
of engines of the Lake Erie & Western at Tipton, Ind., 
in place of Mr. Edward H. Dougherty, resigned. 

Mr. G. G. Davis has been appointed general foreman of 
the car department of the Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago & 
St. Louis at Indianapolis, Ind., effective February 1. 

Mr. J. E. Keegan, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana, has been appointed superinten- 
dent of motive power, with headquarters at Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

Mr. W. C. Smith, master mechanic of the Missouri 
Pacific at Fort Scott, Kan., has been transferred to Kan- 
sas City, Mo., in a similar capacity to succeed Mr. William 
Naughton, resigned. 

Mr. L. E. Hassner, heretofore general foreman of 
shops of the Illinois Central at East Saint Louis, 111., has 
been appointed master mechanic at Clinton, 111., in place 
of Mr. M. J. McGraw, resigned. 

Mr. M. J. McGraw, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Illinois Central at Clinton, 111., has been appointed mas- 
ter mechanic of the Missouri Pacific at Fort Scott, Kan., 
succeeding Mr. W. C. Smith, transferred. 

The office of master car builder of the Cincinnati 
Hamilton & Dayton and Pere Marquette has been abol- 
ished. It is stated that Mr. W. D. Lowry, who held that 
office, will remain with the former road. 

E. D. Hilleary was appointed division freight agent 
of the Philadelphia & Reading Railway Co., and the 
Atlantic City Railroad Co., January 1st, with an office at 
Philadelphia, vice Bowness Briggs, deceased. 

J. J. Bergen was appointed acting division freight 
agent of the Philadelphia & Reading Terminal Co., Jan- 
uary 1st, with office at Philadelphia, vice David S. Grafly, 
granted leave of absence on account of illness. 

Mr. C .H. Quereau, engineer of test of the New York 
Central & Hudson River at West Albany, N. Y., has been 
appointed superintendent of electrical equipment of that 
road, and will have charge of the electric rolling stock. 

Mr. D. J. Malone, division master mechanic of the 
Oregon Short Line at Salt Lake City, Utah, has been 
appointed division matser mechanic of the Southern 
Pacific at Ogden, Utah, to succeed Mr. E. M. Luckett, 

Mr. J. H. Williams, roundhouse foreman of the Lehigh 
Valley at East Buffalo, N. Y., has been appointed master 
mechanic at Wilkesbarre, Pa. Mr. Thomas Madigan has 
been appointed to succeed Mr. Williams at East Buffalo. 

Mr. S. G. Thomson has been appointed assistant en- 
gineer of motive power of the Buffalo & Allegheny Valley 

division of the Pennsylvania at Buffalo, N. Y., in place 
of Mr. W. B. Ott, transferred, effective on February 12. 

Mr. E. B. Hughes has been appointed general foreman 
of shops of the Wabash at Tilton, 111., in place of Mr. 
John Baird, resigned. Mr. George Schwartz has been 
appointed foreman of machine shops at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., succeeding Mr. Hughes. 

The office of Mr. W. L. Kellogg, master mechanic of 
the Pere Marquette, has been moved from Grand Rapids 
to Detroit, Mich., and Mr. Kellogg has been placed in 
charge of the car department in addition to his duties 
as master mechanic. 

Mr. C. W. Cross, Division master mechanic of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern at Elkhart, Ind., has been 
appointed to the newly created position of Super- 
intendent of apprentices, with headquarters at New York. 
Mr. James C. McCarty has been appointed to succeed 
Mr. Cross as division master mechanic at Elkhart. 

Mr. Frank E. Christy has been appointed roundhouse 
foreman of the Buffalo & Allegheny division of the 
Pennsylvania at Pitssburg, Pa. Mr. E. L. Fraser has 
been appointed assistant roundhouse foreman at Altoona, 
Pa., in place of Mr. Christy. 

Mr. John T. Flavin, assistant master mechanic of the 
Indiana, Illinois & Iowa, has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Indiana Harbor also, with headquarters at 
Kankakee, 111. Mr. Edward H. Dougherty is appointed 
road foreman of engines. 

Mr. W. P. Chrysler, formerly with the Fort Worth & 
Denver City at Childress, Tex., has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Chicago Great Western, with office at 
Oelwein, la., to succeed Mr. J. E. Chisholm, who has 
been appointed general master mechanic, with head- 
quarters at Oelwein. 

Mr. J. R. Alexander has been appointed general road 
foreman of engines of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Al- 
toona, Pa. Mr. W. J. Rusling has been appointed as- 
sistant to the assistant engineer of motive power at Al- 
toona. Mr. W. B. Ott, assistant engineer of motive power 
at Buffalo, N. Y./has been transferred to Altoona, Pa., 
in a similar capacity, in place of Mr. W. Elmer, Jr., pro- 

Mr. A. A. Scott has been appointed locomotive inspector 
at the Angus shops of the Canadian Pacific at Montreal, 
Que. Mr. E. Marshall has been appointed locomotive 
foreman at Outremont, Que., in place of Mr. Scott, and 
Mr. J. Wilkinson has been appointed locomotive foreman 
at Hochelaga, Que., to succeer Mr. Marshall. Mr. C. 
A. Stark, locomotive foreman at Ottawa, Ont, has been 
transferred to Carleton Junction, Ont., as general fore- 

Mr. I. B. Thomas, master mechanic of the Pittsburg 
shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad, has been appointed 
master mechanic of the shops at Altoona., Pa., in place 
of Mr. G. W. Strattan, retired under the pension rules, 
having reached the age of 70 years. Mr. William Elmer, 
Jr., assistant engineer of motive power at Altoona, has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Pittsburg shops to 
succeed Mr. Thomas, effective on Jaunary 26. 



March, 1906 

J} New Flue Cleaning Machine 

The cleaning of locomotive and other boiler tubes, when they 
are removed from the boiler, is ordinarily accomplished in a 
drum rattler, but the latter is limited in capacity, is noisy and is 
not always thoroughly effective. The machine illustrated is 
manufactured for and is sold exclusively by Joseph T. Ryerson 
& Son, Chicago, 111., and is claimed to effect a considerable 
saving in the time and labor required in cleaning flues. These 
machines are already in use in some of the largest railroad 
shops in the country, among them the Montreal and Tacoma, 
shops of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and the Topeka shops 
of the Santa Fe Railroad. 

The machine comprises an overhead steel frame work 
erected over a concrete pit sunk in the floor of the shop, which 
is kept partly filled with water. The flues while being cleaned 
are suspended in the water by two wide-faced, case hardened, 
wrought iron chains, forming continuous loops in which the flues 
roll over and over upon themselves as the chains are driven. 
All gearing is overhead and driven by direct connected motor. 
To keep the flues in position, fenders are provided in the pit 
which are adjustable to flues from 8 to 20 feet long. The rear 
chain is supported by a transverse carriage which is moved 
toward or away from the front chain by screws driven by the 
main driving motor, thus adjusting the chains to the length 
of flues handled. The flues may be raised or lowered by means 
of an idler over which the driving chains pass and which by al- 
ternate raising and lowering correspondingly lengthens or short- 
ens the suspending chains. By this arrangement the flues are 
raised by the machine itself without the assistance of a crane 
or hoist. On rails laid on either side of the pit a small push 
car is run and the flues to be cleaned are brought over the pit 
on the car as is shown in Fig. 1. They are then lifted from the 
car by chains, the car is removed, the flues lowered into the 
pit and the machine started. 

Fig. 2, an end elevation and section of the machine, shows 
the manner in which the raising and lowering is accomplished 
and shows the tubes in the position occupied while the cleaning 
process is going on. To place the tubes in position to lower 
takes about four minutes and the only labor required is that 
of pushing the car into position. The actual time of rattling 
is about the same with this machine as with the barrel form of 
rattler, but five or six times as many flues mav be handled at 


a time, so that the cost is reduced to less that four cents per 
hundred flues. 

Another advantage claimed for this machine is the entire 
absence of noise, inasmuch as the rattling takes place under 
water. Furthermore, the water washes out the soot and dirt 
from the inside of the tubes at the same time that the scale 
and other material is being scraped from the outside. The pro- 
pelling chain moves at the rate of about 130 feet per minute. 


March, 1906 



A 20-horse power direct connected motor is used to drive the 


• ■» « 

The Improved Friction Countershaft 

The accompanying engravings show a new friction counter- 
shaft which is quite an improvement over now existing forms. 
It is noted particularly in respect to driving power, ease of opera- 
tion, noiselessness, and in giving the workman perfect con- 
trol of his machine. Its driving power will be understood when 
it is pointed out that the friction shoes are screwed into contact 
with the rim, a tight engagement being thus obtained with a 
very small effort at the shifter lever. 

The force required to engage this clutch is so small tha' 
with the tip of the finger at the shifter handle, the frictioi. 
is set tight enough to slip the belts. It will be noticed that 
the friction gradually engages and that the operator can apply 
any desired amount of driving power to his machine. 

The extent to which this feature can be utilized is shown 
by the fact that a piece of work may be put on the lathe centers 
and cut in two with a parting tool without danger of breaking 
the tool, because the friction can be set just tight enough to 
drive the cut and to slip when the piece comes apart and 
pinches the tool. There are many other occasions on which 
this feature is useful ; as in bottom tapping, or any time when 
tool or work can be protected against breakage by the slipping 
of the friction. This same property makes it easily possible to 
slack down the speed for measuring or examining the surface 
of the work when stopping would leave a mark on the work. 

When used over a lathe it can be used as a "Brake" to 
quickly stop the machine by lightly engaging the "backing" fric- 
tion before bringing the handle to the "off" position. 

The makers have spared no pains to make this countershaft 
very good all around. Instead of the old two-point suspen- 
sion the self-oiling boxes are so supporte'd as to be free to 

swing in all directions and will not bind the shaft if the hangers 
are not put up squarely. 

No tools are required to adjust the friction, the belts are 
not thrown off for this. The pulleys run on sleeves set-screwed 
to the shaft, providing a large bearing surface and containing 
the oil holes, so that the belts need not be thrown off for oiling. 
The drip cups are taken off by withdrawing a cotter pin, doing 
away with all spilling of oil, as with those that have to be 
screwed out when full. Taking everything in consideration this 
countershaft ought to add materially to the output of the 
machine it is used over. It is made by the Wilmarth & Mor- 
man Company, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

• ♦ » 

Self* Measuring and Computing Oil and Gaso- 
line Outfits 

The accompanying illustration shows an eight tank self-meas- 
uring and computing oil and gasoline outfit, as manufactured 
by the Boyer-Radford & Gordon Tank & Pump Co., of Dayton, 
Ohio. In this outfit the tanks contain linseed meal oil, floor oil, 
turpentine, crude oil, alcohol, linseed oil, engine oil and raw 
linseed oil. 

The self-measuring pump is a simple and accurate machine. 
It measures accurately either way the handle is turned. It 
is also provided with a computer giving the exact money value 
of the oil pumped. The register keeps perfect tally of the total 
amount pumped. The cut-off check valve is a neat appliance 
as it prevents all drip and evaporation. 

The indicators consist of floats perfectly sealed to which 
are fastened square sticks that bear a scale of figures computed 
to the cubic capacity of the tank in gallons. These move up- 
ward and downward with the oil in the tank showing at a 
glance the number of gallons on hand. 

The cabinet shown is what is known as a first floor 
outfit. In this the cabinet and pump are both on the saint 




floor. The exposed parts of the pump are all nickeled and the 
cabinet is a high furniture finish. 

The company makes all kinds of tanks for cellar or any 
other kind of outfit. 


The World's Fair and the Result 

Visitors of the late World's Fair at St. Louis wil be pleased 
to observe on page 39 of the advertising a faithful reproduction 
of machinery hall and also a half-tone of the important exhibit 
of wood working machines by the H. B. Smith Machine Co., of 
Smithville, N. J. This engraving is unique in the fact that it 
is a very artistic way of expressing the facts in unmistakable 
language which the thousands of visitors who recorded their 
names in the above space and others will recognize. 

The exhibit consisted of some thirty-five important wood 



March, 1906 

working machines of latest design and embodying all valuable 
improvements to date. The new moulding machines were of 
heavy pattern, and represented the composite ideas of thousands 
of American operators who were consulted as to the important 
quirements of such machines. 

The triple drum sander with endless-bed feed was designed 
by Mr. Perry, the acknowledged father of sanders, and was 
the result of more than forty years of experience in designing 
and building machines of that class. And as much may be said 
of the other machines which were exhibited, including fast feed 
flooring machines, double-end and single-end tenoners, double 
and single spindle shapers, double and single surface planers, 
band saws, saw benches, and sundry other machines. 

It will be remembered that the H. B. Smith Machine Co. 
have been in business nearly sixty years, and within the last 
six years have largely increased their line, which was originally 
confined to sash, door and blind machinery. Now they make 
complete equipments for the manufacture of furniture and 
also many machines suitable for planing mills and car shops. 
Their modern machines are all made quite heavy and are strong- 
ly driven, hence particularly well adapted for working hard 

They are publishing the engraving above referred to, which 

so that it can be fed up to the vise for handling short pieces 
of pipe. 

The vise is the celebrated serpentine. It is opened and 
closed while the machine is in motion by simply moving the 
dog forward or backward. The vise jaws are held in T slots 
at the end of the jaw holders. They are made of tempered steel 
with teeth of M form and can be sharpened without drawing 
the temper. The adjusting ring at the back of the vise pro- 
vides ample adjustment for the variation in size of pipe. 

The bearings are very large and heavy, and babbitted with 
the best anti-friction metal. The gears are all machine cut and 
inclosed within a cone on the machine, thus being protected 
from chips and dust and out of the way of the operator. The 
cone is a three step, giving six speeds to the machine. 

The pipe guides for steadying the pipe in cutting off, are 
on back of the head and are operated by means of a lever. 
The cutting-off tools are two in number, cutting from two sides 
of the pipe at the same time. The nipple atachment used in con- 
nection with this machine is so arranged that the grippers can be 
closed on the threaded end without injury to the thread, thus 
avoiding the necessity of screwing the nipple into the grips 
after they are closed. 

The reamer is conveniently located so as to ream while 


they call the "World's Fair and the Result", in larger size on 
fine paper and suitable for framing, and which will be sent to 
visitors of the World's Fair who called at their space and 
registered their addresses; and it wiil also be sent to others 
who will make the request. 

« » 

Nipple and Pipe Mill Machine 

This machine is especially designed for heavy and constant 
service in pipe mills and shops where a large quantity of pipe 
of one size is handled. The machine is unequalled in strength, 
speed and convenience in operating. The head has standard 
adjustable quick opening and closing dies, actuated by a cam 
movement, controlled by a segment of a gear, and is arranged 

cutting off and can be thrown to one side to permit of long 
pieces of pipe being cut off. The threading guage is 3 feature- 
that no other machine has. It works automatically and re- 
leases the chasers when the desired length of thread has been 
cut. The chasers are five in number and can be sharpened by 
grinding, and readily replaced by chasers cutting any style or 
pitch of thread. 

The capacity of this machine is from J4 to 2 inches inclusive. 
One set of right hand dies for each size of pipe is furnished 
with the machine. 

The oil pump is automatic and is arranged to flood both the 
chasers and cutting-off tools. 

This machine is built by the Merrell Mfg. Co., Toledo, Ohio. 

March, 1906 



The Bangs Automatic Oil Cup 

The Bangs System of Lubrication, which is used by many 
railroads and the largest builders of locomotives, in the form 
of the Bangs Patent Automatic Oil Cup, shown in the accom- 
panying illustration, is perhaps the best and most economical 
system of lubrication known. E. D. Bangs, Milwaukee, Wis., 
the inventor of this system, is a practical engineer who has 
installed his automatic oil cups on many of the large railroad 
systems and navigation companies. Among the largest users 
of these oil cups are The American Locomotive Company, The 
Great Northern Railroad, every engine of which is equipped, 
The Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Northern Steamship 
Company, Rogers Locomotive Company, and many others. 

Heretofore the device has been manufactured by the Bangs 
Company, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, but the proprietor is now 
Mr. Bangs himself, who will continue the manufacture and sale 
of the devices bearing his name. 

The Bangs Automatic Oil Cups for Locomotives are almost 
too well known to need description, the thousands of them in 
use testifying to their efficiency and the results obtained by 
them. They can be used on every bearing on a locomotive. 
They are purely automatic and it is the testimony of users that 
they will pay for themselves in less than six months in the 
saving of oil. 

The cut shown in the illustration is the automatic oil cup for 
use on locomotives. It can be placed in any position. The 
patent extension stem which should, in all cases, reach to one- 
eighth inch of the pin or bearing, carries the oil directly to 
same. Accompanying each cup are four feeds — No. 1 coarse, 
to No. 4 fine. The feed is to be regulated to suit the oil. The 
cup feeds from the top, throwing the oil up by the reciprocal 
motion and on striking the top the oil is directed to the feed 
hole by the radial curved guides in the top of cup. This cup 
distributes the oil evenly, a very small particle at each stroke. 
It can never be stopped by sediment and is a positive feed. The 
cover should not be removed except to change the feed. To 
fill the cup the plug at the top should be removed and the cup 

should be filled through the center aperture of the cover, thus 
allowing the air to escape through the two apertures shown in 
cut. It will be seen that the manner of feed is such that oil 
can only get at the bearing when locomotive is in motion. When 
not running, no oil can be thrown into the feed hole so that 
when standing still not a drop of oil is used or wasted. When 
running, only so much oil is needed is used, thus showing 
it to be the most economical device for this use. 

♦ ■ 

Portable^Hydraulic Presses 

The accompanying illustrations are of a number of portable 
hydraulic presses manufactured by the Charles F. Elmes En- 
gineering Works, Chicago, Illinois. 

Figure 1 is known as the portable hydraulic press No. 1. 
The illustration shows the press in operation pressing a 12-inch 
crank pin into a 60-inch crank disk. The machine is used for 
pressing on or off cranks, armatures, wheels, couplings, etc. 
This is an excellent device for removing and putting in loco- 
motive crank axles. For this purpose it is a great deal more 
convenient than attempting to do it in the wheel press which 
is not fitted for this class of work. 

Fig. 2 is an illustration of a portable hydraulic press, No. 2. 
This shows the press, pump, oil tank, cylinder and guage com- 
plete in operation with beams and side bars for pressing on or 
ofr cranks, car wheels, couplings, etc. This tool would be par- 
ticularly useful in the round-house or erecting shop for remov- 
ing or putting in crank pins. The usual method of doing this 
is to suspend a heavy hammer from the roof trusses and with 
the aid of five or six men the pin is driven home in half a day. 
This simple device will do the job in a very short time and 
does not require more than two men. 

This company builds hydraulic presses for all kinds of work, 
from the heaviest down to very small machines, including regu- 
lar wheel presses. They also manufacture portable cylinder 
boring bars for boring cylinders varying in size from 4 inches 
to 50 inches. 




9 6 


March, 1906 

Star Metal Polish 

The Star Paste Polish is the result of long and careful 
labor by the most skillful polish manufacturers in the country. 
It contains no acids, grits, alkali or cyanide of potassium, mak- 
ing it pleasant to use and having no disagreeable odor. It will 
not injure the most highly polished metals, and can be used 
on any metal articles, working equally as well in warm as in 
cold weather. 

Star Liquid Polish is non-injurious to the metals or other 
substances it comes in contact with, or the person using it, 
and quickly produces, with little effort, the highest and most 
lasting brilliance. It removes stains and produces a lustre 
equal to new. 

It is unequaled for polishing gold, silver, scales, brass, nickel, 
copper, zinc and tinware, locomotive and machine mountings, 
headlight reflectors and all kinds of metal. 

It contains no acid nor anything injurious to the metal or 
hands. It will not settle or harden on the bottom of cans. 

These polishes as manufactured by the Bell Mfg. Co., St. 
Louis, are extensively used by the following railroads : Balti- 
more & Ohio ; Chesapeake & Ohio ; Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific; Missouri Pacific; Missouri, Kansas & Texas; Norfolk 
& Western ; Union Pacific ; Southern Pacific ; Oregon Short 
Line and Terminal of St. Louis. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company Test 
Subway Engines 

An interesting official fifteen-hour test of one of the nine 
twin vertical-horizontal Reynolds Corliss Engines, cylinders 
42 inches and 86x60 inches, which have been in operation at 
the 59th street station of the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, New York City since 1902, was concluded December 15th. 
The tests were conducted by the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company and representatives of the Allis-Chalmers Company, 
as a final determination of the fulfillment of the builder's guar 
antee and formally provided for in the original contracts. 

How well the tests of engine No. 8, which was selected as 
representing all the engines installed, fulfilled the claims made 
for it, may be readily ascertained from the following data giving 
a synopsis of the completed tests. 

As per agreement, on account of the impossibility of keeping 
a constant load, the power was determined by the reading of 
tested integrating wattmeters. These readings were reduced to I. 
H. P. by running the generator as* a synchronous motor ; adding 
the electrical input to the switchboard readings when developing 
power, to obtain the power exerted by the engine. 

The result of the test so made, under conditions approxi- 
mating the contract requirements of 7,500 H. P., 75 r. p. m., 
175 lbs. steam pressure and 26 inches vacuum, was a consump 
tion of 11.96 lbs. of dry saturated steam per I. H. P. hour, or 
well within the guarantee of 12.25 lbs. The steam consumption 
ped K. W. hour at the switchboard was 17.34 lbs. 

Duration 15 hours. 

Load ,.' 5,079 2 K. W. 

Friction and Generator losses 4*7-3 K. W. ,=559.41 H. P. 

Total load 5,496-5 K. W. 

I. H. P 7,365.3 H. P. 

R. P. H 75.02 

Steam Pressure 175.18 - lbs 

R. H. Receiver 19.1 lbs. 

L. H. Receiver 19.27 lbs. 

Vacuum 26.02 lbs. (actual) 

Temp. Injection Water 42.36 deg. 

Temp. R. H. Discharge 7405 deg. 

Temp. L. H. Discharge 77-38 deg. 

Barometer 30.50 lbs. 

Water, per hour 89.906 lbs. 

Drips, per hour 512 lbs. 

Leakage, per hour (boiler) 1-470 lbs. 

Boiler Level Correction 60 lbs. 

Net water per hour 87.864 lbs. 

Quality of steam 100.28 per cent 

Dry steam, per hour 88.110 lbs. 

Dry steam per K. W. H 17.34 lbs. 

Dry steam per I. H. P 11.96 lbs. 

The final results allow for boiler leakage which was deter- 
mined by a separate test of 24 hours' duration. The steam was 
very slightly superheated during the test, as being easier to make 
allowance for than wet steam, and a correction was made to 
reduce the superheated steam to equivalent dry saturated steam. 

The vacuum was carried at 26.02", or as near the contract 
requirement as possible, but the barometer stood at 30.50". The 
vacuum was, therefore, equivalent to only 25.52" referred to 30" 
barometer ; no correction was made, however, as none was pro- 
vided for in the contract. Other tests at varying vacua show 
that if the vacuum had been carried enough higher to corres- 
pond to 26" vacuum when referred to 30" barometer, the steam 
consumption would have been about 0.09 lbs. better, or 11.87 lbs. 
per I. H. P. hour instead of the official figure of 11.96 lbs. 

The tests were under the supervision of Frank N. 
Waterman, who acted as referee. The following represented 
their several companies : Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, H. G. Scott, superintendent motive power; J. Van Vleck, 
mechanical engineer; H. W. Butler, principal assistant engineer; 
Thomas Allsop, mechanical engineer, Fifty-ninth street power 
station ; C. W. Ricker, electrical superintendent ; G. F. Chellis, 
instrument man; W. L. Seabrooke and W. S. Finlay, assistant 

Allis-Chalmers Company, A. M. Mattice, chief engineer ; 
Samuel Moore, district superintendent of erection ; T. T. Hub- 
bard, engineer test ; J. W. Lord, sales representative ; C. A. Hop- 
pen and C. J. Larsen, construction department ; A. F. Rolf and 

F. Buch, electrical representative. 

9 «> « 

JVotes of the Month 

The well-known company of Pedrick & Ayer, formerly of 
of Philadelphia, now located at Plainfield, N. J., has been pur- 
chased and will hereafter be operated by the Railway Appliances 

. — « ^ a 

The Emmert Mfg. Co., Waynesboro, Pa., have just issued a 
catalogue illustrating their "Presto" Quick Acting, Machinists, 
"Tiger" and Universal line of vises. The catalogue gives a 
full line of illustrations showing the vises in all conceivable 
shapes together with a price list. 

« *> » 

It is officially announced that Mr. James A. Milne, who has 
for a number of years been comptroller of the Allis-Chalmers 
Company, Milwaukee, has accepted the position of general mana- 
ger of Allis-Chalmers-Bullock, Limited, Montreal, Canada, to 

become effective on or before May 1st, 1906. 
. ■» . 

The Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich., have issued a 

descriptive pamphlet on their No. 21 locomotive lubricator. 
It also has helpful hints for the information of engineers, round- 
house foremen, lubricator repairmen, etc. Full directions for 

operating and applying the lubricators are given. 

■ ♦ ■ 

Railway Appliances Company begs to announce that it has 
taken the selling agency for the Elastic Nut manufactured by 
the National Elastic Nut Company, of Milwaukee, Wis., and all 
inquiries in regard to price, etc., should be addressed to the 
Railway Appliances Company, 1175 Old Colony Building, Chi- 
cago, or 114 Liberty street, New York. 


The Bullard Automatic Wrench Co., of Providence, , R. I., 
has issued one of the most attractive catalogues coming to our 
notice. It is five by eight inches and filled with haff-tones that 
are works of art, showing the wrenches in their various adapta- 
tions to pipe and general work. The text is replete with informa- 
tion concerning the construction and purposes of these handy 


. ♦ . 

A first-class firm wants a practical man, who thoroughly 
understands the working and hardening of high speed steel, as 
salesman and demonstrator of the advantages of the steel. The 

March, 1906 



party must be well acquainted among all railroad men, be of 
good address and not older than 35 years. State previous ex- 
perience, character of present position and salary wanted. Ad- 
dress St. D., Postoffice Box 1347, New York City. 

» » • 

One of the most useful appliances about machine shops, and, in 
fact, any situation requiring the lifting and transportation of 
loads, is the Nichols Portable Derrick and Hoist, New York. 
The smaller sizes of this device are mounted on three wheels 7 J/2 
inches in diameter, with 3 inch face, the wheels having roller 
bearings, which enables one man to operate the device with ease, 
and the wide wheel faces preventing injury to the floor. The der- 
rick frame is of steel and being continuous forms the base for the 
wheel connections. As a whole, this device is one that no shop, 
and especially a railway shop, can do without. 

The Invisible Roll Screen Company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., have 

put out a little pamphlet illustrating one of the finest systems of 

window protection against insects ever yet perfected. This screen 

rolls up from the inside like a curtain, with absolute certainty 

of action, and is made of the best Pompeian bronze wire cloth 

woven for the special purpose. The unsightly frames used in the 

ordinary screens are absent in these, which are of the simplest 

possible construction, and capable of removal or installation by 

any one. The universal adaptability of this really excellent 

screen will make it a necessity in passenger train cars, especially 

sleepers, as well as in hotels and private residences. 

» <» ■ 

The Hendrick Manufacturing Company, Carbondale, Pa., 

have issued their initial catalogue to the general trade on "Per- 
forated Metals" and it is a most creditable and comprehensive 
work. There are sixty pages of text interspersed with numerous 
illustrations of standard and special screen plates, spark arrester 
plates, revolving screen, sections, etc., as well as various styles 
of elevator buckets, conveyor lining, troughs and nights, manu- 
factured in their sheet iron and steel construction- department. 
There is in addition, most valuable data in the way of engineer- 
ing tables which will make the book a valuable one for refer- 
ence purposes. Copies, we understand, will be gladly sent our 
readers on application. 

Foote, Burt & Co., Cleveland, Ohio, have purchased the 
plant, patterns and good will of the Reliance Machine & Tool 
Company's bolt cutters, bolt pointers and nut tappers. They will 
make this line in connection with their line of multiple drills 
such as they have made for the last ten years and intend to add 
about one-third more to the floor space which they already oc- 
cupy. The plant of the Reliance Machine & Tool Company 
will be moved to their present quarters and the business will all 
be carried on by Foote, Burt & Co. None of the executive 
staff of the old Reliance Machine & Tool Co. will be connected 
with it. All of the shop men, however, will be given employ- 

. » ■» « 

Consul Harris reports that the Brown Hoisting Machinery 
Company of Cleveland, Ohio, has sold, erected, and put in opera- 
tion for the Kyushu Railway Company at Tobata, in the harbor 
of Wakamatsu, situated at the western outlet of the Straits of 
Shimonoseki, two steam hoisting machines of the Gantry crane 
type of 8,000 tons daily capacity, for the purpose of delivering 
coal from cars into sea-going vessels as cargo. The installation 
of this machinery means much for the future development of the 
coal trade at Wakamatsu, as it doubles the present capacity for 
handling coal at that port. Additional machines will be in- 
stalled as the capacity of the docks, now being extended, will 
allow. It is confidently expected that the putting in operation 
of these machines will rapidly revolutionize the methods now 
in vogue of loading cargo coal on sea-going vessels at the vari- 
ous coal-shipping ports in this district. 

riveters to the American Car & Foundry Company, mostly of 
the 'Alligator'' and "Compression Lever" type of riveter, and 
at the present time have an order from the same concern for 
eight more machines. It will be of interest in this connection 
to state that the J. F. Allen Co. recently designed a new style 
of arms of the alligator type, which are very useful in getting 
into corners, and five of the machines just ordered by the 
American Car & Foundry Company will have this improvement. 
They also report that they have just made a shipment of two 
72 inch Allen riveters to Japan, the order for which was re- 
ceived by them through Mitsui & Company of New York City. 

In the January issue of The Little Blue Flag, Mr. Henry C. 
Lowe, president of Lowe Brothers Co., Dayton, Ohio, says the 
following about salesmanship : 

"From my point of view the prime qualifications of sales- 
manship are truthfulness, tactfulness, tireless energy and 
thoughtfulness. Truthfulness is absolutely necessary; tactful- 
ness is a most high accomplishment, can be increased by cultiva- 
tion and attention, and is most valuable in your approach to your 
customer; hard work is the oniy road to success in any calling 
in life, and we only ask from you, good, straight, hard work 
during reasonable working hours ; thoughtfulness is the most 
important of all, for it is at the foundation. Living up to 
these qualifications with character, intelligence, ambition, loyalty 
and interest in your hearts, I know that you will all be success- 
ful salesmen during the coming year." 

The Falls Hollow Stay Bolt Company has issued a pamphlet 
entitled "How to Save 50 Per Cent Now Spent on Coal," and in- 
corporated in the same work is a paper on "The Utility of Hol- 
low Bolts and Stays as Factors Bettering Combustion," which 
was read before the St. Louis Railway Club, and also a paper 
read before the New York Railroad Club on "The Quality and 
Utility of Solid, Flexible and Hollow Staybolts." 

The author of these papers, Mr. John Livingstone, has given 
much time and thought to the practice of the practical phases 
of combustion in a locomotive firebox, and the questions in- 
volved in staybolt efficiency, and what he has to say will be 
read with interest by those responsible for the fuel bills as well 
as those who are immediately concerned with the maintenance 
of fireboxes. 

There is no question of livelier import in locomotive opera- 
tion today than that of fuel economy, and it is plain that any de- 
vice that will reduce the present consumption, which amounts 
to not less that ten per cent of the total operating expense of 
railways, should receive the attention it deserves, and have an 
opportunity to demonstrate its worth. This little work of 62 
pages will repay for the reading. It may be obtained on re- 
quest, from the Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., Cuyahoga Falls, O. 

• ♦ « 

John F. Allen., 370-372 Gerard Avenue, New York City, 
manufacturers of pneumatic riveting machines find a constantly 
increasing demand for the well-known "Allen", riveters. During 
the year just closed they have shipped twenty-eight complete 

"Allis-Chalmers Engines — At Home and Abroad," is the title 
of a rather unique bulletin about to be issued by the Milwaukee 
company which has equipped so many of the leading power 
plants of the world — unique from the fact that it contains 68 
pages without a vestige of reading matter except brief descrip- 
tions underneath the cuts and a list of the company's products 
at the end. The title page illustration represents four huge 
engines, capable of furnishing 35,000 H. P., installed in the 
power-house of the Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapolis. 
Other plants shown include those of the N. Y. Interborough 
Rapid Transit Co., "Subway" and "Manhattan" stations; New 
York Railway Co. ; Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. ; Chicago Met- 
ropolitan West Side Elevated Ry. Co.; Chicago Union Traction 
Co.; Central London, Eng. (Underground) Ry. ; London United 
Tramways, Limited; Dublin, Ireland, Tramways; Cincinnati 
Gas & Electric Co. ; St. Louis Union Electric Light & Power 
Co. ; St. Louis & Suburban Street Ry. Co. ; Glasgow United 
Tramways ; Detroit United Railway ; Bristol, Eng. United Tram- 
ways ; Kansas City Metropolitan Street Ry. ; Kansan City, Kan. 
Consolidated Electric Light & Power Co.; Middlesboro, Eng. 
Power Station ; Cleveland Electric Railway Co. ; Toledo Rail- 
way & Light Co.; Barcelona, Spain, Tramway Co. Ltd.; Grand 

9 8 


March, 1906 

Rapids Electric Ry. Co.; Isle of Thanet, Eng. Tramways; Sid- 
ney, New So. Wales, Government Tramways; Buenos Aires, 
Argentine, Compania Alemana Transatlantica de Electricidad ; 
Havana, Cuba, Electric Ry. Co. ; Louisville Ry. Co., and other 
well-known companies. Pumping Engines, a number of which 
hold world's records for economy and efficiency in their respec- 
tive fields of operation, are shown installed in the plants of the 
Boston Metropolitan Water & Sewerage Board, Chestnut Hill, 
Ward St., Charlestown & Deer Island stations; Chicago Water 
Works, 39th St. and Chicago Ave. stations; Pittsburg Water 
Works, Brilliant station; St. Louis Water Works, Baden sta- 
tion, and large industrial plants. Blowing Engines are repre- 
sented by impressive lines at furnaces of the Carnegie Steel 
Co., and American Steel & Wire Co. ; Air Compressors by 
machines in operation for the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. 
and Atlas Portland Cement Co., and Hoisting Engines by num- 
erous- mining installations, prominent among which is that of 
the famous Le Roi mine at Rossland, B. C. Several typical 
views showing engines adapted for different classes of service, 
taken at random from the bulletin (No. 1,500), are shown here- 
with. The exhibit made is certainly an impressive one and should 
bi gratifying to American pride, particularly as these illustrations 
represent but a tithe of the power equipment turned out from 
the works of the Allis-Chalmers Company. 

■ ♦ 

Consul Harris, of Mannheim, Germany, says the German 
Empire is rapidly building up a class of men for whom it has no 
employment at fair wages, and for whom the demand does not 
increase as fast as the supply. He cites the opinion of a writer 
in a leading paper of Mannheim to the effect that technical edu- 
cation in the Empire has been carried far beyond the power 
to utilize it. The consul writes : 

The question of erecting a school for the building trades in 
Mannheim being at present under discussion, a prominent con- 
structing engineer has contributed an article to a leading news- 
paper of the city, in which he aims to show that technical 
education in Germany has gone beyond actual needs. He con- 
trasts the number of those taking such training with the number 
in other professions, and concludes that the ranks of the technic- 
ally trained are at present much overcrowded. The following ex- 
tracts from his article will be of interest. The term "tech- 
nical high school" used in the article is peculiar to the German 
school system, and represents the highest grade of technical 
schools in Germany, of which there are at present ten in the 

The number of those studying in the technical high schools 
in Germany in the winter of 1890-91 was 5,432 and in the winter 
of 1904-5, 15, 866, or, in other words, there was an increase of 
about 200 per cent. On the other hand, the number studying 
theology in Prussia in the winter of 1887-88 was 2,713, and in the 
winter of 1903-4, 1,005, or a falling off of almost one-third. The 
number of medical students in Prussia in the summer of 1887 
was 5,168 and in the winter of 1903-4 3,020, a falling off of almost 
one-half. In the scientific technical branches of the depart- 
ments of philosophy in the advanced schools (as the universi- 
ties), which, as shown by experience, prepare a large percentage 
of technically trained .students, and the number of such students 
in the winter of 1901-2 was 1,100, and in the winter of 1903-4, 
3,015. It thus appears that there is a rapid increase in the 
technically trained that casts into the shade the well-known 
enormous increase in those trained in legal studies, which in 
1889-90 amounted to 2,925 and in 1903-4 to 6,345. From the lat- 
ter ranks also, it is not to be overlooked, come many of those 
holding official positions in industrial undertakings. 

Similar conditions are to be noted in the middle and lower 
technical schools. Thus, in the 22 schools for the building 
trades belonging or receiving aid from Prussia, the number 
of students in the winter of 1902-3 was 4,251 and in the winter 
of 1903-4 was 5,077, an increase of 20 per cent in a single 
year. For a period of ten years this increase would amount 
to 200 per cent. The number of special schools in the metal 

industries belonging to or supported by Prussia in 1891 was 9; 
in the winter of 1903-4 it was 19, an increase of no per cent. 
The number of students in attendance in 1891 was 755 and in 
the winter of 1903-4 it was 3,010, an increase of 300 per cent. 
This number is equaled, if not exceeded, by those attending 
private technical schools. In Saxony, which plays almost the 
part of an incubator of middle-grade technical students, the 
number of schools for machine construction in 1884 was 2, with 
524 students. In 1902 there were 6 schools, with 2,687 pupils, 
an increase of 200 per cent in schools and 410 per cent in pupils. 
The number of schools for the building trades in 1885 was 5, 
with 469 pupils, and in 1902 it was 10, with 1,342 pupils, or an 
increase of 100 per cent in schools and 185 per cent in pupils. 

It is apparent that the increase in numbers in the technical 
ranks has gone far beyond the demand — 200 per cent against 
about 50 per cent on the average. The consequence of this 
over production in technical resources is a constantly diminish- 
ing rate of wages, as the law of supply and demand applies 
here as elsewhere. Wage statistics, which were compiled from 
inquiries made of 20,000 members of the German technical as- 
sociation and which were presented in the Reichstag by Dr. 
Heinz Potthoff, a member, show the following picture: Almost 

, one-fourth of all city and other trained appointees receive a 
salary under 1,800 marks ($428.40) per year, 35 per cent re- 
ceive from 1,800 to 2,400 marks ($428.40 to $571.20), only 24 
per cent receive from 2,400 to 3,000 marks ($571.20 to $714.00), 
and only 19 per cent receive over 3,000 marks ($714.00). It is 
to be noted that among those considered was a large number 

"of office men who are engaged with public officials, which gives 
to the total a more favorable aspect, because among officials so 
employed a rate of salary from 2,100 marks ($499.80) to 2,700 
marks ($642.60) generally prevails. 

From all this it appears that for an increase of technical 
resources and schools there is at present no pressing demand. 
There is an increased and, as it were, artificially created prole- 
tariat, and the various industries are not in a position to pay 
for these superfluous powers. 

» •» 

Consul Ernest L. Harris, of Chemnitz, writes that during the 
past five years the number of trade-continuation schools in Sax- 
ony has been increased by 10, so that now the total number is 
46. The number of pupils attending these schools is 9,139. 
Twenty-six of the schools were founded by different associa- 
tions, 15 by school organizations, 4 by trade unions, and I by 
a private person. The school in Chemnitz has the largest at- 
tendance, namely, 1,460 pupils. Five hundred teachers in these 
schools have other ocupations, such as teaching in the public 
schools, etc. The contingent expenses in 1904 amounted to 
$52,000. Of this sum $18,000 was raised through tuition and 
matriculation fees, $11,000 from different cities, and $8,860 from 
the State. 

Railway Association and Club Meetings for 


American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way As- 
sociation, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, March 20, 21, 22. 

Canadian Railway Club, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que., 
March 6. 

Car Foreman's Club of Chicago, 26 Van Buren street, Chi- 
cago, March 13. 

Central Railway Club, Hotel Iroquois, Buffalo, N. Y., March 9. 

Iowa Railway Club, March 19. 

New England Railroad Club, Pierce Hall, Copley Square, Bos- 
ton, March 13. 

New York Railroad Club, 154 West 57th street, New York, 
March 16. 

North-West Railway Club, West Hotel, Minneapolis, March 

Railway Club of Pittsburg, Monongahela House, Pittsburg, 

March 23. 
St. Louis Railway Club, Southern Hotel, St. Louis, March 9. 

March, 1906 



Richmond Railroad Club, Richmond, Va., March 8. 
Pacific Coast Railway Club, San Francisco, Cal., March 17. 
Western Railway Club, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, March 20. 

Technical Publications 

Locomotive Tests and Exhibits, cloth, 727 pages, 6x9 inches. 
Price $5.00. Pennsylvania Railroad System, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Results of locomotive tests on the testing plant at St. Louis 
at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. 

■ » « 

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Convention of the 
Traveling Engineers' Association. Report of convention held at 
Detroit, together with the papers presented. 

Machine Shop Tools and Methods, by W. S. Leonard, cloth, 
554 pages, 6x9 inches. Price $4.00. John Wiley & Sons, New 

This book is designed to serve as an aid in connection with 
the lectures on machine-shop methods in colleges. There are 
many questions connected with machine-shop practice which can 
be more systematically and economically treated in the class- 
room than by giving individual instruction in the shop. For 
f his reason this work was compiled as assistance to instructors. 

« ■» • 

Pocket Book of Mechanical Engineering, by Charles M. 
Sames. Leather, 168 pages, 4x6^ inches. Price, $1.50. Charles 
M. Sames, Jersey City, N. J. 

This book is a concise, comprehensive and up-to-date compila- 
tion of mechanical engineering information of such size that it 
may be carried in the pocket without inconvenience. Its scope 
may be inferred from the table of contents which deals with the 
general heads of mathematics ; chemical data ; materials ; strength 
of materials ; -structure and machine parts ; energy and the 
transmission of power ; heat and the steam engine ; hydraulics 
and hydraulic machinery; shop data and electrotechnics. The 
treatment comprises tables, data, formulas, succinct statements 
of theory, illustrative examples and grahpical methods. Especial 
attention is given to reinforced concrete, ball and roller bear- 
ings, superheated steam turbines, internal combustion engines, 
high speed tool steel, grinding, electro magnets. 

» ♦ 

Cyclopedia of Drawing. Two Volumes. New edition en- 
larged to 1,200 pages. Size of page, 8x10. Fully indexed. 
Bound in Morocco. Price, $7.00. American School of Corres- 
pondence, Chicago, 111. 

This cyclopedia has recently been enlarged and now has 1,000 
illustrations, including full-page plates, sections, diagrams, etc. 
Part I takes up the architectural or artistic side of drawing and 
Part II the mechanical side. The work as a whole is one of 
the most practical reference works on drawing that has been 
published. A glance at the index will give an idea of the work 
covered in the book. Some of these are as follows : Allowance 
for seaming and wiring; annular gears; bearings, length of; 
belts; blue printing; calculations in machine design; cost of 
producing drawings ; boiler work, etc. 

The regular price of the books is $10.00, but a special offer 
of $7.00 has been made for the purpose of introducing the books 
to the readers of the Railway Master Mechanic. The books 
are sent by prepaid express on five days approval and may be 
returned at the expense of the publishers if not satisfactory. 
No money need be paid until accepted and then at the rate of 
$1.00 per month. If cash is paid in advance, the price is $6.50. 

Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of Ameri- 
ca. Edition of 1906. Cloth, 694 pages, 6 by 8y 2 inches. 
Price, $3. Railway Age Company, Chicago. 
Twenty years ago The Railway Age Company undertook the 
publication of a directory of railway officials, the most import- 
ant feature of which should be a concise history of the railway 
positions held by each individual named. The value of such 
a record in permanent form, of appointments, promotions and 

changes, giving simply dates, titles and names of roads, was 
proved by the demand for the first volume, issued in 1885, and 
has justified the steadily increasing cost and size of successive 
editions. The Biographical Directory is recognized as an in- 
dispensable reference book in every railway library, because it is 
the only history of American railway official life published, and 
the six closely printed volumes that have now been issued are 
found to constitute a record of changes in railway personnel, 
impressive in number and notable in character and result. The 
edition for 1906 just from the press is the most complete and 
comprehensive that has yet been issued, as might be expected 
from the great growth of American railways. 

The first issue, in 1885, contained 3,764 names, requiring 276 
pages. The present volume gives 5,000 personal histories, oc- 
cupying 694 pages. Each successive volume has shown many 
new officials added and many old names removed by death 
or retirement from railway life, and the records for 1906 will be 
found to be largely those of men not named in the volume for 
1885. In twenty years a new generation has come into com- 
mand of our railways. Comparing the present issue with the 
preceding volume for 1901, the number of sketches eliminated 
is 1,280, of which 275 are omitted on account of death and 
1,005 on account of retirement from service, etc. 

Of the more than 1,200 new sketches in this volume, many 
are those of young men who have come to official rank since 
the last Directory was published and there also appear a num- 
ber of railway officials of extended service who had hitherto 
failed to furnish the necessary data. 

Included in this volume are the names of many men who 
have left important positions in railway service to engage in 
other business, but whose railway record still continues a matter 
of general interest. The policy has been continued of republish- 
ing the sketches of former railway officials, now retired, where 
there is evidence that they are living. While the rule has been 
followed to print no name to which some record of official 
life could not be appended, it will be found that the number 
of general, divisional and departmental officers of American 
railways who do not appear in these biographies is small, and 
the omissions are not the result of any lack of continuous effort 
by the publishers during the last six months, by means of 
letters and blank forms of inquiry. 

Of the 5,000 histories in the new volume, 634 or 12.92 per 
cent, are those of officials in the executive departments- 
presidents, vice-presidents, secretaries and treasurers ; 944, or 
19.25 per cent, represent the operating departments — general 
managers, general and assistant general superintendents, divi- 
sion superintendents, superintendents of car service and super- 
intendents of telegraph; 298, or 6.8 per cent, cover accounting 
officers ; 613, or 12.50 per cent traffic officials, none below the 
rank of assistant general freight or assistant general passenger 
agent; 270 or 5.50 per cent, are officers of the mechanical de- 
partments, master mechanic or higher; 440, or 9.05 per cent, 
represent the engineering department; 123, or 2.50 per cent, the 
legal department, and 548, or 11. 17 per cent, perpetuate the his- 
tory of former railway officials still living, of whom retired 
from service there are named 365, left the service to engage in 
manufacturing, supply or construction business allied to rail- 
ways, 56, and former officials now engaged in other lines of 
business, 127. There are 1,030 sketches covering officials not 
in the above classifications, and minor officials in the various 
departments, including purchasing agents, division freight and 
passenger agents, commercial agents, general agents and some 
passenger agents at important points. There are also a few as- 
sistant superintendents, trainmasters and roadmasters with of- 
ficial powers. Finally, in recognition of the increasing voice 
of government in the management of our railways, there are 
added sketches of the personal history of 96 national and state 
railway commissioners, some of whom it will be found have 
had experience in the railway service. 



March, 1906 

Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by 
M. C. Painter, M. <SL O. R.. R. 

Devoted to the Interests of 

Master Car and 
Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 

Liquid that Defies Time 

The Hungarian Chemist Brunn says he has discovered a 
liquid chemical compound which renders certain kinds of matter 
proof against the effects of time. He asserts that it doubles the 
density of nearly every kind of stone and renders it waterproof. 
It imparts to all metals qualities which defy oxygen and rust. 
It is also a germicide of hitherto unequaled powers. The pro- 
fessor says that while traveling in Greece some twenty-five years 
ago he noticed that the mortar in stones of ruins which were 
known to be over 2,000 years old was as hard, fresh and tenaci- 
ous as if it had been made only a year. He secured a piece of 
the mortar and has been working on it ever since until now, 
when, he says, he has discovered the secret. 

The compound is a yellow liquid, which the professor has 
christened zorene. He describes the following experiments : A 
piece of ordinary and easily breakable slag after immersion in 
zorene defied the full blow of a hammer. There was the same 
effect on ordinary brick and a block or red jarrah wood. All 
three were then immersed in water for a long time. When taken 
out and weighed with delicate scales the presence of a single 
particle of added moisture could not be detected. Two pieces of 
steel submitted to an ammonia test equal to five years' exposure 
to the air emerged from the bath as they entered it. 

An ordinary table knife which had lain open five months did 
not show the slightest stain. Prof. Brunn asserts that he will 
be able to make roads dust, germ and water proof, thus giving a 
commercial value to hundreds of millions of tons of slag, which 
is now useless in the mining and smelting districts. His dis- 
covery will at the very least, he says, double the life of metals 
exposed to the air, such as in bridges, railroads, vessels and 

Piece Work 

There is an old saw which says that "straws tell which way 
the wind blows," judging from the many leading railroad shops 
and factories that have adopted the piece work system, it would 
hardly hazard one's prophetic reputation to say that it is 
destined to supercede the day work system in the entire industrial 
world at no distant day. While its introduction in most in- 
stancies has met with much opposition, especially from organized 
labor, yet the advantage that it possesses for the earnest go- 
ahead mechanic becomes apparent so quickly, that its opponents 
soon become steadfast friends of the system. 

If viewed from every standpoint, an impartial comparison of 
the two systems will at once reveal the superiority of the piece 
work system. Although not at once apparent, it is not without 
its moral features, as it largely solves such labor troubles as 
strikes, lock-outs and boycotts, and, possibly, violence. It 
changes the attitude of the employer and the workman by placing 
the former in the position of an inspector, and the latter in the 
position of a contractor. In this particular it removes from 
labor the semblance of slavery and the feeling of servility, and, 
therefore, is elvating to the workman for the reason that his 
mind being freed from part or all of the anxiety consequent 
upon the disagreeable features of the day's work system, he is 
at greater liberty to devote his energies to his work, with a con- 
sequent greater production; which inures not more to his em- 
ployer's advantage than to his own. It also has a stimulating 
effect for its holds out hope that is not beyond the workman's reach 
It dignifies labor, for the reason that under this system every 
workman is working for himself and not for another. It per- 

mits every man to employ his talents to their fullest extent, and to 
his personal benefit, while the opposite system is blighting to the 
talents of the superior mechanic. It is the progressive way of 
doing work, and should be encouraged throughout the American 

To Enlarge the Scope of the Official Organ 

It is our desire if possible to enlarge the scope of our 
official organ, and to this end we invite contributions or sug- 
gestions from persons engaged in any line of railroad work. 
If there is any subject relative to painting that is of particular 
interest to the master mechanic, or the master car builder, or 
the civil engineer or other railroad officials, which they would 
like to have discussed in the official organ, we would be pleased 
to hear from them, There are some men other than painters 
engaged in railroad work whose observation in certain instances 
may furnish helpful suggestions ; which, if followed out 
to their logical conclusions may possibly produce bene- 
ficial results* We invite articles from the paint manufac- 
turer regarding their method of making various paints, and sug- 
gestions from them as to the method of applying them in order 
to obtain the best results. We invite an occasional article 
from our kindred association, the maintenance of way painters, 
such articles in the Master Mechanic, will come directly to the 
notice of their superior officers, which would not be the case 
in any journal that is not especially devoted to railroad matters. 
As an association we are open to conviction, it is our desire to 
grow and increase our usefulness ; the idea of being hide-bound 
is repulsive to us, and while we have made much advance, it is 
possible that in our march of progress, we have overlooked 
some useful things by the road side; if such is the case, he who 
calls our attention to such matters, accompanied by appropriate 
suggestions, will be regarded as a benefactor of the association. 
To our members we extend an invitation to a freer use of the 
columns of their official organ. The oyster-like reticence of some 
of our ablest members is all the more remarkable when we con- 
sider the oratorical ability displayed by them at convention time. 
There are doubtless many subjects that are regarded as too in- 
significant to discuss in convention, that might be discussed with 
perfect propriety through the official organ. Let us begin the 
New Year with a resolution to enlarge the scope of our official 
organ, and let the resolution be a good strong one that will last 
a whole year if not longer, and the following year let it be re- 
newed with equal force. 

. ♦ ■ — — 


There are various opinions concerning the practical qualities 
of carbon for iron or other metal surfaces. When its properties 
and composition are fully understood, many false impressions 
will be dispelled. Below we print a description of carbon, copied 
from the Encyclopedia Britannica, which is supposed to be au- 
thentic. It states that carbon is a conductor of electricity, if so 
it is not very desirable as a protector for metal, but while car- 
bon in its dry state is a conductor of electricity, it is an open 
question whether it retains that property after being mixed with 
linseed oil or other similar liquids to form a paint, for the 
reason that the molecules are separated and otherwise affected 
by the presence of the liquid. We would very much like to hear 
the subject discussed. 

Carbon is one of the most important of the chemical ele- 
ments. It occurs pure in the diamond, and nearly as pure as 
graphite or plumbago, it is a constituent of all animal and vege- 

March, 1906 



table tissues and of coal; and it also enters into the composition 
of many minerals, such as chalk and dolomite. 

Carbon is a solid substance, destitute of taste and odor, but 
it occurs in several modifications which exhibit very diverse 
physical properties. Thus, it is met with in form of the dia- 
mond in transparent crystals, belonging to the regular or cubical 
system, which conduct electricity but slowly; and in the form 
of graphite in opaque crystals belonging to the hexagonal sys- 
tem, which conduct electricity nearly as well as the metals. 
The diamond is the hardest substance known, and has a rela- 
tively high specific gravity, but graphite is comparatively soft, 
producing a black shining streak when rubbed upon paper, and 
has a much lower specific gravity. In addition to .these two 
crystalline modifications of carbon, there are a number of va- 
rieties of non-crystalline or amorphus carbon, which, however, 
exhibit the greatest differences in physical properties. 

By heating to the high temperature afforded by a powerful 
galvanic battery, both the diamond and amorphous carbon are 
converted into graphite. In the electric arc carbon appears to be 
converted into vapor; but the temperature which is required to 
volatilize it is extremely high; in fact, it has been calculated 
that the boiling point of carbon is not less, than about 7000 de- 
grees on the centigrade scale. 

When carbon is burnt in oxygen carbonic dioxide or carbonic 
anhydride or, as it is commonly termed, carbonic acid, is 
formed; if the supply of oxygen is deficient in the lower oxide, 
carbonic oxide is also produced, and the latter may be obtained 
in a pure state by passing the dioxide over a red hot carbon. 
Both are colorless, odorless gases. The. union of carbon with 
oxygen gives rise to the evolution of a very large amount of 
heat, but much less heat is produced by the union of the first 
half of the oxygen than by the union of the second half. 

Carbonic oxide burns in the air or oxygen with a blue flame, 
forming carbonic dioxide. It is an extremely poisonous gas, 
being capable of displacing the oxygen in blood, owing to the 
formation of a compound with the haemoglobin with which the 
oxygen is originally combined. 

Carbonic dioxide will not burn, neither does it support com- 
bustion. Under the pressure of 36 atmospheres at no degrees 
C. it is converted into a colorless mobile liquid. When the 
liquid is suddenly relieved from the pressure under which it 
alone can exist, part of it at once passes back into a state of 
gas, and heat is abstracted so rapidly that the remaining por- 
tion of the liquid solidifies. By allowing a jet of the liquid 
dioxide to pass into a cylindrical metal box, having within it an 
inclined metal tongue against which the jet of liquid impinges, 
a considerable quantity of the solid may be collected in the 
form of a white flocculent mass like snow. Like all flocculent 
substances, it conducts heat but slowly, and may be preserved 
for a considerable time. By mixing it with ether its heat- 
conducting power is greatly increased ; it therefore evaporates 
much more quickly, and much lower temperature is obtained 
than with the solid alone, and by placing the mixture under the 
receiver of an air pump and exhausting, a still greater degree of 
cold is produced. According to Faraday, an alcohol ther- 
mometer plunged into a bath of the solid carbonic dioxide and 
ether in air idicates a temperature of 76 degrees C. and in 
the same bath under a receiver exhausted to within 12 inches of 
the atmospheric pressure it fell to no degrees C. ; at the latter 
temperature alcohol assumes consistency of a thick oil. 

Carbonic dioxide dissolves in about its own volume of 
water at ordinary temperature, forming carbonic acid; the solu- 
tion has a sharp and slightly acid taste and turns the blue color of 
litmus to wine-red. The volume of carbonic dioxide dissolved by 
water diminishes as the temperature rises, and at the boiling heat 
the whole is expelled from solution, the volume dissolved by water 
at a given temperature is nearly the same, however, under all 
pressures, so that the weight of gas absorbed increases in near- 
ly the same proportion as the pressure. On removing the pres- 
sure the gas is given off with effervescence. Ordinary soda- 

water consists merely of water impregnated with carbonic di- 
oxide by mechanical pressure. 

Preparation and Painting of Steel Structures 

By W. T. Hogan, Ex-Master Painter 
Having read many articles upon the subject of paint for the 
protection of iron and steel cars, structural iron work, etc., 
through your magazine and others, prompted me to say a few 
words upon the subject, modestly submitted through your valu- 
able columns. Judging from the articles heretofore noted upon 
this subject, it is very generally admitted that the paints on 
the market especially intended for iron and steel surfaces, are 
not wholly satisfactory to the trade. I will endeavor to show 
the causes underlying the existing dissatisfaction based on long 
experience and many tests of various combinations of pigments 
and oil and to indicate how they can be successfully and prar 
tically removed. 

I will first deal with the subject of "Rust" as it is the one 
great evil the paint fraternity have to deal with, particularly 
so when we take into consideration the cost of structural iron 
work in large buildings and that of the iron and steel cars, 
their maintenance depends largely upon checking rust. To intel 
ligently solve this problem, it is quite necessary to first look 
into the conditions iron and steel are subjected to, for instance, 
when painting structural iron work for buildings and that of 
the iron and steel cars, while the iron is practically the same, 
there are some few different conditions paint has to contend 
with. Paints must be made for their respective places. The 
former, dampness practically the year around and much greater 
during the breaking up of the winter, of walls sweating out 

The iron and steel cars having more or less moisture to con- 
tend with is not enclosed, in other words, sandwiched in be- 
tween damp walls and hidden from sunlight like that of the 
structural iron work, moisture does not get the same chance 
to lay upon cars like that of structural iron work. Again, when 
buildings are completed there is no possible chance of ever 
doing anything with them in the way of checking rust. The 
result is eating away, slowly but steadiy the steel foundations. 
For protection of iron and steel structures subjected to above 
conditions, there is practically but one condition paint has 
to contend with, and that is moisture ; paint must be of a nature 
wholly antagonistic to moisture. 

The condition of the iron and steel cars in addition to being 
subjected to moisture, must also be of a nature to offset 
intense heat and extreme cold which produces expansion and 
contraction. Again, these cars are loaded with hot mill slag 
and much more severe upon painted surfaces than either of 
above conditions, and while a few of the many paints on the 
market sold for the protection of iron and steel surfaces have 
produced only ordinary results, when applied upon the car sub- 
jected to artificial heat, in addition to the other conditions, its 
life is only of short duration and the manufacturer wonders 
at the results, particularly so, when he calls your attention to 
the elastic properties, when being dried out and to the sense 
of touch with some degree of pressure is very tough, elastic- 
like and firm. However, I dare say, had the manufacturer 
taken more seriously under consideration the elastic properties 
in the manipulation of a mixture for the latter condition, he 
would have met better results, for an elastic property that 
will produce fair results in ordinary paint to offset heat and cold 
and the same mixture proved a failure upon the surface sub- 
jected to artificial heat brought about from hot mill slag. 

There is only one conclusion and that is, the elastic proper- 
ties contained in paint were too sensitive to artificial heat. 

Paint to fulfill its many function must have many certain 
and reliable qualities, but cannot be put upon the market and 
compete with many of the conglomerations of various pigments 
and worthless oils now on the market and labeled some fancy 
name for the protection of iron surfaces, all of which have 
been found wanting, among them a few with an odor to de- 



March, 1906 

ceive the consumer or purchasers of its true nature that would 
put a dog to flight. 

Referring back to the question of "Rust," I have heard it 
said time and again among paint manufacturers, civil engineers 
and painters, who claim it is quite necessary not only to remove 
rust from the surface, but stoutly adhere to the idea that it is 
quite necessary that rust must be removed from the pores of the 
iron and steel to remove same from the surface in order to 
aid paint in checking rust. 

With all due respect to their opinions this, in my estimation, 
is the one great mistake of today in trying to check rust. Rust 
in pores of iron is what you want and where you want it, and 
if rust in pores of iron does not show itself, the writer always 
brought it about with what he terms a liquid rust producer ab- 
solutely free from chemicals of any kind. 

Rust is hydrated oxide of iron, in other words, a powdered 
oxide, and I might add a peroxide paint in dry form, it cannot 
be entirely banished as claimed by many writers on this subject. 
Then I suggest, why not use it in this condition upon iron and 
steel while in its infancy and in dry powdered paint form. 

After iron and steel have been cleaned of rust and scales, 
this is usually effected by means of a sand-blast, there are other 
methods, but none so clean, quick and economical. However, 
the real object of the writer advocating the use of the sand- 
blast in preference to other methods is not so much to remove 
ordinary rust from surface as it is to destroy enamel or smooth 
finish upon iron and steel surfaces, at the same time enlarging 
the mouth of pores of iron and steel enabling paint to adhere 
firmer than upon a smooth surface. Another advantage gained 
by the use of the sand-blast, paint can be made more elastic 
for a surface of this description and adhere better than that 
of a smooth one, insuring greater durability. 

Right here, gentlemen, is where you check rust and the only 
opportunity afforded during the process of painting iron and 
steel surfaces. As heretofore stated, the one mistake of today 
is trying to check rust with various pigments of all descriptions 
made up into different combinations and applied for the pro- 
tection of iron and steel. Let us see what the results are, particu- 
larly among the cheaper combinations. To start with, pores 
of iron and steel are full of air, is it natural to suppose that 
during the application of paint being spread over the surface 
it has driven the air from the pores? Not at all. On the con- 
trary, no matter how fine your paint has been ground or how 
thoroughly it may be whipped out and laid off with a light 
touch of the brush, it will bind and bridge over face of pores, 
at the same time enclosing more or less moisture in pores, and 
any ordinary vibration or expansion and contraction will break 
them and admit more moisture. What is the natural conse- 
quence? Is it not natural to suppose that corrosion starts in 
almost immediately in a mild form and, as time advances, in- 
creases in rapidity, subsequent coats of paints upon priming 
coat does not, or cannot, in the least, aid any in checking iron, 
as many suppose. The more inferior the protective coats, the 
speedier oxidation sets in and the quicker rust shows itself 
upon the surface. However, in the meantime, rust is doing its 
deviltry upon iron and steel just the same as if subsequent 
coats of paint upon priming coat were not there. Nothing, 
practically speaking, has been accomplished in the way of check- 
ing rust upon iron and steel, more than subsequent coats of 
paint upon primer has hidden the evil existing from the start, 
but in a short time shows itself upon the surface. 

Now the question would naturally arise as to what I would 
deem the best paint for iron and steel surfaces. Answer — a 
chemically pure peroxide for several reasons, a few I will men- 
tion later on. 

Oxide paints are as numerous as the hills, but 95 per cent 
of them do not contain over 55 per cent peroxide of iron ; the 
balance is made up of selicious matter and roasted earth, both 
of which have in their composition more or less sulphur and 
phosphorous, alike destructive to linseed oil and most suscep- 

tible to moisture. Many on this account are prejudiced against 
peroxide paints without having ascertained by chemical analysis 
whether they are chemically pure or not. 

A good paint as a preserver should have a good covering 
power, and a pure peroxide cannot be questioned on that score, 
but selicious matter and roasted earth do not possess any such 
covering power. 

Among the many paints used for the protection of iron and 
steel, I believe red lead is the most popular, more particularly 
on account of its drying qualities, it is more a subject of decep- 
tion and adulteration than pure oxides. Red lead in its pure 
state has not the affinity or chemical attraction for linseed oil 
found in pure oxide. Great care must be exercised in mixing 
it with linseed oil, and that only in small quantities at a time 
and during the application it must be kept thoroughly agitated, 
otherwise it will separate from the oil and precipitate to the 
bottom of the vessel. Graphite is slightly of a similar nature 
and many combinations of asphaltum, coal tar and ordinary min- 
erals ; altogether, I have found no comparison to a natural 
product of practically a pure peroxide of iron, especially so 
where each coat of peroxide paint is made and designated for 
its individual place in the painting of iron and steel surfaces 
and is so used. 

After iron and steel have been cleaned as herein mentioned, 
I reproduce rust with what the writer terms a liquid rust pro- 
ducer, going over surface freely using sponge or paint brush 
giving particular attention to corners and rivets. Sponge off 
fairly dry and let stand one to two hours; at the expiration 
of this time, you will observe more or less rust in pores of iron 
in powdered form "dry." 

This condition of iron and steel, gentlemen, is in excellent 
condition to hermetically seal the pores and check any further 
rust, and the only opportunity afforded during the process of 
painting iron and steel. 

A priming composition suitable for iron in this condition 
must be penetrating, elastic, adhesive and neutral to iron and 
steel. The former qualification immediately upon application 
reaches the depth of pores driving air to the surface, loosens 
the rust or powdered oxide in pores and utilizes it, showing 
the utmost affinity between rust and primer, practically sealing 
the pores and establishing a thorough foundation for subse- 
quent coats of paint. 

The rust of powdered oxide in pores forming the indestructi- 
ble pigment. 

A primer of this description must not be sand papered for 
such procedure would immediately open the mouth of pores 
and undo the object in view. 

Second coat should be of a similar nature to that of primer, 
more than it is the nature of paint having a slight deviation 
in elasticity, the pigment in same being of a chemically pure 

Third coat should slightly resemble the second coat except 
as to elasticity, when dried out it should not contain a gloss 
but slightly higher than that of an egg shell. Now I do not 
wish to convey the idea that this can be brought about by lin- 
seed oil in its natural state and produce the desired satisfaction. 

Both coats, second and third, should be ground fairly fine. 
This will cost a trifle more, but never mind the cost. The extra 
covering and preserving power derived from a paint of this 
kind will more than offset the cost of grinding, particularly 
the second coat, as it will enter the mouth of the pores and 
unite solidly with the priming composition affording a more 
solid protection against moisture. 

The coarser the mechanical division of paint the less ad- 
hesive and tenacious, the larger the pores and the greater the 
absorbing qualities for moisture and the speedier oxidation 
sets in. 

First and second coats of paint should be made for their 
individual place in the painting of iron surfaces as already 
stated. What I refer to by each having its individual place 

March, 1906 



in the painting of structural iron work and the iron and steel 
car is this : It is absolutely essential that there should and must 
be some slight deviation in elasticity in order that each indi- 
vidual coat may adhere firmly to the other (building out) 
whereas, if each coat be of a like nature in elasticity they do 
not have that affinity for one another and will lay upon each 
other closely, as for instance, three or more sheets of paper 
would do under a pressure; but with the proper variation in 
elasticity, harmony is created among the coats applied and form 
almost a perfect blend, having so thoroughly amalgamated to- 
gether that they may be compared to so many pieces of iron 
welded together so as to practically form but one coat of paint 
and yet yield readily to expansion and contraction. The results 
you will find, in a coating upon iron and steel that is surpris- 
ingly durable. 

The method summed up briefly is as follows : 

First, study the conditions iron and steel are to be subjected 
to, and make paint to meet the conditions, including bridges, 
old or new, steel water tanks, etc. 

Second, sand-blast upon large bodies, object is not so much 
to remove ordinary rust from surface, as it is to remove enamel 
or smooth finish upon iron and steel. It also enlarges the 
mouth of the pores, both assisting paint to adhere firmer than 
upon a smooth surface. Another great advantage gained is, paint 
can be made more elastic, insuring greater durability. 

Third, produce rust. 

Fourth, liquid primer must be of a penetrating and elastic 
nature capable of utilizing all powdered oxide in pores, the 
oxide forming the indestructible pigment. 

Fifth, a chemically pure peroxide, especially so when follow- 
ing liquid primer; its preference over red lead, graphite, as- 
phaltum, coal tar and numerous other paints is owing to its 
being of a natural product and neutral to iron and steel. 

Sixth, while the wearing properties in painter material is 
linseed oil, it has its place in the manipulating of the different 
coats applied, and when used out of place is a detriment. 

Seventh, a pigment entering into the composition is relatively 
equal in importance with that of oil. 

Eighth, a priming composition holds the same relative posi- 
tion in painting as does the foundation to that of a building. 
If you must economize, do it on subsequent coats, for you may 
have the job to do over and you will have something to work 
on and help to get you out of your predicament. 

Ninth, avoid heavy coats of paint. If the degree of dura- 
bility depended upon the quantity of paint, liberality in its ap- 
plication would be commendable. Paint thrown on carelessly 
lays upon the metal in a thick, heavy mass and the atmosphere 
in a short time absorbes its life and it flakes and peals off. 

Tenth, an inferior paint, properly applied, causes usually 
less disastrous results than would a superior article improperly 
manipulated and carelessly used. A man may be very proficient 
owing to constant practice in the application of paints and yet 
he may be quite unfamiliar with the ingredients entering into 
the composition to meet, or offset certain conditions. 
. ♦ • 

Jlsphaltum — Some of Its History and Charac^ 


Asphaltum derives its name from the Locus Asphaltites or 
Dead Sea, where it was found in ancient times. In commerce, 
asphaltum is classed as a pitch. Our present and greatest source 
of supply of this important article of commerce, is obtained from 
the island of Trinidad, a British possession, one of the West 
India Islands, lying near the northeast coast of Venezuela. 
Here is to be found the great natural pitch lake, ninety acres 
in extent. This lake is of unknown depth, and withal very 
treacherous. It will support the weight of a man as long as 
he keeps in motion, but any stationary object of even light 
weight, begins at once to sink. The method of procuring the 
pitch for commercial purposes, is by building a tramway around 
the edge or shore of the lake. \t is then dug out with picks and 

loaded. on cars. During the night the pitch slowly flows out and 
refills the excavations made the day previous. 

The following description of asphaltum will throw much ad- 
ditional light on the subject. 

Asphalt, or asphaltum, the German Bergpech, or mineral 
pitch, so called from the Lacus Asphaltites or Dead Sea, where 
it was found in ancient times, is a product of the decomposi- 
tion of vegetable and animal substances. It is usually found of 
a black or brownish color, externally not unlike coal, but it varies 
in consistency from a bright pitchy condition, with a sharp con- 
choidal fracture, to thick viscid masses of mineral tar. As- 
phalt melts at or a little below 212 degrees C, and it burns 
with a rather smoky flame. It is regarded as the ultimate re- 
sult of a series of changes which take place under certain con- 
ditions, in organized matter, producing, first naptha, second 
petroleum, third mineral tar, and fourth asphalt or hard bi- 

The whole of these substances merge into each other by 
insensible degrees, so that it is impossible to say at what 
point mineral tar ends, and asphalt begins. Naptha, which is 
the first of the series, is in some localities found flowing out 
of the earth as a clear limpid, and colorless liquid. As such 
it is a mixture of hydrocarbons, some of which are very vola- 
tile and evaporate on exposure ; it takes up oxygen from the 
air, becomes brown and thick, and in this condition it is called 
petroleum. A continuation of the same process of evaporation 
and oxidation gradually transforms the material into mineral 
tar, and still later into solid glassy asphalt. Asphaltic deposits 
exist widely diffused throughout the world, more especially in 
tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is found in a state of 
great purity in the interstices of the older rocks, but its oc- 
currence is not characteristic of any particular formation or 
period. The most remarkable deposit of asphalt exists in 
Trinidad, where it forms a lake 99 acres in extent, and of un- 
known depth, intersected with rivulets of water. 
■ ■» . 

Mr Quest's Circular 

The substance of the circular letter from Mr. W. O. Quest, 
chairman of the Test Committee, published in the January 
issue, contemplates resolving the entire association of master 
painters into a committee of the whole for the purpose of making 
tests, and otherwise assisting the test committee with experiences 
and suggestions from time to time as the oportunity offer. We 
consider this a very wise suggestion, which if it meets with the 
approval and support of the members, will redound to the bene- 
fit of the association. 

In order to facilitate the work of the test committee, we 
would suggest that the next convention elect a permanent test 
committee. This appears to be advisable, for several reasons. 
In many instances several years must elapse before the result 
of some tests can be determined. 

On account of the short time that intervenes from one con- 
vention to another, in which to make tests, it is unjust alike to 
the paint manufacturer who submits his goods for a test, and to 
the Master Car Painters' association, whose attitude towards 
those particular goods are as a matter of course influenced by 
the result of the test, or rather by the report of the test 
committee. Neither can successive test committees take up and 
continue the uncompleted work of previous committees and 
promulgate a report, as satisfactory or as intelligent as might 
have been done by those who began the test, and who were in 
position to observe the various changes, etc., that may have 
occurred at the various stages from the beginning of the test. 

Conducting tests successfully and satisfactorily, implies more 
than simply applying a coat of paint or varnish and exposing it 
to the weather and watching results. 

It implies a long and intimate knowledge of paints and var- 
nishes', a love for experimenting, some knowledge of chemistry, 
close observation, a high sense of justice, and most of all, con- 
servatism. With all due respect to the present test committee, 



March, 1906 

and without intention of casting reflection on such committees 
of the past, we feel free to say that no paint manufacturer .who 
values his reputation would care to have his product tested 
with a view of making a public exposure of same by a commit- 
tee whose qualifications for such work had. not been proven. 
Justice, prestige and competency is what the manufacturer 
would desire of a test committee, since he himself is not per- 
mitted to have a voice in the matter. A test committee can have 
no prestige when it is formed anew every year, since prestige 
is acquired only by time and efficiency, and it is only by long and 
continued practice that efficiency is acquired. 

If the attitude of the Master Car Painters' Association is to 
be in any way affected by the reports of test committees con- 
cerning the various paint materials upon the market, they 
should of course provide the best possible means for obtaining 
the desired results, and certainly a permanent committee, which 
is virtually a training school for this particular work, offers 
much better advantages than a committee that is annually 

It would also be advisable to furnish the test committee the 
services of a competent chemist (whenever such is desired or 
necessary) at the expense of the association. In the event 
that it was found to be impracticable to establish a permanent 
test committee, the same results could very nearly be obtained 
by forming the committee so that the tenure of the various mem- 
bers would expire singly, say one every two or three years. 
By this means there would always be some of the older members 
remaining to "break in" the new members and acquaint them 
with the progress already attained, in this way the thread of 
the narrative, so to speak, would not be dropped, and there 
would always be in the committee some member to see the 
conclusion of a test, who also saw it begun. 

There are various other arguments that might be urged in 
favor of the permanent committee, but we refrain from saying 
more on this important subject for the present, and hope to 
have the views of some of our members concerning it. 
» ■» « 

- Information Wanted 

Will the gentleman who mentioned to me at our last con- 
vention about his trying a certain per cent of aluminum bronze 
mixed with stencil lead for durability in marking freight cars, 
please write me a personal letter giving me the particulars 
with full information as to results, etc. Somebody either told 
me about this, or I dreamed it, that's all. I have already written 
to two members and both disclaim it. 

Chas. E. Copp. 

B. & M. Car Shops, Lawrence, Mass. \ 

Wotes From the Field 

Mr. J. H. Roast, master car painter of the Cotton Belt Line 
at Pine Bluff, Ark., will soon occupy his new up-to-date brick 
paint shop. 

» » « 

Mr. A. Latsch, master painter of the Vicksburg, Shreevesport 
and Pacific, is to be congratulated on his promotion, he has been 
appointed foreman of car department, in addition to his other 

» •» ■ 

The Texas and Pacific Railway are getting into line in the 
matter of curtailing exterior ornamentation, which now con- 
sists only of a half incline panel below the belt rail. Mr. H. F. 
Murphy is the master car painter on this system. 

We have in hand a report of the proceedings of the New 
England Railroad Club, which met December 12th, ult, at Bos- 
ton, Mass. There was but one subject discussed, which was 
Terminal Car Cleaning. The subject was opened in an able 
article by Mr. E. F. Bigelow, Assistant Foreman Painter, Read- 
ville Shops, N. Y., N. H. & H. Railroad. The discussion was 
opened in an able and somewhat lengthy address by Mr. C. E. 
Copp. The subject was well handled by the various members 
present, and many interesting points were brought out. It is 
our purpose to review the proceedings for the next issue of the 
official organ. 


We present in this issue, a lengthy article on the preparation 
and painting of iron and steel cars, etc., by Mr. W. T. Hogan, 
formerly a member of the Master Car Painters' Association, 
and who is at present connected with the Pioneer Varnish Works 
of San Francisco, and located at St, Louis, Mo. Mr. Hogan's 
article contains some very good points, and on the whole is a 
very good article, but our experience compels us to differ with 
him en one essential point, that of producing rust in the pores 
of the metal before priming, for the reason that experience 
teaches that when rust has once begun in the least, it cannot 
be entirely and permanently checked. The subject offers a 
fruitful theme for discussion, which we trust our readers will 
avail themselves of, and let us know their views after reading 
his article. 

Beginning with the next issue, we desire to publish a 
series of Head Lining designs. We will esteem it a favor to 
receive from our readers, some of their choice scrolls or other 
ornaments intended for this purpose. They should be penciled 
on thin light colored paper, with ink or black paint. We will 
give due credit to the donor in each case. We trust that our 
members will be sufficiently interested to contribute without the 
necessity of making an individual request for this purpose. 
To make individual requests of the members for contributions 
in every instance, entails considerable correspondence, and also 
much time which might be more profitably employed in the 
columns of the Official Organ, therefore, we trust that our 
friends will spare us as much as possible, by permitting all re- 
quests for contributions to suffice when made through columns 
of the Official Organ. 

Mr. H. V. Duden, master car painter of the Santa Fe Ry. 
at Cleburn, Texas, will doubtless rejoice to occupy his new 
shop which is about completed. The shop is built of brick, with 
roof of the saw tooth style, thus insuring ample light. 

Query Department 

In replying to query, "How do you clean the exterior of 
your cars preparatory to cutting in or revarnishing? What 
material do you use for same?" In either case we have not 
found any system that gives better satisfaction than water and 
powdered pumice stone applied with a round car scrub brush 
and plenty of elbow grease. When we clean a car for re- 
varnishing we are more particular than for cuttting in. First 
man uses the car scrub and pumice stone, second man follows 
with rubbing felt or plush cloth with small amount of pumice, 
so as to rub evenly all over the flat surface, while the third man 
rinses with clean water and dries off with chamois. We treat 
interior practically the same. W. H. Truman, 

Foreman Painter, A. & N. C. Co. 

April, 1906 



Established 1878 


Published by the 

BRUCE V. CKANDALL, President, CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-President 

O. W. BODLER, Secretary 

Office of Publication, Rooms 409=410 Security Building, Corner 
Madison Street and Fifth Ave., Chicago 

Telephone - - Main 31S5. 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City 

Telephone - - 3 52 4 John. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price, $1.00 a year; to foreign countries, $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 10 cents. Advertising- 
rates given on application to the office, by mail or in 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Papers should reach subscribers by the first of the month 
at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or 
failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 
gladly sent. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter. 

Vol. XXX 

Chicago, April, 1906. 

No. 4 


College Tests 105 

Wear on De Glehn Compound 105 

Staybolt Failures. Why 106 

High Train Speed 100 

Kingsland Shops— D. L. & W. R. R '. 107* 

Copper Staybolts — Western Railway of France 110" 

Simultaneous Telegraphy and Telephony ... 110* 

Baldwin Balanced Compound — Seoul Fusan Railroad 112* 

Shoe and Wedge Chuck 113* 

Advantages of the Mallet Compound 113 

University of Illinois Tests of High Speed Tool Steels 114* 

Engine Failures , 116 

The Brotan Locomotive Boiler 116* 

Suburban Motor Cars 117 

Experience in the Electric Lighting of Trains in India 118 . 

Grain Door 119* 

Safety Devices at Front End of Electic Cars 120 

Balanced Compound Locomotives 120 

Baldwin 12 Wheeler Ferro-Carril De Yaguajav 121* 

Government Supervision of Traffic 121 

A New Type of Roundhouse 122* 

Personals 124 

W. H. Russell and his force 125* 

Hunt-Spiller Iron 125 

No. 4 Plain Milling Machine ] 25* 

Packing Gauge and Cutter 126* 

Coates Flexible Power Transmission. 126* 

Wheaton Variable Exhaust and Drifter on a Chicago Great 

Western Locomotive 127* 

Hydro Pneumatic Pipe Bending Machine 127* 

Forced Lubrication . 127* 

Notes of the month 1 29 

Technical Publications 129 

Paint Department '. 130 

Railway Mechanical Index 36 

College Tests 

THE experimental work being done in our tech- 
nical seats of learning, in forcing a broader and 
more correct understanding of the scientific aspects A 
some features of shop operations, cannot be too strongly 
commended, since it has the effect of bringing into har- 
mony the laws governing what is known as theory and 
practice, which are nothing more or less, when used in 
combination, than the best possible means to produce 

This has recently been demonstrated in tests of high 
speed tool steel, by which means the actual gain in out- 
put over the use of ordinary steel is shown in terms 
that cannot be controverted, and supplements the facts 
obtained in shop practice with data that affords an op- 
portunity to compute its advantages from the stand- 
point of dollars. 

These tests have shown too that in order to obtain 
the highest output by the use of high speed steel, it is 
necessary that the design of the machine has revision 
in power and strength before it can withstand the 
heavy stresses and carry the cuts under feeds and speeds 
possible to the new tool steel. This was known before, 
but it remained for the refinements of test work to 
demonstrate the kind and intensity of these new forces, 
that have read the death sentence of antiquated machine 
tools in so many shops. 

Wear on De Glehn Compound 

THE De Glehn balanced compound engine which .was 
purchased by the Pennsylvania Railroad for ex- 
perimental purposes has shown some remarkable endur- 
ance properties after a road service of more than 40,000 
miles. When this engine was shopped recently, the 
amount of wear on axles, pins, brasses and valve motion 
was noted, and the reactions made bore out the designer 
in his claims that the distribution of stresses between two 
axles would result in decreased wear, and would there- 
fore permit of greatly reduced dimensions in rods, pins 
and axles, and a material decrease in the total weight of 
the engine over similar cylinder power when coupled to 
one axle. 

The slight wear developed is a good talking point and 
will strongly influence the adoption of this type of 
machine in American practice, where it has already been 
received with favor, as seen in the Yanclain and Cole 
types, and from considerations of economy in perform- 
ance, since the cost of maintenance has been one of the 
most weighty objections that the compound has had to 
contend with. Among the peculiarities of wear that ex- 
cited comment was the small amount between wheel 
hubs and driving boxes, when the diameter of contact 
of hubs is considered, it being only about three-fourths 
that usual in American practice, or 1 1 inches, where our 
dimension would be not less than 15 inches for 8 inches 
diameter of journal. 

Our engines develop a surprising amount of lateral 
wear at this point, and the remedy has been thought to 
lie in liberal surfaces to overcome it. The very opposite 
obtains in the De Glehn engine, and with less wear. 



April, 1906 

Projected areas of journals as we understand them do 
not seem to have the same consideration in France as 
here, for the eccentrics actuating the valves of the low 
pressure cylinders have a width of i*^ inches, which, 
with our 8 inch axle diameter, gives a projected area of 
12 square inches. Our width of eccentric for the same 
work is not less than three and more often four or more 
inches. The query presents itself, is it to the material that 
endurance is to be accredited? It will be remembered in 
a consideration of the question that cylinder arrangement 
has no bearing. Yet they not only run cool, but show no 
appreciable wear. 

■ ■» ■ 

Staybolt Failures, Why ? 

ONE of the peculiar things in locomotive operation 
that seems to thwart the best efforts of locomotive 
designers is the uncertain status of the staybolt situation ; 
erratic for the reason that like causes do not produce 
like effects. The reasons for failure under similar con- 
ditions do not hold uniformly, and these facts are re- 
sponsible for the inability to stem the wholesale break- 
ages going on in locomotive fireboxes. Remedies ara 
are as plentiful as the leaves of Vallambrosa, and while 
some of these work out in specific cases, they fail miser- 
ably in general application. 

It would seem to be a simple mechanical achievement 
to provide a staybolt that would be safe under any boiler 
pressure and condition of service, but the contrary is well 
known to be the actual case. After running the gamut 
of dimensions, co-efficients of expansion, moments of re- 
sistance and all other elements affecting the tendency of 
staybolts to rupture — they break. Is it due to rigidity, 
to quality of material, to want of perforation for air 
admission, on all three of these points that are urged as 
inimical to the life of a staybolt? These questions are 
pertinent when staybolt failures are a matter of constant 
record on some roads, and of infrequent occurrence on 

This line of thought is suggested by the wholesale 
failure of staybolts on a French engine which was built 
for a prominent road in this country. The breakages 
began to be noted when the engine had made a mileage 
much less than when this trouble would be expected to 
develop on an American engine having a similar design 
of bolt — which was rigid, by-the-way, and of copper, in 
a copper firebox sheet. The destruction went on until 
fully one-half of the original installation was replaced. 
It is possible that the narrow water spaces of foreign 
practice had some influence in producing this result, 
yet the fact remains that this firebox and its staying was 
constructed on lines in strict accord with the practice 
of the French builders of the engine — which has proved a 
remarkable machine in other respects, there as well as 
here, and the short and unsatisfactory life of the bolts in 
this country causes one to marvel, when it is known 
that this identical practice obtains abroad, and without 
tidings of similar failures reaching this country. The 
application of flexible staybolts to the above engine 
might work a reformation in failures. 

High Train Speed 

THE experiments made on the Marienfeld-Zossen 
line, which was constructed especially for the pur- 
pose of noting the performance of an electric car at con- 
tinuous speeds, higher than any yet attained by steam 
power, demonstrated some facts that had never before 
been observed, because of want of velocity at which they 
are apparent. 

Prominent among these factors that differentiate high 
speeds from those of the lower steam traction, and which 
forms the data that will enable positive and safe results 
to be obtained at speeds that will overturn all precedents 
for every day work, are the condition of roadbed and the 
weight of rail. 

It was found that at 80 miles an hour, 67 pound rails 
and ordinary ballast were positively dangerous, and not 
until 83 pound rails with a tie spacing of 27 inch centers 
were put in and special care given the ballast, was it 
deemed safe to attempt speeds at 90 miles an hour, be- 
cause of the vibrations and lateral oscillations of the car. 
At speeds above 100 miles an hour there was appreciably 
less swaving than at lower speeds, which was ascribed to 
the aero-plane action of the car body which tended to 
overcome the force of gravity. 

Another of the factors that has forced attention in 
this problem of high speeds, is the necessity of retaining 
long curve radii, since it was found that speeds of 120 
miles an hour on tangents required to be greatly reduced 
on curves of less than 5280 feet radius (one mile,) owing 
to excessive flange friction, as well as the probability of 
leaving the rails by reason of the high centrifugal forces 

Other factors still, that presented themselves, and im- 
portant ones, are the frictional resistance of the ^wheels 
and journals and also the atmospheric resistance; these, 
however, have been very accurately measured in the 
tests referred to, and it only remains to provide a means 
to reduce them to the lowest possible limit. The 103 ton 
car in the Zossen tests developed 1300 H. P. at 120 miles 
an hour, of which 38.4 per cent was due to air displace- 
ment, at the front end, and 61.6 per cent due to the usual 
resistance in train operating, that is, rolling, journal and 
flange friction. 

It was demonstrated that steam practice furnished no 
reliable precedents for guidance in the new field of ex- 
periment, and the data gathered is therefore of the 
greatest value in formulating safe lines on which to pre- 
pare for the coming increase in speed schedules in this 
country. The requirements are a more nearly perfect 
road bed than has yet been built, longer tangents, and a 
reduction of resistance to the minimum. As to the latter, 
atmospheric resistance is now well in hand by means of 
the pointed front construction. Rolling friction cannot 
be improved very greatly under present conditions, but 
journal friction can be reduced by means of improved 
construction, in which the roller principle should play 
an important part. 

April, 1906 



Kingsland Shops — D. L. Sr W. R. R. 

THE Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in 
continuance of its policy of internal improvements 
is now putting the finishing touches on a new plant at 
Kingsland, N. J., which has all the elements of a modern 
lay-out. The shops as completed at this time (but not yet 
in running order) comprise all of the necessary adjuncts 
for taking care of the passenger car equipment and 
consist of a coach shop 391 feet 9^2 inches long by 170 
feet wide, and a paint shop 268 feet 4 inches long by 220 
feet 8 inches wide, making a total length of 660 feet 1^ 
inches all under one roof and covering 28 tracks. 

At the west end, or the coach shop end, there is a 15 ton 
Niles crane, serving two tracks for handling trucks, and 
on the side next to the transfer table there is a platform 
20 feet wide extending the full length of the building. 
The floor of the coach shop is of concrete and level. Be- 
tween the coach shops and also between the paint shops 
there are five walls with doors 6 feet wide at the extreme 
sides. These doors are all arranged to be open at all times, 
but have an automatic closing feature in their hanging that 
insures certain action in case of fire, they being hung on 
an inclined track and held open by means of counter 
weights which are released and allow the doors to close 
by gravity upon a rise of temperature sufficient to set 
off an electric fuse which controls the weights. This 
safety device is put in as a precautionary measure against 
failure to close the doors at night: 

The paint shops have a vitrified brick floor laid on 
concrete, the brick work being arched for drainage 
One of the best scaffold arrangements ever used in paint 
shops has been installed here. It is a scheme that has 
been found to be most effective, and the principle has 
been worked out in metal so as to be a permanent part of 
the paint shop equipment. It consists of eight 4 inch 
I-beams, nine feet high set in concrete, each beam carry- 
ing a cast bracket which has flanges at top and bottom 
surrounding the outward flanges of the I-beam and 
provided with a twelve by two inch top flange to receive 
a plank. These brackets are made to slide freely the 
while length of the I-beams and are adjusted and held 
to the proper height by }i inch pins passing through the 
bracket and I-beam. There are no make-shift features 
about this scaffold arrangement ; it is devised and put up 
to accomplish results. 

All tracks are set in concrete with steel ties, including 
the extensive 26 inch gage track which passes through 
all shops for the transfer of material and work. Turntables 
are provided at all points to facilitate the handling of the 
small cars in this service, by means of which material is 
transferred to any point about the plant. The transfer 
table, which has a working travel of 740 feet, and a width 
of 70 feet, operates over a pit of concrete. The rail 
setting in this concrete base is of novel construction, 
consisting of T-rails set flange upward in the concrete to 
which are bolted the T-rails carrying the table. The man- 




April, 1906 




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ner of setting the lower rail in concrete and preserving 
the surface line called into play some engineering talent, 
in which levels were obtained on templates, to which 
reference was made during the hardening of the con- 
crete base, resulting in a perfect alignment and surface. 
Electricity is the motive power for the table. 

The entire plant is operated by electricity, the power 
being provided by two 300 K. W. and one 200 K. W. 
Crocker- Wheeler generators driven by Buckeye engines 
located in the power house, which is 181 feet 6 inches 
long by 62 feet wide and located immediately south of 
the coach shop. In addition to the generators, there are 
two exciters and two large air compressors, one of which 
is an Ingersoll-Rand and the other a Chicago Pneumatic 
Co. machine. In this building there are six Sterling 
boilers of 250 horse power each. 

The manner of handling the coal and ashes of the 
steam plant is well calculated to work some economies 
too often left unconsidered in a new shop lay-out. In 
this case the coal is brought to a hopper shaped receptacle 
at the outside of the boiler room, into which the car load 
is discharged, from which the coal flows into a large 
pit on the inside of the basement. A conveyer carries 
the coal up to hoppers located above and between the 
boilers, from which it is dropped to the floor before each 
fire door and shoveled to the grate. 

There are two ash hoppers at each boiler emptying 
into small cars having a body constructed on the clam- 
shell order, which are located in the subway under the 
boilers. When loaded these cars are run to the outside 
telpherage system, by which they are discharged into 
standard gauge cars for removal. A concrete conduit 
six feet square has its origin in the power house in which 
the water ,heating and electric system is carried through- 
out the plant. The boilers in accordance with Sterling 
boiler practice have the smoke and gas discharge passages 

built in the setting from which they pass direct to the 
stack, which in this case is of brick, 150 feet high, banded 
at intervals of six feet with 3 inch steel bands, and rests 
on a concrete foundation. 

The office and storehouse is two stories in height. It 
is 150 feet long by 60 feet wide, with offices above 
and storerooms below. This building is surrounded by 
a platform ten feet wide on three sides and 193 feet long 
by 80 feet on the fourth side, with track scales on the 
east between the office and main track. The office build- 
ing has Merritt expanded metal partitions and is 
equipped with a fireproof vault for the preservation of 
drawings and accounts, and also has modern lavatories. 

In the paint and oil store house which is situated be- 
tween the office building and the paint shop, is the 
buffing and plating departments, to be equipped with the 
latest facilities for rejuvenating tarnished or disfigured 
metal coach and sleeper trimmings. Under this build- 
ing is a large basement for storage of paints and oils, 
which is absolutely fireproof, nothing being used in the 
framing except steel and concrete. In the paint shop 
annex which is to the west, where are located the var- 
nish room for sash and door work, cabinet shop and 
upholstering room, the same provisions are made against 
fire, all posts and beams being incased in concrete. 

The mill building is 264 feet long by 70 feet wide 
and has a track running full length in communication 
with the lumber yards. Besides the standard gauge track, 
there is a third rail making a gauge of 26 inches, which 
with two other narrow gauge tracks connects with 
the narrow gauge system of the plant. All of 





April. 1906 

the heavy tools such as the sill dresser, tenoner, 
pneumatic gainer, horizontal mortiser, band re -saw, 
hydraulic wheel press and tire turning lathe, are bolted 
to concrete foundations. It will be noted by a reference 
to the location of tools that they have been placed with 
reference to progressive movement through the mill. 
The sill dresser is at the end of the shop nearest the 
lumber yard and in line with an end door through which 
a track extends to the machine. The tools for the 
wheel job are at the opposite end of the shop and within 
100 feet of the coach shop, necessitating but little trans- 
portation to get within the sphere of action in either 

A much threshed-over question since the advent of 
electricity as a tool drive, has been the relative efficiency 
of the direct and group systems of power transmission. 
It Will be noted in the details of the wood working shop 
that this matter has received intelligent consideration and 
treatment. The same painstaking care to have the tools 
in the most advantageous position to produce results 
is seen in the provision for handling wheels in the de- 
pressed tracks for loading, and the ample wheel storage 

The locomotive shop shown at the left and north of 
the transfer table is simply on paper at this time, but 
borings are being made for the foundations, which will 
rest on solid rock, the removal of which for this plant 
was to the extent of about 250,000 cubic yards. The 
locomotive shop as projected will be 608 feet long, by 
120 feet wide, and have twenty pits, with a portion of 
the west end walled off and assigned for boiler shop 
service. This shop like those of the wood working de- 
partment will be of brick, steel and concrete. We are 
indebted to Chief Engineer Bush, Architect Nies, En- 
gineer-in-charge Lozier and Master Car Builder Mc- 
Kenna, for the prints and information concerning this 
up-to-date plant. 




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to form a cul de sac when the removal of less than % 
inch of metal would make the hole continuous through 
the bolt and make it a hollow bolt to all intents and 
purposes, such as has such a popular following in this 
country. The length of these bolts is strikingly short, 
only ■$*/% inches between sheets, which would appear to 
be conducive to a short tenure of life for the bolt — but 
it is not, at least in France. 

Copper Staybolts— Western Railway of France 

THE practice of firebox staying on the Western 
Railway of France is illustrated by courtesy of M. 
Edouard Sauvage, Chief Engineer of that road. These 
bolts are of copper, as are also the firebox sheets, and it 
will be noted that the outside rows are larger in diameter 
than those used in the central rows, conforming in that 
respect to the method pursued in this country with iron 
water space stays. The fits in the sheets for the larger 
bolts are 1 7-64 inches diameter and for the smaller bolts 
63-64 inch, as near as it is possible to transpose those 
values from the metric systems. 

The part of the body between sheets is reduced to a 
diameter somewhat less than the bottom of the thread, 
and a hole about 5-32 inch is drilled through the center 
of the bolt to a point just outside of the outer sheet, but 
not through the outside head, causing the telltale hole to 
discharge steam into the firebox in the event of rupture. 
This is contrary, to the American method, which is to 
make the hole about 1^2 inch deep from the outside of the 
outer sheet. It is not clear why the hole should be made 

Simultaneous Telegraphy and Telephony 

J. C. Kelsey. 

BALANCE, or equilibrium, is a supreme law of the 
universe. The earth is so balanced that it main- 
tains a fixed relation to the sun. The moon is so 
balanced that it also maintains a fixed relation to the 
earth. When Newton's historic apple fell to the ground, 
it was seeking a balance in respect to the earth, being 
no longer sustained by the tree. The bridge is de- 
signed to balance the heaviest load. The locomotive 
driving apparatus is balanced, not only to secure smooth 
running, but to prevent the destruction of the track. 
The armature of the dynamo is balanced, not only for 
smooth running, but for prevention of destructive 
strains. Even nations preserve a balance of power, to 
keep from fighting. 

Once balance destroyed, trouble ensues. Nations 
fight, tracks are ruined, bridges sink under loads, lo- 
comotives cannot make schedules, and the dynamo be- 
comes inoperative. Ignoring the law of balance in- 
vites inevitable disaster. 

The essential feature of a successful telephone op- 
eration is balance. Owing to the marvelous sensitive- 
ness of the telephone receiver, conditions which would 
be as mole-hills in some usage, behave as mountains in 
telephone service. Telephone service may be said to be 
surrounded by many enemies. Every electric circuit 

April, 1906 


1 1 1 

tends to induce in every neighboring electric circuit, 
electric currents as near like its own as is possible. 
Each telegraph, trolley, power and light circuit induces 
currents in the telephone circuit, which, however weak 
from a power standpoint, are strong enough to make 
a receiver interpret loud noises. 

The only way to prevent these currents induced in 
the telephone circuits from making noise in the tele- 
phone receiver is to prevent them from passing through 
the receiver. This is accomplished by a balance. A 
balance is a condition in which one side of a circuit must 
be exactly the same as the other. From this, it shows 
that a grounded line is impossible of balance. The earth 
is unlike the wire in size, resistance, and carrying ca- 
pacity. Hence, telephone service calls for two wires 
of equal size, resistance, and carrying capacity. Fig. 
3 reveals a metallic telephone circuit, paralleled by a 
trolley wire. In the middle of the circuit is shown a 
transposition, which is a refinement of balance. If the 
wires are not crossed over, side x would induce the 
greatest current, hence, in coming to equilibrium, some 
current would pass from side x to side y through the 
telephones, marked T. The transposition puts each 
wire equidistant from the trolley, hence each wire has 
induced about the same amount of current, and neutrali- 
zation takes place in the wires, without passing through 
the telephones. 

Figure 3 shows what is called a simplex circuit, the 
simplest combination of telephone and telegraph. Re- 
peating coils are placed at each end of the telephone 
circuit, and at the middle point of the line side of the 


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FigI-A Bridg/hg Telephone 


FigZ A Series Telephone 

Trolle y Wire. ' 





Y Y 

Circuit . Two Telegraph #no 32 
Telephone: Stations 

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F/G-5- St/j/voi/id Circuit -Two Teiecr^^h Circuits a/yo 
Tef\min/=il Telephones 

coils is tapped the telegraph circuit. If these telegraph 
taps were not in the middle points of the coils, the in- 
duced current from the trolley would not be neutralized 
in the wires. If instrument A were tapped at point c, 
instead of a, the balance would be destroyed, and cur- 
rents would pass to ground through the telephones to 
get to the point c. 

If the telegraph circuit were connected at ponit c, the 
ticking would be heard in the telephones, because more 
current would go through one quarter of repeater than 
the other. Hence, the telegraph currents would be 
induced in the telephone circuit. Tapped at points a and 
b, the telegraph currents are equal, and in opposite di- 
rections, hence no current is induced in the other half 
of the repeater. 

In figure 4 is shown a simplex system with three tele- 
graph stations. The repeating coils are placed at A, B 
and C. The middle points are tapped at a, b, c and d. 
There could be made four or five telegraph station's, 
which would add two repeating coils in the telephone 

The usual difficulty with this simplex method is ring- 
ing. Repeating coils are either designed for talking 
or ringing through. One has to be sacrificed for the 
other. In this work, a combination is made, which admits 
of five coils being used, allowing good transmission and 

In the March issue of the Railway Master Mechanic, 
it was pointed out that the Northern Pacific people could 
not successfully operate their quadruplex telegraph ser- 
vice with iron in the coils, and simply tapped the middle 
point of a simple non-inductive bridge. Owing to the 
complex nature of quadruplex currents, it is impossible 
for currents in tandem wound coils to completely neutral- 
ize, even though they pass through the coil balanced, and 
in opposite directions. Some of the energy is given back to 
the circuit. This means self-induction. This means a 
time constant. And a time constant too great for fast 
quad work. In simple telegraph work, there is a slowing 
process, although not enough to harm. 

It has been stated that the requirements of balance 
prevent current from passing through the telephones on 
the circuit. This leads to the question as to what kind 
telephones to use. In figure 1 is shown a bridging tele- 
phone, which is put directly across the circuit. This 
telephone should have a 1600 ohm ringer, and a five bar 
generator. This will give service for thirty telephones, 
and five telegraph stations. 

Figure 2 shows a series of telephone, in which the 
main line is opened and a telephone put in. The eighty 
ohm ringer coils would seriously retard the speed of the 
telegraph, and when used for talking, the telegraph cur- 
rents would pass directly through the receiver and induc- 
tion coil secondary. Such a usage would not be tolerated. 
The use of series instruments on lines paralleling 
telegraph, trolley and lighting circuits invites great noise. 

It will be noted in figures 3 and 4 that condensers have 



April, 1906 

been placed about the telegraph relays. This usually 
relieves the telephone circuit of a slight interference. 

As a general proposition, it is much easier to convert 
a good metallic telephone line into simultaneous telegraph 
work than it is to take an old pair of telegraph circuits, 
and make them do simultaneous telephone work. It is 
cheapest on the long run to build a new telephone circuit, 
and reduce it to telegraph. If there are two through 
telegraph wires, they could be converted into simultane- 
ous service by a combination shown in figure 5. This is 
known as the standard simultaneous set. It permits of 
two separate telegraph circuits, and one telephone circuit. 

At station A, line X would have a fifty ohm coil in- 
serted, also one at station B. Telegraph instruments C 
and D would be slowed down slightly by this addition of 
100 ohms. The line Y would also be treated with two 
fifty ohm coils, through which telegraph instruments A 
and B would have to operate. 

At station A, on the telegraph instrument side are two 
six microfarad condensers in series, and at a point be- 
tween them is placed a ground. This looks like 
a local circuit between telegraph stations A and B. On 
the line side of the fifty ohm coils are placed two two- 
microfarad condensers, in series with a howler, and tele- 
phone, marked H. From ground, two thirty ohm coils 
are connected, in shunt about the howler H. At station 
B, this is also done. 

To ring with the ordinary twenty cycle ringing current 
from A to B with a sixty ohm bridge, and through con- 
densers, thence over a long line, through two more con- 
densers, and a device, shunted by two thirty ohm coils, 
would seem impossible. It is. Therefore, higher frequency 
currents are used. Howlers are used instead of ringers, 
or drops. When A wants B, a high frequency current is 
impressed on the line, which finds sufficient impedance in 
those thirty ohm coils to ignore them, and thereby ener- 
gize the howler. 

The telephone companies have a vast amount of tele- 
graph work done over their commercial telephone lines. 
With a revenue of $15 or more per mile annually, one can 
see that fixed charges are nicely taken care of. It stands to 
reason that simultaneous work is the work of the future. 
Why should the telephone and telegraph companies cover 
the country with separate leads, when one will do? It 
is the old story of doubt concerning the utility of the 
telephone. The telephone is the one way of communication 

which bids fair to be permanent. All other methods are 
threatened with extinction, unless they combine with the 
telephone, which, before we die, will be in every home in 
the land. Telephones are being manufactured, and 
placed at the rate of 150,000 per month. And it looks 
as if there were three or four more years of such business. 
When the rairoads adopt and trust the telephone, its 
final victory will be won. 

■ ♦■ » 

Baldwin Balanced Compound, Seoul Fusan 


BY courtesy of the Baldwin Locomotive Works we 
illustrate a ten-wheel balance compound passenger 
engine representing an order of six machines for Korea. 
In 1904 these works built six ten-wheelers of the single 
expansion type for the same road, also for passenger 
service, and this lot is similar in all respects to the first 
order except that they are balanced and compounds. 

These engines are moderate, embodying in their design 
the vital improvements of the steam locomotive of the 
present, and while not in the giant class as used in this 
country, are heavy power for Korea, weighing about 
162,000 lbs. total, and on drivers about 118,000 lbs. 
They are able to exert a drawbar pull of 24,000 lbs., and 
having an adhesion co-efficient of 4.9, they will always 
be free from the aspersion of being over-cylindered, 
even under the limit of tire and cylinder wear. 

The half-tone in connection with the descriptive speci- 
fication fully covers the details of interest of these 

Gauge, 4 ft. 8% in. 
Cylinder, 15 in. and 25 in. x 26 in. 

Valve, balanced piston. 
Boiler — type, straight, mtl. steel. 

Diameter, 64 in. 

Thickness of sheets, 11-16 in. 

Working Pressure, 200 lbs. 

Fuel, soft coal. 
Staying, radial. 
Firebox — material, steel. 

Length, 96 in. ; width, 60 in. 

Depth, front, 64% in. ; back, 50^ in. 

Thickness of sheets, sides, 5-16 in. ; back 5-16 in. ; crown, 
3-8 in. ; tube ^ in. 

Water space, front, 4 in. ; sides, 3 in. ; back, 3 in. 
Tubes — Material, iron; wire gauge, No. 12. 

Number, 233; Diameter, 2^4 in; Length, 18 ft. i l / 2 in. 
Heating Surface — Firebox, 131.7 sq. ft. 

Tubes, 2476.3 sq. ft. 


April, 1906 



Total, 2608. sq. ft. 

Grate Area, 40. sq. ft. 
Driving Wheels — Diameter Outside, 66 in. 

Diameter of Center, 60 in. 

Journals, main, 10 in. x ioJ/> in. ; others 8'/2 in. x io T /2 in. 
Engine Truck Wheels (front), diameter, 30 in. 

Journals, S T /2 in. x 10 in. 
Wheel Base — Driving, 13 ft. 6 in. 

Rigid, 13 ft. 6 in. 

Total Engine, 2"] ft. 5 in. 

Total Engine and Tender, not to exceed 55 ft. o in. 
Weight — On Driving Wheels, est. 118,000 lbs. 

On Truck, front, 44,000 lbs. 

Total Engine, est. 162,000 lbs. 

Total Engine and Tender, est. 240,000 lbs. 
Tank — Capacity, 4,000 gallons, 4 tons coal. 
Tender — Wheels, No. 8, diameter, 33 in. 

Journals, 454 x 8 in. 

■ ■» ■ 

Shoe and Wedge Chuck 

THE accompanying illustration is of a shoe and 
wedge chuck as used in the Springfield shops 
of the Wabash Railroad. This simple device is made up 
of two pieces of cast iron, one of which is fastened to the 
platen of a planer. This piece is shown in detail in the 
upper illustration. It has three 24 inc ^ set screws for 
leveling and two ]/% inch slots 3^ inches long for holding 
the other piece. Along one edge is a boss the full length, 
which acts as one of the jaws for holding the shoe or 

14'- 1 Vg 






wedge. On the other edge are two bosses with 24 
inch tap bolts which are used to fasten the article to be 

The other jaw of the vise is held in position by two 
Y% inch bolts in the slots of the bottom piece. It is 
forced against the wedge by the two 24 vnc h tap bolts in 
the bosses of the bottom piece. 

We are indebted to Mr. J. B. Barnes, Superintendent 
machinery of the Wabash Railroad, for the illustration 
and description. 

» ♦ 

Advantages of The Mallet Compound 

SOME of the points of superiority of the mallet com- 
pound cylinder articulated type of locomotive, which 
according to the investigations of Mr. Muhlfeld in his 
tests between the above machine and heavy electric lo- 

comotives, cannot be duplicated by other single units of 
steam, electric or internal combustion engines now in 
use on American railroads, are given below : 

1. A tractive power of about 84,000 lbs. for starting 
heavy trains and for a speed of 5 miles per hour; and of 
74,000 lbs. at a speed of 10 miles per hour, placed under 
the control of one engineer and one fireman. 

2. A self-contained machine generating the power 
necessary to develop its hauling capacity. With electric 
locomotives, where the source of power is separate from 
the machine which develops the hauling capacity, the 
first cost of the locomotive alone is, at present, about 
50 per cent, greater per pound of tractive power de- 
veloped under working load than for steam locomotives 
of the Mallet type. To this must be added the greater 
cost for repairs and operation per mile run for the elec- 
tric locomotive, and the installation, maintenance and 
operation of a current producing, conveying, storage, 
converting and distributing system, which would not 
be required by either a steam or an internal combustion 
locomotive, and all of which increase the capital and 
operating expenses very materially. 

3. A total locomotive weight utilized for the develop- 
ment of tractive power in connection with a running 
gear, which makes the locomotive suitable for either 
hauling, pushing or braking freight trains containing the 
maximum paying load per foot of track space, over 
level or mountainous railroads of maximum curvature. 

4. A miximum tractive power with a minimum rail 
pressure per driver wheel, on account of the total weight 
°f 334>5°° lt> s - being distributed over 12 drivers, and a 
30 ft. 6 in. total, with a 10 ft. rigid wheel base, result- 
ing in minimum wear and tear on bridges, rails, ties and 
roadway. With electrical locomotives the excessive 
weight concentrated on a short rigid driver wheel base 
and' below the springs, together with the extremely low 
center of gravity, results in extraordinary rail pressures, 
thrusts and wear. 

5. The elimination of retarded movement and stall- 
ing of trains, on account of the usual slipping of driver 
wheels, as in the case of ordinary simple or compound 
cylinder steam locomotives, or with electric locomotives 
where the driver wheels are uncoupled and the current 
is naturally transmitted to the point of least resistance, 
which is the slipping wheels, resulting in no increase of 
power at the dead wheels. A higher tractive power' is 
obtained to the weight per axle than with the ordinary 
steam locomotive, as the slipping due to the accumulation 
of high unbalanced pressure at the points of wheel and 
rail contact, does not occur at the same time in both 
engines. When one engine commences to slip a reduc- 
tion in mean effective pressure follows, and it regains 
its grip on the rail without making it necessary to shut 
off or throttle the steam supply. The other engine, 
meantime, has been gaining power, thus preventing any 
loss of speed and consequent stalling of the train at a 
critical moment. These conditions are the same whether 
the slipping occurs with either the high or the low pres- 



April, 1906 

sure engine, and the most frequent cause for stalling 
with electric or simple cylinder locomotive is thus over- 

6. A tonnage and speed per train that will provide 
for the least number of locomotives and crews under the 
control of which the movement of the business is placed. 
This will result in the balancing of the power and 
movement of the maximum number of loaded and empty 
cars per hour over a single piece of track, with the proper 
degree of safety. 

7. A minimum capital, repair, fuel, engine and train 
crew, oil, supply and dispatchment cost per locomotive, 
train, car or ton mile. 

8. A maximum retarding effect for the safe handling 
of heavy trains down steep grades at the highest speed 
permissible for a proper degree of safety. 

9. A uniform turning moment to overcome jour- 
nal friction of axles ; rolling and flange friction of 
wheels ; wave resistance of rail ; atmospheric friction 
at ends and sides of rolling stock and inertia of train at 
time of starting, which will insure the minimum draft 
gear, machinery and boiler stresses, and reduce the tire 
and rail wear. 

10. A sub-division of power and balancing, resulting 
in the minimum strains on the locomotive and track, 
and a reduced liability for wear, breakage or accident. 
Broken driver wheel axles on electric locomotives indi- 
cate that the more uniform axles on electric locomotives 
indicate that the more uniform torque does not elimin- 
ate the liability for such failures under normal condi- 

11. The minimum amount of dead weight and non- 
paying load, and the smallest number of bearings and 
parts per unit of power developed. 

12. Ability to move itself and train of one-half 
rating in the event one set of its machinery or engines 
becomes disabled. 

» » » 

University of Illinois Tests of High Speed Tool 


A TEST of high speed steels has been carried on 
at the University of Illinois during the past year, 
under the direction of Prof. Breckenridge, and Mr. 
Henry B. Dirks, Assistant in Mechanical Technology. 
These experiments were conducted with the following 
brands of tool steel. (1) Styrian marked "Bohler rapid." 
(2) Jessops "Ark." (3) Mclnnes's "Extra." (4) 
Mushet "Special." (5) "Air Novo." (6) "Rex." (7) 
"Poldi." (8) Armstrong and Whitworth. The ma- 
chine used was a Pratt and Whitney high speed lathe 
driven by a two-phase induction motor belted to a coun- 

The material of test pieces was cast iron, cored in 
order to have uniformity in density, as solid sections 
were likely to be soft at the center and also have blow 
holes and other defects. These pieces were prepared 
for test by a cut for the removal of scale and to bring 
them to a uniform diameter, after which the surface 
sped was regulated by a Warner cut-meter. All chips 

were collected and weighed — and readings of the watt- 
meter and the revolution counter were taken every two 
minutes for power and cutting speed. To determine 
whether or not the lost horse power of the drive re- 
mained constant from no load to full load, a Prony brake 
was used on the test pieces. 

Experiments were made on the lathe for both 
methods of drive, that is, either direct or through the 
back gearing. The results of these experiments are 
given in Fig. 1, in which is also shown the curve of 
calibration for the motor alone, giving the horse-power 
output for a known input. The loss in the transmission 
for any known input is at once found, being the vertical 
distance between the curves at the required load. The 
curves show this is not constant, but increases at a 
contant ratio as the load increases. 

An arbitrary standard of durability of the tool was 
established as follows : A tool whose cutting edge was 
worn away .002 inch after one hour's use was considered 
perfect, its durability being expressed by 100. The 
ratios of durability of any other tools to the standard 
would then be inverse of the ratios of their rates of 
wear to the wear of the standard. 

The summary of results is as follows: The horse 
power lost in driving the lathe and countershaft was de- 
ducted from the total horse-power used during the trial, 
the difference being the net horse-power required for 
cutting. This was reduced to foot-pounds per minute 
and divided by the cutting speed, giving the force 
exerted. The figures so obtained were reduced to 
pounds per unit area of cut, and platted as ordinates 
upon a base of area of cut as shown in Fig. 2. These 
curves show that the cutting force was not directly 
proportional to the area of cut, but decreased as the area 
increased, and that the average cutting force varied 
from 50 tons per square inch for soft cast iron, to 85 
tons per square inch for hard cast iron. Each curve rep- 
resents a different hardness of cast iron. The relative 
hardness is shown in the table on Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3 shows curves which represent the relation be- 
tween the durability of the tool and the cutting speed. 
These are important curves. Each curve represents a 
different hardness of cast iron. Referring to the middle 
curve, which is for cast iron of medium hardness, it 
will be seen that a cutting speed of 50 feet per minute is 
satisfactory, the durability being 100. If the speed is in- 
creased very materially, the durability decreases quite 
rapidly. It is evident that for each hardness of cast iron, 
the cutting speed allowable for a maximum durability 
exists where the vertical line indicating cutting speed 
is tangent to curves similar to those drawn. 

The curve shown in Fig. 4 represents the advisable 
cutting speed on cast iron of varying hardness. This 
curve represents the results of all the tests of the dif- 
ferent steels tested. This curve shows: (a) that any 
of the steels tested can remove very hard cast iron at a 
rate of 25 feet per minute; (b) that all of the steels 
tested begin to wear rapidly at speeds a little above 125 

April, 1906 



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feet per minute. Between these two points the relation miles, while smaller engines in lighter service will fre- 
between a safe cutting speed and the hardness of the quently run for 75,000 to -125,000 miles between shop- 
cast iron seems to be definitely expressed by the curve, ping. A careful study of the requirements of different 
It would seem that cast iron of medium hardness, 100 classes of engines with reference to shopping will greatly 
to 120, could be cut at 125 per minute just as readily assist in reducing failures on the road, 
as at 70 feet per minute, as far as any injury to the In his discussion of details it was shown that technical 
tool is concerned. It must be remembered that this failures of engines were often failures of men, the ap- 
curve does not take into account the effect, on the paratus being in satisfactory condition but delays oc- 
cutting speed, of the variation in the area of the cut; curring through inattention or faults on the part of the 
the experiments from which the curve was platted were crew. He said also the reverse condition sometimes ex- 
in all cases those in which the cut was nearly J /% inch in isted, that through prompt and wise action on the part 
depth by 1-16 inch feed, so that there is but slight varia- of the engineer, a technical failure may be actually 
tion in the area of cut in all of the experiments. avoided. Failure of the first class occurred when an en- 
In general, all of the steels tested proved equally gineer brought his engine back to the round house be- 
effective. It is very evident that there are great pos- cause of an alleged failure of injectors, whereas in fact 
sibilities ahead for high speed steels. Before realizing the injectors were in working order, but were not prop- 
their full benefit, however, certain advances must be erly handled. This, he said, while recorded as an engine 
made. Heavier machine tools must be built. The ca- failure, was really the failure of a man. As an illustra- 
pacity of the motor and power plants must be increased, tion of the manner in which a technical failure may some- 
Special hardening furnaces with temperature measuring times be avoided, a case was cited where an engine within 
devices must be available. More must be known con- four miles of a terminal broke its piston rod ; the cylinder 
cerning the chemical and physical properties of the head, piston and rod all being blown clear of the engine, 
various steels. Tool steels are now available that will The engineer knowing that all harm had been done which 
cut cast iron from two to three times as fast as was pos- could be done, held his throttle open and got into the 
sible a few years ago. When every advantage has been terminal on time, thus avoiding a -technical failure, not- 
taken of these possibilities, the cost of manufacturing withstanding the fact that there was actual and serious 
many articles should be materially reduced in price. breakage of parts. In conclusion, attention was called 

» ♦ » 


to the extremely satisfactory records which many roads 

Ensine Failures are now en J°yi n g w * tn reference to engine failures. A 

good record being regarded as one which permits a mile- 
R. M. K. BARNUM, assistant to the second vice agfi of I0000 miles per failur6j whilg some roads ^ tQ 

president of the C. B. & Q. railway, addressed day operating with less than one failure to I500o miIes 

■ ♦ ■ 

the Engineering students of Purdue University on Janu- 
ary 29th. His subject was "Engine Failures." The im- The Brotan Locomotive Boiler 

portance of the subject was emphasized by a statement ^pHE interest evinced in this country in the past few 
to the effect that the proportion of engine failures to M. years in the improvement of the locomotive boiler 
mileage, is to some extent an indication of good or poor has a powerful reflex in the same line of thought abroad, 
management though the possibility of an epidemic of and in the culmination of original ideas in this respect we 
failure under the best of management was admitted, have the Brotan boiler which was built for the Austrian 
Practice, he said in defining failures, varies greatly. A State Railways after the design of Mr. J. Brotan, an 
broad definition counts as failures, "all delays of any ac- experienced motive power officer of the above road, and 
count whatever chargeable to engines." Another and a exhibited at the exposition of 1905, at Liege, 
much narrower one is "a delay of more than five min- This boiler, as will be seen by our illustration, is a 
utes to a passenger train or of more than ten minutes to a combination of the ordinary multi-tubular locomotive 
freight train at any one point due to broken, defective, or boiler with a steam drum resting on the top, also a fire- 
lost parts of machinery, hot bearings or leaky boilers." box of the usual external appearance but radically differ- 
A generally accepted definition which lies between these ent in construction from the old water space type, the 
limits makes a failure "any defect in an engine or its water spaces being replaced by a system of water tubes 
mechanical operation which causes it to lose time or make 3.75 inches in diameter at the sides and rear which re- 
stops which would otherwise be unnecessary." The ceive and absorb the heat from the firebox. The upper 
speaker discussed the effect of engine failures upon the ends of these water tubes connect with the rear steam 
cost of operation, loss of business and the movement of drum, while the lower ends are in communication with a 
traffic ; he then analyzed the causes leading to such fail- steel circulating pipe which extends from the waist of the 
ures and descibed the manner in which failures are re- boiler near the throat sheet, back on each side and to the 
ported and the methods by which the higher officials rear of the firebox. 

handle the statistics based thereon. Attention was es- There being no water spaces, there are therefore no 

pecially called to the importance of shopping engines at water space staybolts, the water tubes performing the 

proper intervals, larger engines in freight service requir- function of the usual water spaces. The water tubes ex- 

ing to be shopped after running from 45,000 to 60,000 tend upward from the circulating pipe and curve inward- 

April, 1906 




ly at the top to effect a connection with the steam drum, 
and are therefore in direct contact with the flames and 
gases. The steam drums extend the full length of the 
boiler, the forward one being 30.3 inches in diameter 
and the rear one 22 inches in diameter. The rear drum 
receives the steam generated in the firebox, while the for- 
ward one receives the steam formed by the fire tubes 
through three flanged connections between the drum and 
boiler, the latter being 45.75 ins. in diameter and having 
215 tubes. The steam dome is located at the front of the 
forward drum, and must by reason of its height from the 
water line give comparatively dry steam. 

The object aimed at by the designer of this boiler is 
to obtain the maximum amount of heating surface, cou- 
pled with an improved circulation, and also to avoid the 
cost and troubles due to staying of water spaces. Tests 
of this boiler in passenger train service show that it has 
a steaming capacity far in excess of the ordinary type. 
There is one very important advantage to be noted in 
this form of construction of firebox, namely, no rivets 
or seams are exposed to the fire, all parts thus exposed 
being water tubes set close to each other and forming a 
closed arch to receive the heat. The old bugbear of 
maintenance cost will present itself no doubt after a 

term of service, when a rational comparision of this sys- 
tem may be made with the old form of construction. 

The locomotive with this boiler having proved suc- 
cessful in the Trieste service, five more have been or- 
dered. A Brotan boiler is in course of construction for 
an eight-wheeled fast passenger engine, in the shops of 
the Hungarian State Railways at Budapesth, and two are 
now under construction on the Moskan-Karan railway 
for an eight-coupled freight engine. Besides these the 
Italian Southern Railway has designs under way for an 
eight-wheeled passenger engine and a four-coupled 
freight engine. The Bosnian-Herzegowina State Rail- 
way has also ordered one of these boilers for adaptation 
to both a cogged and an adhesive engine, and the Paris, 
Lyons & Mediterranean, the Midi, and the Onest, also 
the Servian State Railways are to to make trials of this 
boiler. From the foregoing it is evident that there is a 
decided awakening abroad in the matter of improved 
locomotive boiler construction. 

Suburban Motor Cars 

THERE is now being waged a very interesting 
competitive struggle between gasolene and gaso- 
lene-electric types of power for suburban and interurban 
service on roads where light single units are ample to 



April, 1906 

care for the traffic. It is a fact that while gasolene 
is not cheap, and, that its production while equal 
to the present demands is not likely to be so plentiful 
with heavy drafts on it, its economy justifies its use, but 
the direct connected gasolene motor has some limita- 
tions in power, and until this condition is rectified it 
would appear that electricity would hold its own against 
all competitors, a fact which will ha^e due weight in 
spite of the cost and weight involved in the gasolene- 
electric type. 

The gasolene motor, however, has shown so many points 
that recommend it for suburban work that experiments 
will no doubt overcome the present need of a higher 
powered machine, and produce a motor capable of speeds 
up to 75 miles per hour if necessary. As now .developed 
the gasolene-electric motor while giving satisfactory re- 
sults in the short time it has been in service by reason of 
the reserve power it is capable of by storage gives these 
results at the expense of complication, and is not free 
from some of the objections raised against the plain 
cylindered gasolene machine, since the integrity of the 
whole depends on the cylinder performance in both 

It is evident that the gasolene motor is to have a 
thorough trying out, as the Southern Pacific Co. has re- 
cently placed a gasolene car similar to those on the 
Union Pacific in experimental service. The Delaware & 
Hudson Co., has also just tested a gasolene-electric car 
which has the dimensions of a standard coach, being 
much larger than those built by the Union Pacific, from 
which it is also dissimilar in the electric features of the 
power, being a self-contained power station — the engines 
furnishing the power to generate the electric current 
by which the car is operated through motors. The gaso- 
lene consumption was one gallon per mile with this 

Still another gasolene-electric motor car built for ex- 
perimental purposes has been placed in service at 
Philadelphia within the month. In principle this motor 
is similar to that of the D. & H. Co., differing only in the 
details of engine and electric equipment. An average 
gasolene consumption of 0.45 gallon per mile is claimed 
for this machine. There is no question about the econ- 
omy of either type of gasolene engine as compared with 
steam, the matter of power and high speeds being the 
controlling factors in the selection of the motor. The 
complications in construction necessary to the combina- 
tion of gasolene with electricity are believed at this time 
to possess advantages over the direct driven gasolene 
motor by reason as stated of the power reserve in storage 
which may be utilized at critical points of haul. 

There can, however, be but little difference in total 
weight in the two types, when the increase in size of 
cylinders in the one case is pitted against the electric 
details in the other. The prime advantage in either of 
these types lies in the fact that the existent road beds 
are immediately available for service without the expend- 
iture of a dollar for electrification. 

Experience in the Electric Lighting of Trains 

in India 

MR. SHADBOLT, the Director of Railway Con- 
struction, recently sent to the quarters pre- 
sumably needing enlightenment (that is to say, to sundry 
Consulting Engineers, Managers, and to Carriage Su- 
perintendents) copies of reports upon the Stone Train 
Lighting System as used on the Jodhpur-Bikanir Rail- 
way, and upon the Independent Storage Battery System 
as used on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, says Indian 
Engineering. There is also forwarded a reprint of an 
article in the "Railway Engineer" of about sixteen months 
ago. Mr. Shadbolt's communication, which bears date 
of September 25th last, is a continuation of a letter, dated 
27th August, 1 901, which then described these systems, 
mentioning them as in the experimental stage and an 
nouncing that when further information was available it 
would be circulated. Therefore No. R. S. 194/2 marks 
the somewhat tardy fruition of a promise over four years 

It is only in the Indian Railway Returns for 1904 
that the separate enumeration first appears concerning 
the number of coaching vehicles fitted for lighting with 
electricity. Some 485 of these being distributed as fol- 
lows : Rajputana-Malwa Railway 238, South Indian Rail- 
way 95, Kalka-Simla Railway 92, Jodhpur-Bikanir Rail- 
way 44, Burma Railway 19, Great Indian Peninsula and 
Indian Midland Railway (jointly) 3, and the Bengal- 
Nagpur, Bombay, Baroda and Central India, and Eastern 
Bengal State Railways, one each. With so many coaches 
electrically lighted it is somewhat surprising that the rec- 
ords from the Jodhpur-Bikanir line only concerning 32 
coaches are given, and while the whole of the Rajputana- 
Malwa coaches are embraced in the report, no mention 
is made of the electrically lighted rolling-stock on other 
lines concerning which Superintendents might have had 
much to say which would be of interest and value. 

Examining the report of the Jodhpur-Bikanir system 
in detail, the first point which strikes the reader is that 
it is not the Stone system in its usual English form which 
is here employed, whose characteristics are each vehicle 
as an independent unit, but a modification required by 
the narrow metre gauge of the line. This modification 
consists in fitting a dynamo and set of accumulators to 
each van only, fore and aft of the brake of the passenger 
coaches, all of which were wired and connected through 
flexible couplings. Even by limiting the number of dy- 
namos and using only two per train, the destruction of 
the belts from the action of the compensating slip on 
the pulley has proved a serious item in the maintenance 
of these installations, amounting to 9 per cent., of the 

annual cost of working. 

On the Marwar Junction and Hyderabad section of 
this line a train consisting of front and rear brake vans, 
one postal van compartment, two intermediate class com- 
partments, two first-class compartments (with bath- 
room), two second-class compartments, (with bath room), 

April, 1906 



one refreshment car, and twelve third-class compart- 
ments, requires 46 five-candle power lamps. The cost 
of lighting three such trains for twelve months 
amounted to Rs. 2,715-13-0, of which nearly one-half was 
occasioned by the expenditure of Rs. 1,365 odd for the 
inspection and running staff To those who know the 
Stone system in England, it comes somewhat as a sur- 
prise to learn that an inspector has to be carried on each 
train to superintend the lighting. In addition to belting, 
to which reference has already been made, only one of the 
remaining items call for special comment, and that is the 
sum of Rs. 502 odd for re-charging accumulators and 
replacing parts thereof. No allowance is apparently made 
for depreciation . The actual power required for driving 
the dynamo, over and above that required for driving 
the train, is not stated, and Mr. Todd of the Jodhpur- 
Bikanir Railway regards this as "an altogether undeter- 
minate quantity," a point of view which is rather eloquent 
of deficiencies in an acquaintance with the practical test- 
ing of electrical machinery. As compared with the pam- 
phlets circulated by Messrs. Stone and Co., which state 
that in English practice inspection need only be made 
after six months, "oiling after 14 to 20 days, and re-charg- 
ing and cleaning accumulators after 15 to 16 months," 
Jodhpur-Bikanir practice based twelve months' working, 
involves the oiling of the main oil-box of the dynamo 
once a week, the rocking arm every da}', while the ac- 
cumulators are tested and the specific gravity adjusted 
every month, and a complete overhauling of the dynamo, 
and cleaning and re-charging of the accumulator every 
six months. 

As regards cost, the unit of comparison adopted is 
that of the lamp hour (the lamp being of five-candle 
power) which cost 1.42 pies. Oil lamps cost for oil alone 
1.75 pies per lamp hour. A comparison with gas light- 
ing would have been of interest, and also a note on the 
comparative value of the illumination secured. Ap- 
parently no attempt has been made to run fans or punk- 
has for ventilating off the accumulators, which would be. 
a distinct boon for refreshment or sleeping cars. 

The other system described in the memorandum under 
consideration is the Independent Storage Battery System 
in use on the Rajutana-Malwa Railway. This involves 
the carrying on the coaches of a number of independent 
batteries which are taken out when discharged and re- 
charged either at Bandakui or A-jmer. An extra weight 
has to be drawn on the train — acomputation of this in 
ton-miles per annum would be somewhat striking and 
would give food for thought. The generating stations 
also require maintenance, and the depreciation of boilers, 
engines, and dynamos have to be met. The labour charges 
at such stations must be fairly heavy, and the troubles 
experienced similar to those inseparable from the use of 
the now almost obsolete independent battery system for 
electric traction. Mr. A. T. Houldcroft, of the Rajput- 
ana-Malwa line, reports that hermetically sealed batteries 

failed to give satisfaction in regard to ascertaining the 
specific gravity and volume of the electrolyte, the difficul- 
ty of ascertaining the condition of the cell, while the com- 
pound used for sealing the cells left a thick deposit at the 
bottom of the cell, and in some cases caused short cir- 
cuiting. An open type cell, with a removable vulcanite 
lid, was therefore adopted. Other difficulties were those 
due to vibration, resulting in the breaking of the lugs 
of the positve plates ; in a very few cases the paste in 
the negative plate has fallen out, while in others deliber- 
ate malice manifested itself by filling the boxes with filth 
and nitric acid. 

The system has, however, given every satisfaction, and 
the Company has affected savings in the cost of train 
lighting, a considerably improved light being secured at 
a little over half the cost of oil. Mr. Houldcroft reckons 
his cost at per candle-power hour, the average from May 
1901 to December 1904 at 0.63 pies. Adopting Mr. Todd's 
standard of the five-candle-power-lamp-hour, this would 
mean a cost of 3.15 pies for independent batteries as 
against 1.75 pies for the Stone system. These figures 
are hard to reconcile, and we are inclined to believe that 
there is a misprint or mistake somewhere. We invite 
the assistance of Mr. Houldcroft and Mr. Todd to elu- 
cidate the matter. 

The third section of the memorandum, which deals with 
the power required for electrically lighting railway car- 
riages by the Stone system, has appeared already in the 
"Zeitung des Vereins," in the "Bulletin of the Interna- 
tional Railway Congress," and in the "Railway Engineer," 
and was originally prepared by Herr Staby of the Bava- 
rian Royal Palatine Railways. Our reference to it will be a 
short one.' Slipping of the belt — the Stone method of vol- 
tage-regulation — occured at a speed of 28 miles per hour, 
which may be therefore regarded as the critical speed of 
the plant tested. The dynamo was suspended and was 
driven by a variable speed motor. At a speed of rota- 
tion corresponding to ^o.y miles per hour, the loss of en- 
ergy due to the slipping of the belt was 612 watts (0.82 
electrical horse-power), while at 46.0 miles per hour the 
loss was 1,101 watts (practically 1.48 electrical horse- 
power) . At 36.7 miles per hour the dynamos output was 
806 watts, so that the deliberate friction loss was 43 per 
cent and at 46.0 miles per hour this loss amounts to 565/2 
per cent. The apparatus used for testing could not be run 
at a higher speed. If slipping commenced at a lower 
speed, as we believe is the case on London suburban lines, 
the losses at these speeds would be even greater, while 
on trains traveling at sixty miles per hour they would 
appall Engineers educated in the pursuit of mechnaical 
efficiency. The figures provided by Herr Staby should 
be analysed by those interested in the question, and the 
resultant curves studied. The effect of such a procedure 
on any Engineer can only be to compel him to seek for a 
system mechanically more efficient. Such a system he 
would find in use on three of the leading British lines. 



April, 1906 

Grain Door 

THE accompanying illustrations are of an improve- 
ment on grain doors. This is to relieve the press- 
ure of the grain from the inside in order to raise the 
regular door with greater ease. 

For this purpose a small triangular shaped door is 
provided on the regular door. This is hinged from the 


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top, and when closed has the two sides fastened back of 
the diagonal strips as shown. In order to open the door 
the small hook is removed from the staple and the lever 
raised upward. This lifts the two link hinges and the 
door enough to clear the side strips and then swings out- 

If it is desired to keep the opening open, the door can 
be hung from the staple above the opening. 

We are indebted to Messrs. J. J. Hennessey and P. N. 
Moore, of the C. M. & St. P. Ry., who hold the patents 
on the device, for the illustrations and description. 

Safety Devices at Front of Electric Cars 

NOTWITHSTANDING the close attention to per- 
fection of details in the construction of electric cars 
in municipal service, there has always been room for im- 
provement in an important feature having a direct bear- 
ing on the safety of the public, since the advent of elec- 
tricity as a motive power. To be explicit, the means to 
prevent loss of life, or at least the maiming of an un- 
fortunate who happens to go down in front of a car, is, 
when present at all, of the crudest possible kind, and 
cannot by any stretch of the most lively imagination be 
called a safety device. Fenders are not to be considered, 
simply because they invariably fail of their purpose; me- 
chanically, nothing could be devised that would more sat- 
isfactorily accomplish the very thing it is supposed to 
prevent, since the whole framework will nse and pass 
over any object on contact with it. 

The failure to perform the work for which it is applied 
is due to the height at which it is placed above the rails, 
and this condition is aggravated by the fact that there is 
any amount of play upward, and but little downward, 

while the height of opening at the bottom is anything 
from ground contact up to an opening too large to inter- 
cept the human body. The frequent sight of a fender 
hanging with one side in its normal position, and the op- 
posite side on the rail is an object lesson of the uselessness 
of such a device to clear the rails of any kind of an ob- 

In some cities the attempt has been made to introduce 
a miniature pilot before each pair of trucks, the device 
being simply an obtuse angled affair about 6 inches high 
and supported a few inches above the rails. Owing to its 
distance from the platform end sill, which is over four 
feet, it is inoperative at all times to clear the rails, since, 
if a person is struck by the sill of the car, the latter or the 
car step will place the subject beyond the pale of safety. 
Such an arrangement is of no more use as a safeguard 
against going under the wheels, than the fender. 

It is time that attention was given to a more efficient 
means to prevent the mutilation going on by street cars, 
than is had by the devices so far used. The best device 
for the purpose is the pilot designed for the locomotive. 
It will throw an object clear of the rails, and prevent 
its passage under the wheels, for the reason that it may 
be placed nearer the rails, and its form is such as to fur- 
nish the best known means for safety. 

There may be objections to its application in general 
to street cars, but there are none that may not be sur- 
mounted by modifications that should fit any condition 
of coupling up train units or kind of service. Interurban 
cars are fitted with pilots in many cases, they having no 
doubt been forced on them by reason of high speeds, but 
there is greater need for such a device on cars in urban 
traffic because of its greater density. In the former case 
a collision with stock had to be provided for, as such a 
contingency meant disaster to the car by probable derail- 
ment, whereas there is nothing to fear in the latter in- 
stance but the running down of a pedestrian, which is 
often called contributory negligence. Ordinary consist- 
ency should be kept in sight, when by an exercise of it, 
safety to the public is assured. 

• ♦ 

Balanced Compound Locomotives 

THE paper on four-cylinder balanced compound 
locomotives, read before the Railway Club of Pitts- 
burg by Mr. F. J. Cole, mechanical engineer of the 
American Locomotive Company, has been issued in 
pamphlet form by the company. The pamphlet contains 
some interesting information on the effect of unbalanced 
forces in an ordinary simple engine, and explains clearly 
the reasons why the torque of a four-cylinder balanced 
compound engine is more uniform than in a simple ma- 
chine. In considering this question, the development of 
the four-cylinder type is traced from the earliest produc- 
tions by line drawings illustrating various examples from 
foreign and American practice, and leading up to the 
perfected modern creation having the power divided be- 
tween two independently driven axles, among which was 
the Cole compound and some of the more important data 
taken from it on the St. Louis testing plant at the World's 

April, 1906 



Baldwin 12-lVheeler Ferro*CarrilDe Yaguajay 

A NARROW gage 4-8-0 engine illustrated herewith 
was designed and built at the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works for the Ferro-Carril de Yaguajay, a railroad of 
27^2-inch gage in the province of Santa Clara, Cuba. 
The service to be taken care of is general freight, includ- 
ing the products of the larger sugar plantations along the 
line. The grades are something to be reckoned with, 
being in some cases as high as 3^ per cent, while the 
curves offer a no mean resistance, since they are as sharp 
as 135 feet radius. 

The narrow gage of the road, and the size and weight 
of the engine, made it necessary to place the frames 
outside of the driving wheels, of which four pairs were 
used in order to keep the permissible load per yard of 
rail within the limit. The four-wheeled truck was used 

Total, 985.8 square feet. 

Grate area, 12. 1 square feet. 

Driving wheels, diameter outside, 30 inches. 

Diameter of center, 25 inches. 

Journals, 6^x7 inches. 

Engine truck wheels, (front,), diameter, 20 inches. 

Journals, 3 x / 2 x6 inches. 

Wheel base, driving, 9 feet 10 inches. 

Rigid, 9 feet, 10 inches. 

Total engine, 18 feet, 6 inches. 

Total engine and tender, 48 feet. 

Weight, on driving wheels, 61,450 pounds. 

On truck, front, 13,000 pounds. 

Total engine, 74,450 pounds. 

Total engine and tender, about 106,000 pounds. 

Tank capacity, 2,500 gallons. 

Tender wheels, No. 8, diameter, 26 inches. 

Journals, 3$i x 7 inches. 

Service, freight. 

91 ■■ 1 ! J_ Ji if 1 ■— — ^mt^ma. 

gjgffi^MBWMB^fe--- S^^jST — E mm ft 


-. 1 \ Ji tJ fun IH M m Mm. t 



- ■" , 'if-: .'if. ! ^■-'%: ■ " ■ > 

,•*£ .'" " -■% 1 -'"'rjAi -i .. .1.. ■V : "** "~: ""' 

m j __ - ^v.^H 

'V'vKj"*- — • Jt *^%f»»^3K^KKmJHMBbm& 

J, ..**' 


to avoid excessive flange wear on the drivers, and also 
insure freedom and safety in passing the sharp curves. 

The capacity of this engine under ordinarily favorable 
conditions is such as to haul seven to eight cars, each 
weighing sixteen gross tons, up the 3^ per cent grades. 
The I4xi6-inch cylinders and 30-inch drivers are toy- 
like proportions, but the machine can exert a draw bar 
pull of 15,000 lbs. The really diminutive size of the en- 
gine is best shown as a background for the two figures 
seen in the picture. The descriptive specification gives 
dimensions and data of smaller values than are usually 
found in road locomotives today. 

Gauge, 2 feet, 3 J / 2 inches. 
Cylinder, 14x16 inches. 
Valve, balanced. 
Boiler, type, straight. 
Diameter, 48 inches. 
Thickness of sheets, -% inch. 
Working presure, 170 pounds.' 
Fuel, wood, ■« 

Staying, radial, 
Fire box, material, copper. 
Length, 46 inches, width, 38 inches. 
Depth, front, 47^ inches, back, zi 3 A inches. 
Thickness of sheets, sides, y 2 inch, back, y 2 inch, crown, ]/ 2 
inch, tube, Y^ and y 2 inch. 

Water space, front, 3 inches, sides, 2>/ 2 inches, back, 2^ inches. 
Tubes, material, copper, wire gauge, 12 and 13. 
Number, 100, diameter, 2^, length, 16 feet. 
Heating surface, firebox, 48.4 square feet. 
Tubes, 937.4 square feet. 

Government Supervision of Traffic 

THE railway corporations of this country are untram- 
meled by paternalism to an extent unknown by like 
foreign properties, and they would no doubt suffer a death 
shock if subjected to anything like the same supervision 
by government officials here. According to Consul 
Brunot, the management of national control, under the 
laws of 1881, of the operation of each great railway 
system in France, is intrusted to inspector-generals of 
roads and bridges or of mines, residing at Paris, who 
have seats in the councils and committees instituted by 
the minister of public works. These inspectors are in- 
vested with authority to consult the books, papers, re- 
ports, etc., of the railway company to which they are 
assigned, as well as any documents necessary to reveal 
the condition of the company, and the exactness of the 
receipts and expenditures. 

The inspector general assists, or is represented at all 
the meetings of the shareholders of the company, and has 
under his control: (1) The railway track and build- 
ings, and (2) the technical and commercial operation of 
the railway. When necessary he inspects and controls 
plans and designs of new lines. The control of tracks 
and edifices comprises supervision of new construction 
and repairs on lines, and verification of the expenses in- 
curred. The general inspector is assisted by a chief 
engineer of roads and bridges, several ordinary engin- 
eers, and a staff of clerks. 



April, 1906 

The control of the technical working of the line 
comprises the supervision of the motive power, rolling 
stock and workshops, verification of accounts, and the 
strict surveillance over the observance of the regulations 
concerning the work of the employees. That of the com- 
mercial operation embraces the study of rates and all 
commercial questions interesting the railway system, ex- 
amination of the budget of the company, and verification 
of accounts. By a decree of 1901 the study of the former 
questions, is intrusted to a director of commercial control, 
assisted by a general controller of each company, several 
inspectors, and commissaries of surveillance. The salary 
of a Government director is $3,000. He is by right of 
office a member of the consulting committee of railways, 
and can assist at any of the railway directors' meetings 
of the line, as well as at the general assembly of the 
shareholders. The official director must make himself 
acquainted with the needs of the population and ex- 
amine with care all propositions to change transport rates 
and report thereon to the minister of public works. Al- 
though residing in Paris, he is invited to study the in- 
dustrial, commercial and agricultural affairs of different 
regions in the provinces, and goes about frequently to 
meet chambers of commerce and the syndicates for the 
proper understanding of local claims. 

No rates of any kind can be imposed by the railway 
companies unless they have received authorization from 
the minister of public works. Before applying any tariff 
or rate, the companies have to draw up a list or schedule 
of the prices they intend to charge for the transport of 
passengers, cattle, merchandise, and divers objects. 
Copies of this schedule are transmitted to the minister, 
the prefect of the department crossed by the railway, 
and to the control service. The companies are bound 
to transport with exactitude, celerity, and without favor- 
itism, merchandise, cattle, and all other objects intrusted 
to them. Any private agreement to grant a rebate is 
strictly forbidden ; further, if a company, knowingly and 
willingly underrates any given merchandise, it is obliged 
to apply that same rate to the same kind of goods to all 
other shippers, for a period of five years. 

Enough is given in the above to outline the situation in 
France to show the intent of the traffic regulation con- 
templated by the government, even though the scope is 
omitted. Its ramifications touch every detail in the mo- 
tive power and operating departments alike, not omitting 
the composition and handling of trains nor the condition 
of locomotives for train service. It is plain that there is 
no possible opening for rate juggling as it is understood 
in the United States. All safe-guarding of the commer- 
cial interests of the country is of the most ample char- 
acter, and is in the strongest contrast to the system which 
has so solidly intrenched itself here. 


giving ample protection from the elements — which in 
the "Sunny South" means sun and rain. This round 
house is built without walls, being comprised of only a 
roof supported on posts, and therefore open on all sides. 

Wood is the material of which the structure is built 
throughout, the posts being 12x12 inches, and resting 
on a solid foundation. The girders are also 12x12 inches 
and braced by 6x12 inch struts secured to both posts and 
girders by % inch bolts. Above the girders are 12x12 
inch posts in line with those below, and extending to the 
roof plates which are also 12x12 inches. The purloins 
are 8x10 inches, and the lower plates 12x12 inches, while 
the studding, which is 2x6 inches, is at the gable ends 
only. The roof is covered with tile. 

There are twelve concrete pits 70 feet long, two of 
which are assigned to drop pit service. The pits are 
315^ inches deep from top of rail to crown of the arch, 
and are capped with 12x12 inch stringers on which the 

Jt New Type of Round House. 

THE Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company has 
produced something new in round house construc- 
tion at Waycross, Ga., involving the most simple prin- 
ciples of architecture, yet justifying the expectation of 


April, 1906 



rails rest. The pits are arranged open under the arched 
bottom and have a liberal incline to the entering end 
where the 8-inch terra cotta drain pipes are located. 
The roof drainage is received in a wooden trough at 
each eave and disposed of through 4-inch cast iron soil 
pipes. The smoke jacks are arranged over the pits on 
the head-in and back-out plan, and over each pit near 
the apex of the roof is located a clay ventilator 25 inches 
in diameter. 

In all details necessary to the housing of engines, and 
taking care of running repairs, this round house is as 
complete as though surrounded by solid walls, with the 
important advantage of light and air and low cost of in- 
stallation. Mr. R. E. Smith, General Superintendent of 
Motive Power, by whose courtesy these illustrations are 
presented, writes in answer to our request for informa- 
tion concerning this innovation in round house practice, 
as follows: "It is true that the idea of this round house 
is somewhat novej, the plan being based upon the re- 
quirements of the very favorable climate at Waycross, 
Ga. It is but rarely, during a short winter, that ice 
forms at Waycross, while on the other hand, the period 
of sunshine and rain is somewhat extended. Therefore, 
in designing a roundhouse for so favorable a climate, it 
was thought unnecessary to provide side or end walls, 

and that overhead protection against rain and sun was 
the only protection required. In fact we believe that walls 
in a roundhouse in that climate would detract rather than 
add to the comfort of the men ; then, too, there is also the 
consideration of the reduced cost of construction. 

You will note that the roundhouse is, in fact, a shed 
supported by heavy uprights that the roof covering is of 
Ludowici tife, and, therefore, especially adapted for round 
house work, in that it is immune from the corrosive ac- 
tion of fumes from locomotives standing thereunder. The 
small amount of timber, excepting large sizes, in this con- 
struction makes it practically fire proof. While it is the 
first roundhouse of this type that I know of, and to that 
extent is experimental, we feel quite confident that it 
will meet the requirements of the mild climate, and it is 
our expectation to follow this design in other engine 
houses to be built at other points south of Savannah. I 
would not recommend this style of roundhouse except for 
points as far south, and south of Waycross, Ga. We es- 
timate this house to cost, including the concrete pits, less 
than $1,000.00 per stall. 

The reason why steel is not used in this construction 
will be apparent when it is remembered that long-leaf 
yellow pine has its habitat, and is at its best on the Atlan- 
tic Coast Line. 




April, 1906 


E. S. Scheetz, master car builder of the Georgia Rail- 
road, died at his home in Augusta, Ga., on February 21. 

Mr. W. McAlister, master mechanic of the Pennsyl- 
vania at Camden, N. J., has been retired under the pen- 
sion rules of that system. 

Mr. A. H. Gairns has been appointed general foreman 
of shops of the Denver & Rio Grande at Burnham, Colo., 
vice Mr. J. E. Klein, resigned. 

Mr. W. C. Burel has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Trinity and Brazos Valley, with office at Cleburne, 
Tex., effective on February 15. 

Mr. Homer W. Baldwin has resigned as road fore- 
man of engines of the Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago & 
St. Louis at Mount Carmel, 111. 

Mr. J. F. Scott has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Ohio River & Western, with office at Zanesville. 
O., in place of Mr. V. B. Stubbins. 

Mr. J. N. Mallory has been appointed mechanical en- 
gineer of the Lehigh Valley, with headquarters at South 
Bethlehem, Pa., succeeding Mr. L. L. Bentley, resigned. 

Mr. Austin J. Collett has been appointed electrical 
engineer of the Union Pacific, under the superintendent 
of motive power and machinery, with headquarters at 
Omaha, Neb. 

Mr. C. H. Andrus, general foreman of machine shops 
of the Pennsylvania at West Philadelphia, Pa., has been 
appointed general locomotive inspector, with head- 
quarters at Altoona, Pa. 

Mr. J. W. Evans, heretofore trainmaster of the Wa- 
bash at Decatur, 111., has been appointed assistant super- 
intendent of motive power of the Cincinnati New Or- 
leans & Texas Pacific at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Mr. A. C. Hinckley formerly general master me- 
chanic of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton has been 
appointed superintendent of motive power having had 
the car department put under his charge. 

Mr. Peter Harvie, superintendent of shops of the 
Great Northern at. Havre, Mont., has been transferred 
to Everett, Wash., in a similar capacity. He has been 
succeeded at Havre by Mr. K. A. Frobergh. 

Mr. H. G. Huber has been appointed assistant mas- 
ter mechanic of the Buffalo & Allegheny Valley division 
of the Pennsylvania at Verona, Pa., vice Mr. Taber 
Hamilton, transferred; effective on February 15. 

Mr. S. B. Reed, heretofore chief clerk to the super- 
intendent of motive power of the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific, has been appointed general storekeeper, with 
office at Chicago, in place of Mr. H. C. Pearce, resigned. 

Mr. W. L. Harrison, master mechanic of the Chicago. 
Rock Island & Pacific at Cedar Rapids, la., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Kansas division, with 
headquarters at Horton, Kan., vice Mr. G. V. Seidel, re- 

Mr. H. C. Pearce, general storekeeper of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific at East Moline, 111., has been 
appointed general storekeeper of the Southern Pacific 
at San Francisco, Cal., succeeding Mr. W. R. Ormsby, 

Mr. A. M. Frazee, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Columbus Buckeye Lake & Newark, with office at New- 
ark, O., has resigned to take charge of an electric light 
plant at Duluth, Minn. He will be succeeded by Mr. 
A. F. Rausch of Canton, O. 

Mr. A. W. Wheatley has resigned as superintendent 
of shops of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at East 
Moline, 111., to accept the position of assistant superin- 
tendent .of motive power of the Union Pacfic, with 
headquarters at Omaha, Neb. 

Mr. C. A. Braun has been appointed master mechanic 
of the St. Louis Iron Mountain & Southern, with office 
at Baring Cross, Ark., and will have jurisdiction from 
Hoxie to Texarkana, from Little Rock to McGehee, and 
over the Little Rock terminals. 

Mr. M. E. Wells has been appointed assistant master 
mechanic of the Wheeling & Lake Erie and the Wabash- 
Pittsburg Terminal with headquarters at Columbia, O. 
Mr. Wells heretofore has been traveling master me- 
chanic, with office at Norwalk, O. 

Mr. B. E. McNierney, formerly connected with the 
mechanical department of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha at Minneapolis, Minn., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Tacoma Eastern, with 
office at Bismarck, Wash., to succeed Mr. H. F. Weath- 
erby, resigned. 

Mr. H. W. Johnson has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy at Brook- 
field, Mo., to succeed Mr. A. N. Willsie, who has been 
transferred to Aurora, 111., in a similar capacity. Mr. 
P. J. Murrin, assistant master mechanic at Aurora, has 
been assigned to other duties. 

Mr. Wiliam Smith, master mechanic of the New 
York Central & Hudson River at East Buffalo, N. Y., 
has been granted an extended leave of absence owing to 
ill health, and Mr. Edward Eldon, general inspector of 
engines of the Western division, has been appointed 
acting master mechanic at East Buffalo. 

Mr. James Coleman has been appointed master car 
builder of the Central Vermont, with office at Saint 
Albans, Vt. Mr. A. Buchanan, superintendent of the 
motive power and car department, will hereafter devote 
his entire time to the motive power department, with 
the title of superintendent of motive power. Effective 
on March 1. 

Mr. C. J. Halliwell, enginehouse foreman of the 
Pennsylvania at Youngwood, Pa., has been transferred 
to Pittsburg, Pa., as assistant master mechanic, succeed- 
ing Mr. H. M. Meason, who has been appointed general 
foreman of shops at Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. J. W. Os- 
chea, enginehouse foreman at Conemaugh, Pa., has been 
appointed to succeed Mr. Halliwell. 

Mr. M. McCarthy, heretofore division master me- 
chanic of the Michigan Central at Saint Thomas, Ont., 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Michigan 
Southern division of the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern, and will also have jurisdiction over the Indi- 
ana, Illinois & Iowa, with headquarters at Elkhart, Ind., 
vice Mr. C. W-. Cross, transferred to other duties ; effect- 
ive on February 26. 

April, 1906 





HunUSpiller Iron 

The Hunt-Spiller Manufacturing Corporation, South Boston, 
Mass., have out a very attractive pamphlet, 6x9 inches and 15 
pages, explanatory of the merits of their iron for constructive 
details of locomotives, toothed gearing and steamship work. 
Owing to the high tensile strength (35,000 pounds), and close 
grain of this iron, it is especially well adapted to such locomotive 
parts as have long been made of cast iron and steel, such as 
driving wheel centers, driving boxes, shoes and wedges, cylin- 
der packing rings, cylinder bushings, pistons, valves and false 
valve seats, guides, crosshead gibs, eccentrics and straps, rocker 
boxes and all other details subject to wear, and requiring a 
combination of strength and durability. For high hydrostatic 
pressure this metal has proved of superior excellence because of 
its strength and density, and for details called upon to resist 
acids or alkalies, no grade of cast metal has served the purpose 
as well as this, by reason of its close texture. The steadily ex : 
panding business of this concern attests the esteem in which its 
products are held on railways. 

No. 4 Plain Milling Machine 

This machine embodies a number of new and important im- 
provements which will be much appreciated by all users of 
milling machines. Special attention is called to the positive gear- 
feed drive and change-feed mechanism, by which twenty changes 
of feed can be made without stopping the machine; the new 
clutch mechanism in connection with the hand wheels; also the 
box type of knee and telescopic elevating screw. 

The spindle has a No. 12 B. & S. taper hole in front end, 
is made from hammered crucible steel, has a 24-inch hole through 
its entire length, and runs in self-centering bronze boxes ar- 
ranged to compensate for wear. It has a slot across end to en- 
gage clutch on arbor, is threaded to take a chuck, and a threaded 
collar covers the screw when not in use. It is connected with the 
change-feed mechanism by three spur gears, making a positive 
driven feed. The spindle is double back geared, and gears are 
protected with guards. 

The arm is made of steel, is designed for horizontal adjust- 
ment, and has an arbor support which may be removed, so that 

any of the attachments can be placed in position without the 
necessity of removing the arm. 

The platen has automatic longitudinal, cross and vertical 
feeds. It is provided with three 54-inch T slots with oil pans 
at each end. Feed is reversed in front of machine. 

The knee is of box type, and is supported by telescopic ele- 
vating screw, so that no holes are necessary in the floor. It is 
also provided with automatic vertical feed and knock-off. 

Hand wheels for operating the feeds are provided with 
clutch arrangement enclosed in hub. When the table has been 




April, 1906 

set to required position, the clutch may be instantly disengaged 
by pressing in the knob on the front of the hand 
wheels, thereby preventing any accidental change from their 
fixed position, and also preventing them from revolving when 
the automatic feeds are thrown in. 

Dials are adjustable and graduated to read to thousandths of 
an inch, to indicate the vertical, transverse and longitudinal 
movements of platen, and are set at any position with set screws 

The patented change-feed mechanism is conveniently ar- 
ranged on the back of column, and is capable of obtaining in- 
stantly twenty changes of feed, slow or fast, by a simple 
movement of the lever without stopping the machine. 

This machine is manufactured by the Becker-Brainard 

Milling Machine Co., of Hyde Park, Mass. 
■ ♦ ■ 

Packing Gauge and Cutter 

Every practical engineer to whom time is an object will 
appreciate the convenience and utility of a simple but ingenious 
device, the Exacto Packing Gauge and Cutter, recently placed 
on the market by Greene, Tweed & Co., New York. 

The manufacturers also being manufacturers of packing they 
were in the best possible position to fully recognizze the success 
of a packing largely depended on the skill displayed by the engi- 
neer in cutting and fitting it and that the sale of so-called "ring" 
packings was chiefly owing to the fact that they relieved the engi- 
neer of this trouble and responsibility, even if they were not as 
satisfactory from the standpoint of durability, etc. 

With the Exacto packing gauge and cutter and knowing the 
diameter of the rod to be packed, continuous length packings 
are as convenient to handle and more economical than any ring 
packing, a perfect fit being at the same time assured, with choice 
of material which the engineer cannot always command in ring 

Our first illustration shows the device all ready for use. 
The dial is set at the figure representing the diameter of the rod 
to be packed, plus the diameter of the packing to be cut; a set 
screw secures the stop in place. The free end of the packing 
having been cut to the proper bevel in the gauge is then passed 

into the apparatus until the beveled end fits strongly into the stop. 
With the thumb of the left hand the knife guide is then pressed 
down, firmly holding the packing in place, the knife of the ser- 
rated edge variety is then inserted in the guide and the cut 
made, as shown in our illustration. The result ib a ring with 
the ends cut to a true bevel, as shown in Fig. 3, which will, if 
care has been exercised in the operation, exactly fit the rod. 

All the rings cut to this measure will be exactly of the same 
size ; there is no possibility of waste from errors in cutting, nor 
loss of time in fitting the packing to the rod, and if the packing 
is right, a tight joint and a workman-like job are assured. 

All things considered, we are so favorably impressed with 
this little machine that we predict, because of its utility, that 
few engine rooms of the future will be found without one. We 
suggest to engineers to look into it. 

Coates Flexible Power Transmission 

Power trasmission by means of the Coates flexible system has 
solved the problem of tool and shafting drives with the least 
possible resistance and with absolute certainty of results. In 
out of the way situations and for angle drives this method of 
transmitting power has features possessed by no other system, 
being truly flexible in every sense of the term, and it is this 
fact that makes the Coates shaft one of the necessities in a 
machine shop. 

In the construction of this shaft, each link telescopes its 
ball socket sufficiently to allow for the least change in length 
due to bending, and thus counteracts all friction from that 
cause. That is the reason why the Coates shaft may be coupled 
up into solid and permanent connections and will run perfectly 
free at any angle. This shaft is peculiarly well adapted for 
drilling, reaming, tapping or grinding, and in fact any operation 
requiring power at points remote from line or counter shafting. 

The illustration of the bracket boring machine shows one of 
the applications of the shaft to a job of drilling in the floor, 
and it is plain that ground joints are just as easily negotiated 
with the same equipment. The illustration of the angle drive 
which embodies in its construction the principle of the flexible 





April, 1906 




shaft, shows the construction of the shaft drive in broken view 
in which the shape is seen to run in oil. While the drive is at 
an angle of 90 degrees there are no limitations in that respect — 
it will drive at any angle, and forward or backward with equal 
efficiency. It is one of the prettiest solutions of an angle shaft 
drive yet put out. These specialties in flexible power trans- 
mission are built by the Coates Clipper Mfg. Co., Worcester, 


. ♦ . 

Wheaton Variable Exhaust and Drifter on a 
Chicago Great Western Locomotive 

The accompanying illustration is of engine 903 on the Chicago 
Limited of the Chicago Great Western Railway. This loco- 
motive was equipped with the Wheaton Variable Exhaust and 
Drifter as manufactured by the International Railway Device 
Co., of St. Paul, Minn. This device was applied to remedy the 
excessive flue leakage and breaking of transmission bars, hanger 
posts and frames with which this class of engine was troubled. 
Since the application in October, 1905, these troubles have been 
almost entirely eliminated. 

Another interesting point brought out in the test was the 
saving of 12 per cent, in fuel during January and February over 
the 904, another engine of the same class in the same service, 
but not equipped with the Wheaton device. The coal record was 
as follows : 

ENGINE 003. 


Allowance 601.88 

Consumption 601.50 

Saving 38 

ENGINE 904. 

Allowance 593-03 

Consumption : 662.00 

Excess 68.97 

This shows a saving for engine 903 of 12 per cent, over engine 
904 on a coal allowance based on the per mile tonnage hataled. 

The 903 showed 20 per cent, better in her coal record than 
the average of all other engines of this class in passenger service 
on this division. 

« » « 

Hydro-Pneumatic Pipe Bending Machine 

In most all railway shops will be found some kind of a device 
in a crude process of development whose purpose is to bend 
sand pipes, injector feed and discharge pipes and other piping 
. requiring curved shapes. It has, however, been the promise of 
F. F. Slocomb & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del., to design and build 
a bending press especially adapted to work of this kind. The 
accompanying illustration shows one of these machines recently 
placed on the market. 

It consists of an improved quick acting hydro-pneumatic 
engine designed to be secured to a cast iron plate having T 
slots holding stops, against which the pipe rests. The ram has 
a total travel of twelve inches— or more if desired — and by 
means of an auxiliary air cylinder can be quickly brought up to 
or withdrawn from the work at will of the operator, and at a 
very slight expenditure of air. This press is built in several 


sizes ; the size shown will with eighty pounds air pressure, 
exert a force of seventy-five tons at the ram. The machine 
is not only adapted for binding iron and copper pipe cold, but 
is also used to advantage in ship yards for putting camber in deck 
beams and frames. 

« ♦ « 


Forced Lubrication 

A great many discussions have appeared from time to time, 

in regard to the subject of lubrication. The old style, or, more 
properly, the present style of hydrostatic lubricator, has offered 
a solution to lubricating problems for a great many years, in a 
more or less satisfactory manner, according to the conditions 
under which it may have had to work. Just what per cent of 
this oil does any real lubricating, is an insolvable problem, as we 
have a great many reasons to know that drops of oil often pass 
almost directly to the exhaust without doing any good whatever. 
In locomotive practice is this more especially true, due largely to 
the long line of piping from the lubricator to the engine cylin- 
ders. The feed on a locomotive lubricator might be started ten 
minutes, we will say, before starting the engine, and some en- 
gineers would consider this as ample time for the oil to reach 
the point desired, before starting. Whether this be true, or not, 
no one really knows. All we do know, is that it is fed into the 
discharge line, but when it gets to the cylinder, is something 
that defies solution, varying as it does not only with the length 
of the piping but with the temperatures through which it may 
have to pass. 



April, 1906 

Another unsatisfactory feature with which engineers have had 
to contend, is the fact that the feed of oil in nearly all cases has 
to be stopped entirely while the lubricator is being filled, and 
it not infrequently happens that after it is filled it does not re- 
sume feeding promptly, but must wait for condensation to fill 
the chamber provided for that purpose, before action is resumed. 

With the advent of the gas engine, these troubles have greatly 
multiplied. In this service we have enormous fluctuating pres- 
sures, these changes taking place in very short periods of time, 
the high temperatures and carbonaceous deposits adding also to 
the difficulties of proper lubrication. To meet these difficulties 
and provide a positive means whereby oil of any consistency 
may be fed in regular quantities at timed intervals, the Sight 
Feed Oil Pump has been placed on the market. In this device, 
connections are usually made to some moving part of the valve 
mechanism that will properly actuate a lever, the movement of 
the lever to be, therefore, synchronous with those of the engine, 


thus giving a stroke to the plungers of the pump for every stroke 
of the engine. In a slow moving steam pump, this is modified 
in such a way as to give a double stroke to the oil pump for 
every stroke of the steam pump. Where it is necessary to deliver 
oil at a certain period of the cycle, as in gas engines, the pump 
lever is actuated from an eccentric placed on the valve 
lay shaft and so shifted as to drop the oil on the piston at the 
proper instant. 

With the style of pump shown in the engraving, which is built 
by the Sight Feed Oil Pump Co., of Milwaukee, a forcing stroke 
is secured by every movement of the lever. When the engine 
stops, the pump stops, working automatically, and requires no 
attention when the engine is started, as the first rotation of the 
engine causes the pump to throw oil out through its various 
feed lines. 

The body of these pumps are made from a solid chunk of cast 
iron, which, after being faced on all sides, is drilled out for the 
plungers and passage ways. The plungers are made of steel, 
provided with machine cut racks, and are operated by means of 
steel gear shafts, to which is attached a lever, as shown. One 
plunger in each pump, when only one kind of oil is used, serves 
to circulate the oil from the tank up through a channel over the 
drip nozzles, the excess returning through one of the hollow 
studs back into the tank. This plunger has ample capacity to 
supply all feeds, and the flow of oil, thus secured, is at all times 
in excess of demands. This circulation of oil assists in keeping 
same thoroughly mixed, and the flow past the drip nozzles tends 
to wash away any small particles of foreign matter that might 
otherwise lodge there. Each discharge line has an independent 

pumping mechanism, consisting of a plunger, two large ball 
check valves, and a separate discharge line. The pump shown, 
is the one-feed or smallest size, and illustrates but one of these 
separate pumping mechanisms. In pumps of larger sizes, the 
tank and body are longer, and additional feeds are arranged for 
by placing similar plungers and valve trains side by side. The 
builders are manufacturing all sizes from — one to sixteen 
feeds — and claim that they have not yet reached their limit in 
point of size. The amount of oil being fed to any given place 
is adjusted by the valve shown on top, and the drops may readily 
be seen as they flow down through the recessed cavity in front 
of the nickel disc. As soon as a drop of oil falls into the hole 
below the drip nozzles, the pump plunger on its up stroke, as you 
see, will draw a vacuum into which this drop of oil is greedily 
drawn. The down stroke will then force it past the check 
valves and out into the delivery line. 

In setting up the pumps, the front check valve only is inserted 
in the body, and a test of 1000 pounds per square inch oil pres- 
sure applied by operating the lever and plunger by hand. This 
amount, the casting, check valve, plunger, etc., must hold in- 
definitely. Then the rear check valve is inserted in the pump, 
simply as a double assurance against leakage. It is plain to be 
seen that with a check valve provided at the extreme discharge 
end of each feed line, the piping will at all times be held full 
of oil, and the moment a drop is forced past the first check in 
the pump, a corresponding amount must be crowded out at the 
discharge end to make room for it ; thus the first revolution of 
the engine to which it may be attached, will cause oil to be 
instantly dropped upon each and every surface or bearing to 
which the pump may be piped. The tank is provided with a 
threaded cap, on the top, under which is provided a large 
strainer, readily removable for cleaning. A protected gauge 
glass shows the level of the oil, and arrangements are provided 
in these gauge fittings for steam connections to be made to the 
heater pipe in the bottom of the tank for warming the oil if the 
pump is located in an extremely cold place. In case it is de- 
sirable to feed two kinds of oil, a partition may be placed in the 
tank, and a circulating plunger provided at each end of the 
pump. This arrangement is often desired where it is necessary 
to lubricate the bearings as well as the cylinder. 

For locomotive work the same style of pump is used, any 
more than it is enameled instead of being polished, and provided 
with a different type of pipe connection for the feed lines. The 
tank is somewhat different from that used in the stationary 
engine style of pump, being shortened on the bottom and pro- 
vided with a different means for attachment to a bracket. The 
principal difference, however, lies in the method of driving, 
which is accomplished by means of a small motor. This motor 
is, in principle, a double acting, self-contained engine, either 
operated by steam or compressed air, the latter being in many 
ways preferable. This little motor rotates the gear shaft, through 
an angle of 72 degrees, which gives the forcing plungers their 
proper travel. In the larger sizes of locomotives being built 
today and employing, as they do, higher boiler pressures, and 
being equipped with larger cylinders and valves, and conse- 
quently increased wearing surfaces, the requirements put upon 
a common lubricator are more than they are able to meet. 
Most especially is this true where hot, dry, superheated steam 
is employed. In this latter field the forced feed lubricator or 
oil pump is king, because of its ability to introduce the oil upon 
the various surfaces regardless of engine speed, boiler pressure, 
or temperature conditions. When the feeds are once, set for 
their proper flow all the engineer has to do is to open the air 
valve to the motor and the apparatus will take care of itself. 
Heater connection being open, the oil in the tank will stay warm 
and the rate of flow being entirely independent of the amount 
of oil in the tank the feed will remain uniform, and the air pump 
governor taking care of the air pressure or the fireman of the 
steam pressure, as the case may be, will cause the motor to 
run at a constant speed. 

April, 1906 



One other important feature of this particular type of force 
feed lubricator is that it will handle satisfactorily and continu- 
ously a mixtiue of powdered graphite or mica and oil, which is 
often very desirable. 

The manufacturers, The Light Feed Oil Pump Co., Milwau- 
kee, Wis., invite your correspondence, and will be glad to forward 
any further information as to the various types of lubricating 

specialties that they manufacture. 

« » ■ 

Foote Burt Sr Company 

As announced in our issue of last month Foote Burt and Com- 
pany, of Cleveland, Ohio, have purchased the plant, patterns and 
good will of the Reliance Machine and Tool Company, also of 
Cleveland, and the entire plant will be in the future located 
at the plant of Foote Burt and Company. None of the executive 
staff of the old Reliance Machine and Tool Company will be con- 
nected with it. All of the shopmen, however, will be given em- 
ployment. The management of these two companies are making 
plans for a complete organization of the executive and sales 
departments such as will be necessary for the successful and sat- 
isfactory handling of the output of the two companies. Mr. 
George E. Randies, for the past five years manager of Manning, 
Maxwell and Moore, Philadelphia, has become a member of the 
firm of Foote, Burt and Company. Mr. Randies is already too 
well known in railway and machine tool circles to need any 
introduction through these columns. Foote, Burt and Company 
will continue their manufacture of multiple spindle drills, mud 
ring drills, arch bar drills and general line of heavy single and 
multiple drills for railroad work. The Reliance Machine and 
Tool Company will manufacture bolt cutters, bolt pointers and 
nut tappers. For further information regarding the output of 
these two companies reference may be had to the advertising 
pages of the Railway Master Mechanic and for full and complete 
information applicaton should be made direct to Foote, Burt 

and Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

■ ♦ » 

Notes of the Month 

In order to avoid confusion in mail matter and orders the 
corporate title of the C. Ff. Wheeler Condenser and Pump Co. 
has been changed to the C. H. Wheeler Manufacturing Company. 

• «<►-♦ 

The Homestead Valve Mfg. Co., Pittsburg, Pa., have just 
issued their new price list. This list is the same as former lists 
with the exception of the four way valve on page nine, which 
has been somewhat reduced. 

An evidence of enterprise is noted in the establishment of 
an office in New York City by the Hutchins Car Roofing Com- 
pany of Detroit, Michigan. The New York headquarters, which 
are located at 26 Cortland Street, are presided over by Mr. J. J. 
Noland, vice-president of the company. The capitalization of 
this company was increased to $250,000 on Jan. 1, 1906. 

Green, Tweed & Co., New York, the well-known manu- 
facturers of Palmetto Air Pump Packing and the Favorite Re- 
versible Ratchet Wrench, found their quarters at 17 Murray 
Street too small, which necessitated their removeal to new quar- 
ters at 100 Duane Street, between Broadway and Church Street. 
This changed their telephone numbers to Franklin 5045 and 5046. 

The Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co., Cleveland, O., makes an 
emphatic denial of rumors which have gained currency to the 
effect that its business is to be sold. No negotiations of this 
kind are under way or contemplated. The company has recently 
purchased an additional supply of new machinery of the most 
advanced type which will greatly increase its output of pneu- 
matic tools. 

together with the name and number of every part of the equip- 
ment required for the Pintsch system of lighting. It also gives 
illustrations of various designs of lamps used, showing the 
method of applying them. These applications have the parts 
numbered sc as to trace any detail and wind up with some good 
hints on the selection of equipment for lighting. 

• ♦ « 

Sealed proposals were received at the office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, the 22nd day of March, 1906, for 
the vacuum cleaning system complete in place, for the U. S. 
Custom House building, Baltimore, Maryland, in accordance 
with drawings and specification, copies of which were at that 
office or at the office of Hornblower & Marshall, Washington, 
D. C, at the discretion of James Knox Taylor, the Supervising 
Architect. The vacuum system of renovating has become recog- 
nized as the most thorough method of getting rid of dust and 
disease germs yet perfected, and it is a matter for congratulation 
that the Government has awakened to this fact. 

The Quincy, Manchester, Sargent Company has been incor- 
porated and will take over the business, heretofore operated by 
the Railway Appliances Co. This includes the business and 
plant of the Railway Appliances Co. at Chicago Heights, 111., 
formerly owned by the Q. andC. Co., also the business and plant 
of the Pedrick & Ayer Co., of Plainfield, N. J., manufacturers 
of locomotive repair tools, electric and pneumatic hoists and 
cranes and pneumatic riveters. The Quincy, Manchester, Sargent 
Company will also act as sole selling agent for the product of the 
Elastic Nut & Bolt Company of Milwaukee, Wis. 

■ » »- 

H. B. Underwood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., are sending out 
a book entitled Link Motion by Colvin. This treats with 
all the different link motions, valves and valve setting. The sub- 
jects taken up are as follows: Locomotive Link Motion; Valve 
Movements; Setting Slide Valve; Analysis by Diagrams; Modern 
Practice; Slip of Block; Slide Valves; Piston Valves; 
Setting Piston Valves, and Other Valve Gears. Portable 
tools for locomotive repairs are used a great deal in 
repairing parts of the valve gears. For this reason the author 
illustrated a portable boring bar, a special boring bar for com- 
pound engines, a valve seat planer, portable miling machine, 
crank pin turner, locomotive cylinder, a down facing machine, 
radius planer attachment and a two cylinder steam air motor, 
choosing the styles manufactured by Underwood as the most 
representative ones built. These books will be cheerfully fur- 
nished by writing for them. 

Pintsch Light and Incandescent Mantle Lamps for Pintsch 
gas are the titles of two new catalogues just issued by the Safety 
Car Heating and Lighting Company. These have an illustration 

C. & H. Barnett Co., "Black Diamond File Works," Philadel- 
phia, Pa., because of the unprecedented demand at home and 
abroad for their product, the Black Diamond Files and Rasps, 
have found it impossible to keep pace with trade requirements 
without very largely increasing their already extensive plant. 
Some months ago the management purchased considerable ad- 
ditional real estate adjoining their works, enabling them to erect 
a number of buildings in which to accommodate more machinery, 
and to build large additions to present buildings, to give them 
the desired increased capacity. These improvements and en- 
largements have been going on throughout the past year and have 
now been completed, resulting in a vastly larger daily produc- 
tion, which it is hoped will enable them to more promptly fill 
all orders that may be placed with them. The wisdom of this 
move has been fully vindicated, from the fact that even with 
the aid of their increased capacity, they are at the present time 
finding it extremely difficult to keep up with the demands of the 
trade for Black Diamond files, and we are informed that they are 
now several weeks behind on their orders. Present indications 
seem to insure that the enlarged capacity of their factory will be 
strained to its utmost to take satisfactory care of the spring trade. 



April, 1906 

Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interests of 

J. H. PITARD Master Car and 

M. C. Painter, M. (St. O. R. R. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 

List of Subjects and Queries to be Presented at 

the Next Annual Convention of the Master 

Car and Locomotive Painters' Jlssocia* 

tion, to be Held at Toronto, Ont, Sept. 

IUI4, 1906— Report of Test Committee 

W. O. Quest, Chairman, P. & L. E. R. R„ McKees Rocks, Pa. 

George Warlick, Chicago & Rock Island Ry., Chicago, 111. 

Chris. Clark, N. Y. C. & St. Louis Ry., Chicago, 111. 

G. J. Ginther, Wabash R. R., Moberly, Mo. 

J. T. McCracken, Interborough R. T., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Subject No. 1 — The Luster and Life of Varnish. 

(A) To what extent is it affected by the different colors, 
pigments and metals? (B) Why do varnishes lose their brilliant 
gloss and crack? (C) Can remedies be applied to overcome this 

Chas. E. Copp, Boston & Maine R. R., Lawrence, Mass. 

J. H. Pitard, Mobile & Ohio R. R., Whistler, Ala. 

John -Hartley, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R., Topeka, 

Subject No. 2 — Canvas Roofs for Passenger Equipment. 

(A) Is it a benefit to use felt paper under the canvas? (B) 
How should a new canvas roof be painted? 

F. A. Weis, Central Ry. of N. J., Elizabeth, N. J. 

J. A. P. Glass, Yazoo & Mississippi Valley R. R., Vicksburg, 

D. L. Paulus, Barney, Smith Car Co., Dayton, O. 

Essay — The well equipped sand blast as a factor in the labor 
saving economy of the railway car and locomotive paint shop — 
J. H. Whittington, Chicago & Alton R. R., Bloomington, Ills. 
Subject No. 3 — The Painting of Freight Equipment. 

(A) What are the best methods and most suitable colors for 
painting and stenciling the different classes of freight cars? (B) 
What parts should be painted for their proper protection and 

J. D. Wright, Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Baltimore, Md. 

John Gearhart, Pennsylvania R. R., Altoona, Pa. 

T. J. Hutchinson, Grand Trunk Ry., London, Ont. 

David Murray, Pennsylvania R. R., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Subject No. 4 — Is It to the Advantage of Railroad Corpora- 
tions to Manufacture the Paints and Varnishes 
Which They Consume? 

Joseph Maycock, Pratt & Lambert, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Chas. F. Copp, Hildreth Var. Co, New York, N. Y. 

A. T. Schroeder, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry, W. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

John T. McCracken, Interborough Rapid Transit Co, New 
York, N. Y. 

Subject No. 5 — The Apprenticeship System in the Railway 

Paint Shop — Is It Receiving the Attention Which 

It Merits? 

B. E. Miller, Del. Lack. & Western R. R, Scranton, Pa. 

C. E. Cross, New York Central Lines, Elkhart, Ind. 
Fred A. Ball, Pennsylvania R. R, Altoona, Pa. 

Subject No. 6 — Brushes; Their Selection, Care and Keeping. 

E. R. Clare, Southern Ry, Birmingham, Ala. 
Thomas Cowan, Canadian Pacific Ry, Montreal, Que. 
A. L. Holtzman, Rubberset Brush Co, Newark, N. J. 
George Dunbaugh, L. S. & M. S. Ry, Collinwood, O. 

Special — Reminiscences of the Master Car and Locomo- 
tive Painters' Conventions. 
By an Ex-Member of the Association. 


Query No. 1 — Is it advisable to cut in, rather than to touch 
up passenger equipment. 

A. L. Allen, N. Y. C. & H. R. R, Albany, N. Y. 

Query No. 2— Is it advisable to have stationary scaffolds in a 
locomotive paint shop? 

D. A. Little, Pennsylvania R. R, Altoona, Pa. 

Query No. 3 — Is it advisable to cut or thin shellac with wood 
alcohol ? 

W. O. Quest, P. & L. E. R. R, McKees Rocks, Pa. 

Query No. 4 — Does not the superior appearance and extra 
strength of polished plate glass more than counterbalanca any 
extra cost over double thick window or crystal sheet? 

R. J. Kelly, Long Island R. R, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The majority of the Committees who have been assigned, to 
present papers on the above subjects, having expressed their 
willingness to accept, it was thought best to publish the names of 
all assignments, thereby making a more finished' report, trusting 
that the few to hear from would experience a feeling of con- 
scientious duty and patriotism towards the association which 
should prevail in every member, who desire its growth, not only 
in numbers, but in educational work, to make their prompt and 
favorable acceptances. 

B. E. Miller, Chairman 
A. P. Dane, Secretary. 

» ■♦■ » 

Meeting of the Advisory Committee of the 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 


The Advisory Committee held their meeting on Thursday, 
February 22nd, at the New Hotel Astor, New York City, as was 
duly announced by the circulars issued in January last by the 
Chairman of the Committee. 

There was a goodly number who responded to the very cor- 
dial invitation expressed in the circular to meet with the Com- 

It was an enthusiastic and especially interesting meeting and 
reminded one very forcibly of a regular session of a Conven- 
tion, creating as it did, discussions and suggestions which were 
both instructive and interesting, resulting in the presentation to 
the Association a list of subjects and queries for the next An- 
nual Convention, unsurpassed by any former meeting. 

The meeting was called to order promptly at 9-:30 A. M. by 
Chairman B. E. Miller, who in his opening remarks expressed 
his appreciation and pleasure in meeting so many in response to 
his request and said before entering upon the business of the 
meeting, that he wanted it distinctly understood that every mem- 
ber present was at liberty to suggest and discuss, in fact, to be- 
come, for the time being, a member of this committee, for it was 
for the best interests of our Association that we are here con- 
gregated, and as members we should all strive to attain the very 
best results. 

"On these lines," he continued, "we are bound to succeed, 
and on this line he also hoped that members would not shirk 
their duty when subjects were assigned them for papers — but ac- 
cept, deeming it an honor that they have been selected. 

The business having been completed, at 12 145 the meeting 
adjourned, and the delegation proceeded to the dining room by 
the very kind invitation of the vistors present, where luncheon 
was served. 

Many of the members visited the Hippodrome in the after- 

April, 1906 



noon by invitation of Mr. W. A. Polk, of the Patterson & Sar- 
gent Company, to witness the Society Circus, which was very 
much enjoyed. 

In- the evening a party was chaperoned by our "genial Gohen," 
of the Cleanola Company, to the Bijou Theatre to wit- 
ness David Warfield in the "Music Master," and by midnight the 
majority were in the sleepers headed for home, having enjoyed 
every minute of the business, the social and the meeting once 
more of close friends. 

Committee Present. 

B. E. Miller, D. L. & W. R. R., Chairman. 
J. D. Wright, B. & O. R. R. 

D. L. Paulus, Barney, Smith Company 
J. H. Whittington, Chicago & Alton Ry. 

A. J. Bruning, L. & N. Ry. 

List of Members Present. 
President H. M. Butts, N. Y. C. & C. H. R. R. 
First Vice-President John H. Kahler, Erie Ry. 
Second Vice-President John W. Houser, Cumberland Val- 
ley R. R. 

Secretary and Treasurer A. P. Dane, Boston & Maine R. R. 

Ex-President J. F. Lanferseik, P. C. C. & St. L. R. R. 

Ex-President W. O. Quest, Pittsburg & Lake Erie R. R. 

Ex-President C. E. Copp, Boston & Maine R. R. 

Ex-President D. A. Little, Penn. R. R. 

Ex-President Jas. A. Gohen, Cleanola Company. 

H. W. Forbes, Erie Ry. 

G. W. Gehman, N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R. 

M. J. Haynes, Cambria Steel Car Co. 

John Gearhart, Penn. Ry. 

F. A. Weis, Central Ry. of N. J. 

C. E. Mance, N. Y. O. & W. Ry. 
Jacob Hoesly, Penn. Ry. 

W. A. Kelly, New York, N. Y. 
The following visitors were present : 

H. W. Bennett, M. M. Juniata Shops, Penn. R. R., Altooaa, 

Wm. Marshall, Anglo American Var. Co. 
Harry Kuhns, Flood & Conklen Varnish Co. 

D. J. Gilleland, Gilleland, Flood & Conklen Varish Co. 
W. A. Polk, Patterson & Sargent Co. 

J. B. Dennis, Patterson & Sargent Co. 

R. D. Brydon, Wadsworth & Howland Co., Chicago, 111. 

Jas. A. Gohen, Cleanola Co. 

Geo. F. Kissam, Murphy Var. Co. 

Thos. Murray, Protectus Co. 

Joseph Maycock, Pratt & Lambert. 

C. F. Copp, Hildreth Var. Co. 

. ■» » 

Terminal Cleaning 

The above subject was discussed at the December meeting 
of the New England Railroad Club, and as the subject is one of 
general interest to all our readers, it is our purpose here to 
review it, making such comments as the different points seem 
to suggest. 

In the course of the remarks of Mr. E. F. Bigelow, who opened 
the subject he said, "I believe in using an oil cleaner, which should 
contain a detergent of sufficient strength to remove the accumu- 
lation of grease and dirt without injury to the varnish, and to 
do the work easily and as speedily as possible with the least ex- 
penditure of time and labor. It is essential that there should 
be in the composition an oil which would revive and impart a 
fresh, lively appearance to the varnish." The word "detergent" 
is a very important one in this connection, and generally consti- 
tutes the most important part of any of the emulsion cleaners. 
It may imply a detergent in the- form of a caustic, or in the form 
of an abrasive powder, either of which should be handled with 
caution. If it contains the former, then greatest care should 
be taken to apply and remove it from the surface as speedily as 

possible before it has time to attack the varnish, furthermore, it 
should be tested in order to determine just how long it can 
safely be permitted to remain on the surface. Such compositions 
in the hands of inexperienced men will ultimately work greater 
injury to varnish than a composition the detergent agent of 
which is an abrasial powder. An abrasial powder in an emulsion 
cleaner, while it removes the dirt, also deadens the luster of the 
varnish and should be used only as a last resort. Such cleaners 
should be furnished in separate parts, that is the oil separate 
from the abrasive powder, and to be mixed by the consumer as 
his judgment might dictate, as there are many instances where 
the oil would suffice without the abrasive powder. 

The speaker also advocates wiping the surface thoroughly 
dry and of having the work conducted by a practical painter. 

This is very essential in both particulars, but with the inferior 
quantity of waste furnished in some instances it is impossible 
to remove the grease from the surface, simply because the waste 
is coarse and has no absorbent qualities. 

A practical painter only can detect in its incipiency, injury 
to varnish resulting from improper methods of cleaning, or from 
injurious compositions. It is not advisable to adopt a uniform 
method of cleaning for all cars regardless of condition; in such 
instances the experience of a practical painter only can suggest 
the proper course to pursue. 

He further says, "I do not advocate cleaning any car with an 
oil cleaner that has the varnish cracked to any great extent, for 
cleaning a cracked surface with an oil cleaner is only to fill the 
cracks with a mixture of car cleaner and dirt, and which will 
fry out when the sun warms it up, and which causes no end of 
trouble when the car is being repainted or revarnished over it. 
With this class of cars a dusting or rinsing with water seems 
to be the best kind of cleaning." 

The best disposition of cars of this character would seem 
to be to shop them for burning off and repainting, but if such 
cars are cleaned with an oil cleaner all the cleaner that collects in 
the cracks can be removed with a piece of soft waste wet with 

Mr. Bigelow also advocates cleaning the platforms with the 
cleaner, but not the trucks. 

We would suggest that the face of the truck be wiped with 
the greasy waste used on the body of the car without additional 

Of the interior he says, "This part of a car may be kept clean 
for a while by wiping the varnished work with a damp cloth 
which will gather up the dust without scattering it. This, how- 
ever, should not be done until the car has been dusted and floor 
swept. He further advocates weak soap and water as the car 
gets dirtier, but does not recommend oil cleaners for the interior. 
This is a common sense method of treating the interior, as the 
use of an oil cleaner on the interior is not advisable until the 
varnish has become so dull as to require something to revive it. 
As a general thing some oil cleaners impart an unpleasant 
odor to the interior for several days, or until the car has been 
well aired, to say nothing of the dust that sticks to it. Next if 
not first in importance to having a clean car is the prevention 
of foul odors in passenger cars. This is rather a vexing problem 
in connection with terminal cleaning, and although various dis- 
infectants are used for this purpose, they all leave behind, more 
or less, an unpleasant odor, which is more apparent in cars 
having plush upholstering than in those finished in leather or 
material of that class. 

Mr. Bigelow advocates cleaning Gothic lights, cathedral, 
opalescent, and all kinds of glass with muriatic acid. This will 
readily remove dirt from glass, but will also injure the varnish 
wherever it comes in contact with it, therefore it could hardly be 
recommended as a practical method of glass cleaning. It is not 
impracticable to clean opalescent or Gothic glass with the same 
oil cleaner that is used on the exterior of the car, and for the 
plain glass ordinary gilders' whiting and water make a very 
good cleaner. In the discussion which followed the reading of 



April, 1906 

Mr. Bigelow's paper Mr. C. E. Copp deprecated the use of any 
kind of cleaner that contains alkali, etc., and stated that he had 
never seen but two that met his approval, his principal objection 
to most of them was their excessive strength, which placed them 
more nearly in the class of varnish removers than cleaning 

Mr. Copp also deprecated the use of cleaners that are 
soluble in water for the reason that when such cleaners are left 
in cracks and corners when exposed to the rain it is readily 
dissolved and thus becomes an injury to the varnish. 

These views concerning the fitness of emulsion cleaners as 
expressed by Mr. Copp, while they are well taken, also emphasize 
the importance and necessity of a competent Test Committee 
(we mean no reflection on our present Test Committee) 
at all times to whom all such material should be referred for 
a chemical test. 

Mr. Copp is of the opinion that the proper constituents of a 
car cleaner are a neutral oil and an abrasive powder, and also is 
of the opinion that an abrasive powder is not injurious to varnish. 
On the contrary he is of the opinion that if cars were rubbed 
with pumice stone and oil before leaving the shop, the varnish 
would last longer. 

There is no doubt but what a smooth surface lasts longer than 
a rough one, for the reason that it offers less resistance to flying 
dust, rain, terminal cleaning, &c, neither can dirt adhere to it 
as easily as to a rough surface, but if a surface is merely rubbed 
with pumice stone and oil and is not afterward polished it would 
be so rough that it would present rather an inviting field for dirt 
and grime. 

Mr. Copp concluded his remarks by advocating a modification 
in the matter of exterior ornamentation, and a plea for cleaner 
cars and smoother surfaces, all of which is in keeping with the 
spirit of the present age, and in which we heartily concur. 

Mr. S. H. Selloy of the New York Central lines stated that 
the appearance of their cars governed their cleaning operations 
according to the judgment of their inspector, and is of the opinion 
that by the use of oil cleaners cars are continued in service longer 
than formerly. He is also of the opinion that a car after being 
cleaned with an oil cleaner should be wiped with dry waste after 
three successive trips before being cleaned with water. 

Just here the question presents itself, should water be used 
at all in connection with an oil cleaner? Is it not the object 
of sudi cleaners to displace water cleaning methods? If so, 
then the object of such cleaners is partly defeated by the use of 
water. Furthermore, after such cleaners are used on a car, 
the greasy film left by them on the surface rather counteracts 
the cleansing properties of clear water afterwards. If an oil 
cleaner is used containing a non-drying oil, then in such cases 
all that is necessary is to wipe the surface with dry waste as long 
as it is possible to obtain a presentable appearance, but when this 
is no longer possible then a resort to the cleaner again is advis- 
able. Mr. Selloy also cleans the interior of his cars with soap 
and water with good results. 

In many instances a weak soap solution for cleaning the 
interior is preferable to an oil cleaner, and if properly handled 
excellent results can be obtained. It is advisable to supplement 
this method of interior cleaning by giving the surface a brisk 
rubbing with soft dry cotton waste in order to restore the luster 
of the varnish. This should not be done, however, until the sur- 
face has been carefully dried with a chamois and allowed a few 
minutes to dry out. But the main objection, or rather hindrance, 
to the use of soap and water in terminal cleaning is the danger 
of soiling the upholstery, which it is not always advisable to re- 
move from the car. This, however, can be obviated by erecting 
a staging in the aisle of the car of the same height as the seat 
backs, and then over-spreading the whole with a piece of can- 
vas of the exact width and length of the car. 

Mr. Orchard was of the opinion that a third more service can 
be obtained from cars if regularly cleaned and regularly shopped 
for varnish when circumstances warrant. He advocates shop- 
ping cars for cleaning and also for painting according to the 

condition of the car rather than by an established limited schedule 
as the custom with many roads. 

This commends itself as being the wiser plan, as it is a well- 
known fact that some cars wear better than others, although 
painted under the same conditions; therefore it would not be 
wise to subject such cars to a uniform system of either cleaning 
or repairing that is based on a time limit regardless of condition. 

Mr. T. D. Simpson, Master Car Builder of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Road, favored the use of oil cleaners by 
beginning with a very light rubbing on a new car in order to 
retain the lustre as long as possible, and to begin such cleaning 
before the car became sufficiently dirty as to require a severe 

Mr. Copp advocated the cessation of the use of oil cleaners on 
the exterior of cars three months prior to shopping for paint 
or varnish, in order to allow for thorough evaporation of grease 
in order to obviate the alligatoring effect usually experienced 
when the surface is surcharged with the cleaner. This we might 
term "forming a partnership with the elements," and is doubtless 
a wise proceeding and costs nothing. 

The method of cleaning copper sheathed cars also came up 
for discussion, and Mr. Copp, in giving his experience 
with such cars, stated that owing to the fact that such cars are 
oxidized, it is not practicable to clean them with a cleaner con- 
taining an abrasive powder, for the reason that it would, in 
a measure restore the original copper color. Therefore the only 
practicable method of cleaning them was to use a renovating oil. 

Mr. Simpson said, in substance, of these cars, that as their 
color proved objectionable they were oxidized and later painted 
in order to insure uniformity of color. 

Such cars when shopped are scrubbed and given only one 
coat of enamel on the sides and two coats on the ends. Cars thus 
treated are afterward washed at terminals with clean water only. 

It might be inferred from the foregoing that the copper 
sheathed car does not fulfil the expectations of its projectors 
in all respects, although it is doubtless cheaper to maintain. 

Mr. Schneider spoke of the necessity of obtaining the oil and 
abrasial powder separately and mixing them as required, owing 
to their tendency to settle in the original package. He also 
advocated the formation of an evening class or school to study 
the car cleaning question and the nature of car cleaners. From 
the discussion of cleaning compounds and the method of applying 
them, the discussion turned upon piece work in connection with 
car cleaning and it was generally conceded to be satisfactory. 

It may be deduced from the foregoing discussions that oil 
cleaners are not only practicable, but that they also add materially 
to the life of varnish, and the discussions have also brought out 
the fact that a weak solution of soap is preferable to an oil 
cleaner for the interior. 

This view, however, is subject to modification, or should be, 
for the reason that some interiors after being scrubbed present 
a rather dull appearance, and it is necessary to use some kind 
of renovator to revive them, in the use of which, however, 
they should not be applied in corners and carvings or such parts 
from which it is difficult to remove them, otherwise there would 
soon be a fine crop of dirty corners of mushroom growth. 

♦ ■ 

The Advisory Committee Meeting 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop : — 

You missed the opportunity of a lifetime by not attending the 
recent meeting of the Advisory Committee in New York. New 
York is the place to hold anything anyway. "The Hippodrome" 
holds the population of a good-sized city. It seats 10,000 and 
there were hundreds who could not be seated on Washington's 
Birthday when many of our number were in attendance. Those 
last two spectacular scenes, resplendant in all the colors of the 
rainbow, and more too, made the last few hairs of bald heads 
stand on end. That stage is large enough for a fair-sized car 
paint-shop floor; and when it was turned into a lagoon with 
fountains playing, a half dozen cars and engines could have been 
washed at once in it fit to varnish. 

April, 1906 



Our meeting was held in the New Astor way down, down, 
two stories below the street floor. We never went so deep in 
our business before. New York is not content with shoving 
you away to the skies, but it goes burrowing like rabbits into the 
earth and runs express trains faster there than some steam roads 
do on the surface. We went to call on a friend, and as the 
express elevator shot up, we called out "14," the floor we wished 
to stop at, but a gentleman, with higher aspirations just behind 
us, shouted "24," It about made me faint. Pretty soon, how- 
ever, they'll be shouting "35," "40. : ' Might as well keep right 
on and go to glory and escape death and taxes if they can. 

On account of not giving sufficient notice to have a meeting 
place above we met in the "wine vault," as before said, two 
stories below par. "Appropriate place," do you say? There was 
nothing "on tap" save M. C. & L. P. A. wit and wisdom. 
There was lots of that. There was a large attendance. The 
full committee was there save Bruning, and "A. J." certainly 
missed a lot. Let's see if we can name many from memory who 
were there: Pres. Butts, 1st Vice Pres. Kahler, 2d Vice Pres. 
Houser, Sec'y Dane, Messrs. Miller, Wright, Paulus and 
Whittington of the committee, and the invited members alpha- 
betically who were present were Copp, Forbes, Fornwalt, Geh- 
man, Gearhart, Hoesby, Haynes, Little, Lanferseik, Locke; Mc- 
Cracken (John), Mance, Quest, Rodabaugh, Weis, and possibly 
others. Then these supply men we noticed : Gilleland, Kuhn, 
Marshall, Murray, Gohen, Estey, Copp, Jr., Waycock, Elmquist, 
Kissam, Polk, Dennison, and others we can't recall or never 
met, so that, the meeting over, 40 of us sat down to a spread at 
one improvised table in the cafe, with a round table alongside 
with four ladies of our party (to tone us up) — Mrs. Paulus, 
Mrs. Miller, Mrs. Murray and one other whose name has left 
us. Our table was in the form of the letter "L," probably in 
respect to the ladies, and contained many of the good things 
of this life. Mr. W. H. Bennett, "Dave" Little's "boss," in other 
words, master mechanic of the P. R. R's Juniata shop, honored 
us with his presence ; also a gentleman from the Johns-Manville 
Co. whose name but not his fine presence has faded from our 

Surely our Advisory Committee meetings are getting to be 
miniature mid-winter conventions, and not so small either as 
the conventions once were themselves. This is right, for "in 
the multitude of counselors there is wisdom." Elsewhere will 
be found the result of our deliberations, which occupied a ses- 
sion of some three hours' duration, and a good program, we be- 
lieve, is made for this year's convention at Toronto. 

Chas E. Copp. 

» ♦ « 

Dear Mr. Editor: — 

After glancing through the last issue of The Railway Master 
Mechanic I came suddenly and quite unexpectedly on a very 
doubtful invitation to the ladies to contribute an occcasional item 
of interest. You will please note the word "occasional ;" al- 
though it is not used in the article the insinuation that we might 
contribute when our liege lords remained silent and the reference 
to that shameful tradition (the loquaciousness of the gentler 
sex), for it is nothing but a tradition originating in the dark ages 
and false to the present generation, makes it very evident that 
it is not desired that our wvoice be heard too often. After that 
we might be justified in rising in the strength of our offended 
dignity and to quote Mark Twain again, "Deny the allegation 
and scorn the alligator," but show that we possess one other 
virtue besides gentleness, that of magnanimity, I would like to 
thank the editor and express my pleasure in taking advantage of 
the invitation. 

Last summer was my first experience at a convention of 
master painters and I can say I heartily enjoyed every one of the 
four days. At first I felt like a stranger in a strange land, but the 
unassumed cordiality of the ladies and the courtesy of the gentle- 
men soon cleared my mind as to any doubts of my welcome. 
I was a little surprised to find that after being given such a hearty 
welcome the doors were closed to the ladies during the morning 
business sessions, if not literally closed they were not supposed 

to attend, which is practically the same thing. As we and our 
liege lords were once made partners "for better or for worse," 
which means, I take it, for work and for play, I thought we might 
have been admitted to that "sanctum sanctorum," provided, of 
course, that we would talk. I know not one of the members 
will believe that we would understand the proceedings, but when 
the official report appeared I read every word, so there ! 

We may not possess such an extensive knowledge of paints, 
as was hinted in the article, yet some of us can display quite 
creditable work in china painting and have even dabbled in water 
colors, but all of us possess an unrivaled appreciation of beautiful 
effects and of harmonious combinations of tints and shades. 

I have noticed while riding in some of the best coaches that 
due appreciation of the value of colors seems to be entirely lacking 
in the one who superintended the furnishing* of the interior. 
It is of this I would like to speak. 

Take a car beautifully furnished in mahogany, the ceiling 
paneled in a delicate green and gold ; thanks to the painter. 
The uphcisterer brings in the seats finished in a bright scarlet 
plush, the effect of which is instantly to detract from the ma- 
hogany and depreciates the whole artistic value of the car. 
Had it been that dark olive green, which is too seldom used, 
the result would have been magical. 

A color scheme harmoniously carried out would remedy this 
glaring fault. Taking the woodwork, which I noticed is mostly 
mahogany, walnut or oak as the basis, combining with it such 
colors as are either analogous or complimentary and following 
out this color scheme in the entire decoration the result would 
be an artistic creation. 

In many instances little regard is paid to the selection of the 
carpet or aisle strip, which too often proves to be another stum- 
bling block in the way of the furnisher. I have seen abomin- 
able designs and colors put into an otherwise artistic car, which 
led me to the conclusion that this had been a grand opportunity 
for the dealer to make a sale of otherwise unsalable stock. 
In other cases the purchaser had little or no knowledge of the 
color required, for what undoubtedly was beautiful in the store 
proved entirely unfit for the car for which it was chosen. 

There is also much lack of wisdom shown in the sharp dis- 
tinction between the finish of day coaches and parlor and sleep- 
ing cars ; the latter giving evidence of being designed for the 
"chosen few," the former for the "common herd." Beauty 
wherever found is elevating. It is this influence that we desire 
to bring to bear on the traveling public more than any other. 

I am considering this both from an economical and artistic 
standpoint, for from the stock displayed today in our furnishing 
establishments it costs no more to make artistic selections than 
inharmonious ones. 

Hoping I have not proved by this lengthy discourse what I 
have previously tried to disprove (i.e., the loquaciousness of the 
sex) and that you will have less trouble hereafter, dear editor, in 
arousing the "silent sufferers to take courage and speak out 
'in meetin',' " I remain sincerely, 

"A Master Painter's Wife." 

« ■» * 

Jin Ideal Stock Room 

We have recently received quite an acquisition to our paint 
department by the addition of an up-to-date stock room, sash 
room and office combined. The stock room is 25x35 feet, and 
although small, is so compactly arranged that ample space is 
afforded for handling all material used on passenger equipment. 
Its compactness greatly facilitates the work of dispensing, as 
it obviates all unnecessary walking to and fro on the part of the 
attendant, that would be necessary in a larger room. 

It is separated from the office and sash room by a partition, 
in which is a small circular top window at convenient height for 
dispensing material to the sash room. 

The windows, which are 3% feet square, are located along the 
upper part of the walls near the ceiling, thus leaving an un- 
broken wall space on either side to be utilized for shelving, etc. 
The sash are pivoted and thus serve as ventilators also. One 



April, 1906 

side of the room is fitted up with receding shelving, beneath 
which are bins (with slanting drop covers for dry colors, etc.), 
on the opposite side are the storage tanks, nine in number, and 
each holding about three barrels of liquid. The tanks are 
mounted upon an enclosed platform twenty inches high and three 
feet wide. The space occupied by this platform is utilized by 
dividing it into drawers 14 in. x 27 in. x 3 ft., in some of which 
are kept dry colors, and in others are kept paint and varnish 
brushes. The manner of suspending the brushes is by fixing brass 
wire around the sides of the drawer in zig-zag shape, thus form- 
ing a friction clutch for the brush handle. 

By this means of suspending a brush it can be raised or 
lowered to any desired height as the depth of the liquid may 
require, and it is much more easily removed or replaced than 
where they ar% strung on wire. The most distinguishing feat- 
ure of the appointments of the room is the device for filling 
the storage tanks. This consists of a pipe fixed to the wall 
above the tanks, by means of iron brackets extending the entire 
distance occupied by the row of cans. To this main pipe is at- 
tached branch pipes (one for each can) extending at right an- 
gles to the main pipe, and curved downward to within a few 
inches of the opening in the top of tank. At the point where 
the branch pipes connect with the main pipe is a three-way valve, 
by which means all other tanks are shut off from the one that 
is to be filled. 

Both ends of the main pipe extend out through the wall in 
order that the barrels need not be brought into the room, but are 
connected with the main pipe at one end on the outside of the 
building. At the opposite end all liquid remaining in the pipe 
is blown out, thus leaving the pipe clean after using. This is a 
very ingenious and convenient device which we credit to the in- 
genuity of our master mechanic, Mr. J. F. Enright. Connection 
with the barrel is made with the usual syphon plug or com- 
pressed air attachment. 

In the middle of the room is a stationary mixing table covered 
with zinc, with shelving beneath as a receptacle for paint buckets 
that are in daily use. At one end of the table is fixed a paint 
press, and at the opposite end is an oblong copper tank, 14 in. by 
30 in. by 15 in. deep, with a crosswise partition in the center, 
thus forming two compartments, one for washing varnish brushes 
and the other for paint brushes, and both protected with hinged 
metal covers. An opening the size of the tank is cut through the 
top of the table, into which the tank is placed, so that the top of 
the tank is on a level with the top of the table. To the bottom 
of each tank is attached a half-inch pipe, with a faucet for 
draining and cleaning out tanks. In each is placed a wire gauge 
partition (lying flat) about half way between the top and bot- 
tom to prevent the sediment from being stirred up every time a 
brush is washed. 

Across the end of the room farthest from the entrance are ar- 
ranged the glass racks, above which is a zinc lined shelf three 

feet wide, 'which is utilized in various ways. At the entrance to 
the room is a counter, underneath which are pigeon holes 
which contain the scrubbing kits. The room is painted enamel 
white; the tanks, bins, etc., are painted wine color and lettered in 
gold. The steam pipes with which the room is heated are placed 
along the wall, immediately behind the storage tanks, thus af- 
fording the proper warmth for the liquids at all times. 

. ♦ » 

Wotes From The Field 

The Best Way to Prevent Rust is the title of a neat and 

instructive little booklet issued by the Detroit Graphite Mfg. 

Co., Detroit, Mich. The booklet, Rust, How to Prevent it, issued 

by the same company last fall, told briefly how rust is formed, 

how rust produces rust, and how corrosion may originate if 

the wrong kind of paint is used. The present book contains 

some additional facts on the same subject together with a 

number of illustrations of iron and steel in bridges and buildings 

protected with Superior Graphite Paint. 

. ♦ . 

Our desire to publish a facsimile copy of all passenger car 
letters as expressed in the last issue of the organ has been 
favorably received by our readers, some of whom inform us 
of their desire to receive the list as early as possible. It is our 
intention to publish this as soon as the list is complete, but there 
are yet some of our members who have not responded to our re- 
quest for a copy of their initial letters. We hope to receive them 
in due course. 

Some of those received are full size ; this is not necessary, 
moreover, costs considerable postage. All that is necessary is a 
three-inch black letter on very thin white paper. We trust that 
this reminder will meet the approval of our readers and have 
the desired effect of bringing in the delinquent copies. 

The Tilghman-Brooksbank Sand Blast Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., have issued a very neat loose-leaf catalogue of their sand 
blast machinery. It has been a quarter of a century since their 
first machines were placed on the market, and during that time 
they have made many improvements on the machines then in use, 
and have invented several entirely new types. Their constant aim 
has been to design and construct machines which would enlarge 
the field available for the use of the sand blast process. With 
this in view, they have succeeded in adapting their machinery 
to the requirement of products differing very widely in form 
and character. The catalogue illustrates this general sand blast 
apparatus, sand blast tumbling barrel, and a sand blast helmet 
which is worn by the operator. 

We publish in this issue a letter from one of the lady friends 
of our association who signs her name 'A Master Painter's 
Wife." While for obvious reasons our columns are not un- 
reservedly open to our esteemed lady friends of the association, 
yet in this instance we make an exception for the reason that 
in an article in the previous issue we make a facetious allusion 
to the gentler sex to which our correspondent essays a reply in 
which she takes a shy at the entire association, the editor not 

Her remarks also disclose a rare acquaintance with the 
subject of color harmony and contain some very good sugges- 
tions which will in a measure enable us to see ourselves as others 
see us. Criticism is sometimes a good thing, it points out our 
shortcomings and prevents us from getting rusty, as it were. 
The letter will doubtless prove interesting to our readers, and we 
regret that we are not at liberty to disclose the identity of the 

Query Department 


How can foul odors be prevented in passenger cars? 
Is it advisable to use disinfectants or deodorizers for this 

May, 1906 



Established 1878 


Published by the 

BRUCE V. CRANDALL, President, CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-President 

O. W. BODLER, Secretary 

Office of Publication Room 510 Security Building, Corner 

Madison Street and Fifth Ave., Chicago 

Telephone - - Main 318 5. 

Eastern Office: Room 401, 132 Nassau Street, New York City 

Telephone - 3524 John. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price, $1.00 a year; to foreign countries, $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 10 cents. Advertising 
rates given on application to the office, by mail or in 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Papers should reach subscribers by the first of the month 

at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or. 

failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 

gladly sent. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter. 

Vol. XXX 

Chicago, May, 1906 

No. 5 


Simple and Compound Locomotives 135 

Superheated Steam on UV Canadian Pacific 135 

Location of Drop Grate 136 

Reinforced Concrete Roundhouse for the Wabash at 

Landers 137* 

New York Central Consolidation Locomotive 139* 

Special Flat Car— 100 Tons Capacity 140* 

Fuel Tests at the University of Illinois 142 

Steel and Stockroom Equipment 142* 

Concerning Roundhouse Equipment 144 

Driving Box Squares 145* 

Car De Luxe— Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean 146* 

Canadian Pacific Superheater 147* 

Pacific Type Locomotive Southern Railway 148 

Draft Gears 149 

A.-C. — D.-C. Locomotives for the New York, New 

Haven and Hartford Railroad 150* 

Combined Steam and Trolley Service 154 

Knuckle Rack— C. P. & St. L. R. R. 155* 

List of Members National Advisory Board of Fuels 

and Structural Materials 155 

Personals T eg 

Hotel Ponce De Leon 157 

The Johnson Automatic Wrench 158 

Portable Milling Machine 158* 

The Krus Chicago Lathe Dog. . . .' 158* 

Lubrication Test at Purdue 158 

The New Westinghouse "K" Triple Valve 159* 

Uses of Steel vs. Wrought Iron 159 

Railway Association and Club Meetings for May 160 

Notes of the Month jfo 

Technical Publications ^ 162 

Railroad Paint Shop 163 

Simple and Compound Locomotives 

DATING from a period as remote. as eighteen years 
ago, the relative efficiency of simple and compound 
locomotives has been demonstrated in competitive tests 
many times, which, when honestly conducted under con- 
ditions as nearly similar as possible, are always in favor 
of the compound machine. The economy of the com- 
pound over the simple engine in steam and fuel con- 
sumption is a variable depending entirely on the skill of 
those operating the engine and its condition, but the fact 
remains that the compound principle is a fuel saver, and 
there would appear to be little necessity for further ex- 
periment in that direction, except to be in touch with the 
rate of economy under different conditions of the engine 
and service, for the results of tests under the most favor- 
able auspices are too well known to require repetition — 
the economy in such cases ranging from 12 to 18 per 
cent, for steam and 25 per cent for fuel. 

These values, however, fade rapidly when an unskilled 
or careless fireman handles the scoop, or when the run- 
ner forgets to change the engine from simple to com- 
pound. It is well known by the friends of the compound 
that inattention to either of these vitally important duties 
is reflected in the coal consumption, and there is no 
doubt that running the engine with live steam in the 
cylinders has had more to do with the poor showing of 
that type of power on some roads, than any other reason 
given for indifferent results, since the alleged excessive 
cost of maintenance as well as an inordinate fuel consump- 
tion is directly traceable to operating the engine simple 
over a division, either through negligence, or inability to 
handle the train as a compound, but more often due to the 
latter on roads where the tonnage system of hauling loads 
is in vogue. 

The compound needs no apologist when properly 
handled and maintained, as between itself and the simple 
engine, but there is a new device forcing its way to recog- 
nition, that bids fair to strip the compound of its hard- 
earned and still harder sustained laurels, namely, the 
superheater, which has been found to give an economy in 
the operation of the simple engine so great as to seriously 
endanger the standing of the compound among those 
whose attitude toward it has been lukewarm. While the 
superheater has also given a good report of itself in con- 
nection with the compound, it has not had the same atten- 
tion as on the simple machine, which is strange, since 
the economies of compounding and superheat are two- 
fold. The apathy in this regard may perhaps be due to 
cost of maintenance also. 

« ♦ 

Superheated Steam on the Canadian Pacific 

THE paper read before the New York Railway Club 
On April 20, under the above title, by Mr. H. H. 
Vaughan, assistant to the vice-president of the Canadian 
Pacific, is an admirable supplement to the able paper on 
superheat presented at last meeting of the Master Me- 
chanics' Association by the same author, who was then 
Supt. of Motive Power of that road, as it bears out by 
further test, the theories advanced at that time. In fol- 



lowing out these experiments the superheaters used were 
the Schmidt, and modified Schenectady types, all of these 
except one being of new construction. 

A strong grasp of the situation was shown in the dif- 
ferentiation of these tests from those conducted to demon- 
strate the relative economy of cylinder arrangement or 
firebox design, which concerns only the efficiency of en- 
gine or boiler. "The determination," as the author says, 
"of the water consumption per unit of work is not suffi- 
cient as it is quite possible for any advantage shown in 
this respect to be neutralized by less efficient boiler per- 
formance. Even with equal boiler efficiency, the addi- 
tional heat in the superheated steam would represent a 
reduction in the water evaporated of 1/20 of one per 
cent, for each degree of superheat, or five per cent, for 
100 degrees and ten per cent, for 200 degrees superheat. 
In other words, if an engine with 100 degrees superheat 
showed a saving in water consumption of five per cent, 
in comparison with an ordinary engine, and the boiler 
were equally efficient, there would be a saving in coal, 
and there must in addition also be some loss in boiler 
efficiency on account of the necessarily higher tempera- 
ture of at least a portion of the smokebox with any de- 
sign of superheater. This action has been discussed at 
length in the writer's previous paper, and need not be 
further referred to, but on account of it, it is necessary 
in comparing superheaters with other engines to measure 
the coal consumption per unit of work." 

On the above basis, the tests were carried out with a 
showing of fuel economy distinctly favorable to the su- 
perheater for either freight or passenger service, it hav- 
ing shown in the latter case that its relative economy does 
not decrease with high speed as is the case with com- 
pounds, neither is the repair question to be seriously con- 
sidered, and as to lubrication, it is simply a question 
of oil delivery, which is now done with the devices pro- 
vided for it. In the opinion of the author of the paper — 
and there are none better qualified to speak on this point 
— he sees no reason to recede from his former position 
that the superheater locomotive is capable of equal or 
greater economy than the compound without any of its 
disadvantages, and supplements this view by the further 
statement that the employment of higher temperatures 
with still further economy is relatively practical, and that 
on engines now under construction, the proportion of 
superheating surface will be increased to attain this re- 
sult. As to passenger service, it has special advantages 
with no drawbacks yet observable. "Whether this is due," 
the author states, "to special conditions on the Canadian 
Pacific Railway or not, superheating is certainly success- 
ful on that road, and there is so far no inclination to dis- 
continue it." 


Location of Drop Grate 

THERE is no question of greater importance in motive 
power management than that of firebox and flue 
failures, since they have always been the most expensive 
factor in locomotive maintenance, and for that reason 

have encouraged the best thought to devise means to pro- 
long their life. The causes of firebox and flue troubles 
are well understood, but the remedies are not of common 
knowledge, the proof of which is seen in the various 
methods devised to overcome the destructive effects of a 
wide temperature range. 

The Wabash road has sought relief from leaking flues 
by removing the drop grate from the flue sheet and lo- 
cating it midway between the flue sheet and the door 
sheet. To our inquiry as to the effect of such arrange- 
ment on the fire, Mr. J. B. Barnes, Superintendent of Mo- 
tive Power, replied as follows: 

"Replying to your favor of recent date, we are not 
having any trouble with humps forming in the fireboxes 
of engines which have drop grates in the middle of fire- 
boxes. Some of our engines are run 173 miles, and if 
the shaking of the fire resulted in keeping lighter fire on 
either side of dump than on the dump, it would certainly 
show up on engines on these long runs. We find it 
necessary to fire our engines around the outer edge of 
firebox with a greater amount of coal, and where the 
engine is properly drafted and in good condition, we 
do not find it necessary to shake it excessively. It is 
barely possible where a great amount of foreign sub- 
stance is in the coal, humps would form on the top of the 
dump grate, but I do not believe in this case it would be 
as detrimental as it would be if the dump grate was at the 
end of the firebox and the hump form on the top of it 
there. A fireman should be able with the hump in the 
middle, to fire over, or back of the hump until an oppor- 
tunity presented itself to open the dump sufficiently to let 
the dead ashes into the ash pan, and this can be done at 
the water stations." 

One of the most prolific causes of leaking flues is the 
common practice of locating the drop grate at the flue 
sheet. A great deal of attention has been given to this 
matter, and many schemes have been worked out and 
tried, to the end of relieving the flue sheet ; among these 
was the location of the drop grate at the rear of firebox at 
the door sheet, which was tried several years ago, and no 
doubt has been tried since. That arrangement was found 
to lessen flue leakage, but it was at the expense of the 
back sheet. Mr. Barnes believes he has solved the prob- 
lem of leaky flues by his arrangement of the drop grate, 
in its removal from either sheet. This arrangement in 
effect, is much the same as that produced by the combus- 
tion chamber, which also removes the flue sheet from the 
deadly influence of the drop grate, but has the additional 
advantage of an increased firebox heating surface. There 
are those who still believe in the combustion chamber, 
even though it has long been considered a defunct me- 
chanical proposition, evidence of which is shown in re- 
cent construction, and from which results have been ob- 
tained that would seem to warrant its use for the preven- 
iton of flue leakage if for no other reason. 

May, 1906 



ReHtiforced Concrete Roundhouse for the Wabash 

at Landers 

THE Wabash railroad has pust completed a 20 stall 
roundhouse, drawings of which are shown here- 
with. The side and rear walls and pit walls of the build- 
ing are of reinforced concrete and the partition walls of 
plain concrete, the roof being covered with the Eastern 
Roofing Company's gravel roof. All walls, both building 
and pit, rest on piles 18 feet long except the piles in the 
rear building wall on the pit center lines the piles in the 
feet long. The roof supporting columns each rest on a 
20 foot pile. The wall footings are 18 inches deep and 3 
feet wide. For 4 feet 6 inches above or up to the rail 
level the thickness is 18 inches reducing to 12 inches for 
the remainder of the height except the cornice, where 
there is an increase to 15 inches. 

The drawings show the arrangement of reinforcing 
steel rods which are either the corrugated or the Ranson 
Twist rod. In the footings there are 3 parallel rods, 9 
inches on centers laid directly on top of the piles. Short 
bars 2 feet 6 inches long are laid transversely to these, 

the space varying from 18 inches to 24 inches. In the 
wall all horizontal rods are spaced 18 inches on centers 
and the vertical rods vary the same as the transverse foun- 
dation rods. 

The piles supporting the pit walls are staggered and are 

4 feet, sH inches on centers. The footing and wall di- 
mensions are the same as for the corresponding courses 
in the building walls. The pit floor is paving brick laid 
on edge on a sand bed and grouted. The rails rest on 
cast iron plates bedded in the top of the wall and spaced 

5 feet on centers. 

By referring to the drawing of the door fastener you 
will see that it consists of an 8 foot length of 63 pound 
rail bedded in concrete block 18 inches square and 6 feet 
high. The top of the block is flush with the ground, the 
rail projecting 3 feet 6 inches above. The door is fas- 
tened to the ladder by hooks. 

One section of the house is at present used for a power 
house, it having three boilers, one engine and two air 

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May, 1906 


T 39 



compressors as well as the necessary pumps for washing 
boilers. The water is supplied from a well back of the 
main building, compressed air being used to elevate it to 
the surface. 

The heating is by direct steam radiation, pipes being 
placed in the pits on the sides. The original intention 
was to have the top of the pipes covered with projections 
on the pit but this was later abandoned and pipes placed 
far enough out so as to have nothing above them. 

The lighting of the house is by means of gasoline lamps 
which are hung between the pits. The smoking gases are 
carried out by means of the Dickinson adjustable smoke 
jack, while the highest points of the roof are provided 
with a ventilator to let out any steam that may escape the 
jacks. The concrete work was done by W. P. Carmichael 
of Williamsport, Indiana, the whole work being directly in 
charge of Mr. A. C. Butterworth, Division Engineer of 
the Wabash. 

The location of the building is very convenient to the 
main switching yard, which is directly west of the round 
house. This yard handles all the freight from Chicago 
with the exception of perishable goods. It is also con- 
veniently located to the car repair yard which is north of 
the freight yard. 

We are indebted to Mr. A. O. Cunningham, Chief En- 
gineer, for the drawings, etc. 

» ♦ 

New York Central Consolidation Locomotive 

THE American Locomotive Company has built a lot 
of twenty-five consolidation type engines for the 
Lake Shore, on the general lines adopted for the heavy 
freight power of the roads constituting the New York 
Central lines. These machines are heavier than those 
previously ordered, due to changes in constructive de- 
tails. They are fitted with the Walschaert valve gear of 
the latest improved design for freight locomotives, which 
as will be noted in the illustration, is built to give the 

least possible trouble in operation and maintenance, and 
it is apparent that nothing simpler has yet been devised, 
from the standpoint of durability and stability, as the 
metal has been distributed with these essentials in view, 
and spring of the parts to produce distortion in the 
action of the valve should therefore be an unknown quan- 

These engines are of the simple type with piston 
valves, and have cylinders 23x32 inches, which are ca- 
pable of a starting power of 45,600 pounds, which is 
energy sufficient to keep nearly 9,000 tons in motion be- 
hind the tender at slow speeds on level tangents. Having 
a coefficient of adhesion of 4.54, their maximum tractive 
effort is always available. Attention has' been given to 
the elimination of weak links in the chain of details af- 
fecting points likely to incapacitate the engine for active 
service. The frames are of steel and of most liberal di- 
mensions, being 5 inches wide throughout and 6V2 inches 
deep at the jams, while the lower member is 4% inches 
deep at its least section. . The pedestal binders are also 
built on a similar plan, and are secured to the frame by 
three vertical bolts at each side of the jams. Stresses 
on the smoke-box flange of the saddle are relieved by 
the front end braces, which are constructed with a pivoted 
connection to a casting on the bumper beam, which will 
be noted as unusual in front end braces. The boiler is 
of the straight type, 80 inches inside diameter, and has a 
total heating surface of 3,705 square feet, 135.64 square 
feet being in the firebox, which is 103^ by 7534 inches 
inside. These engines are said to be free and economical 
steamers. The specification following covers detailed in- 
formation that is of interest in this connection. 

Track gauge 4 ft. % l / 2 in. 

Tractive power 45677 

Cylinder, type Simple 

Diameter 23 in. 

Stroke 32 in. 




May, 1906 

Wheel base, driving 17 ft. 6 in. 

Rigid 17 ft. 6 in. 

Total 26 ft. 5 in. 

Total engine and tender 60 ft. g l / 2 in. 

Weight, in working order 232500 

On drivers 207000 

Engine and tender 362100 

Heating surface, tubes 3492.18 sq. ft. 

Firebox 185.64 sq. ft. 

Arch tubes 27.41 sq. ft. 

Total 3705.23 sq. ft. 

Grate area 56.5 sq. ft. 

Axles, driving journals, main 10x12 ins. 

Others t . 9^2x12 ins. 

Engine truck journals 6x12 ins. 

Tender truck journals 5^2x10 ins. 

Boiler, type Radial stayed straight top 

O. D. first ring 81^5 in. 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Fuel Bituminous coal 

Firebox, type Wide 

Length 102^ in. 

Width 7S% in. 

Thickness of crown Y% in. 

Firebox, tube , V 2 in. 

Sides Y% in. 

Back 1/% in. 

Water space, front ay 2 in. 

Sides 4^2 in. 

Back 4V2 in. 

Crown staying Radial 1 Y% in. 

Tubes, material Steel 

Number - 446 

Diameter 2 in. 

Length 15 ft. o l / 2 in. 

Gauge No. 11 B. W. G. 

Boxes, driving Cast steel 

Brake, driver West-Amer. 

Tender Westinghouse 

Air signal West- 
Pump 11 in. Westinghouse 

Reservoir 2 — i& 1 / 2 kI20 in. 

Engine truck 2 wheeled 3 point suspension 

Exhaust pipe Single 

Grate, style Rocking 

Piston, rod diam 4 in. 

Packing Dunbar 

Smoke stack, diam 29 in. 

Top above rail 14 ft. 8^ in. 

Tender frame 13 in. channel steel 

Tank style Waterbottom 

Capacity 7500 gallons 

Capacity, fuel 12 tons 

Valve, type Piston 14 in. dia. 

Travel $Y 2 in. 

Steam lap 1% in. 

Ex. lap Clearance in. 

Setting Lead 17-64 in. 

Wheels, driv. diam. outside tire 63 in. 

Centers diam 56 in. 

Material Cast steel 

Engine truck, diam 33 in. 

Kind National No. 3 

Tender truck, diam 33 in. 

Kind Paige plate steel tired. 

Special Flat Cat — WO Tons Capacity 

THE development of power machinery of all kinds 
leading, as it has, to the design of prime movers of 
constantly increasing capacities, has presented some diffi- 
cult problems of transportation for the larger and heavier 
pieces of machinery, which have never before demanded 
solution. The question of adequate carrying facilities for 
heavy engine and machine parts has become more and 
more persistent with the growth of the present tendency 
toward giant units. The cars used heretofore for this 

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May, 1906 

purpose have been especially constructed, of heavy ma- 
terial and with a capacity of from sixty to seventy tons. 
Such cars, in fact, are identical with those employed by 
the government for the transportation of heavy ordnance. 

A new problem confronted the Allis-Chalmers Co., in 
the case of a huge frame and slide of a monster horizontal 
rolling mill engine. The single piece of machinery will 
weigh considerably over a hundred tons. To ship this 
large engine the company had designed and built by the 
C.j M. & St. P. Ry., at the West Milwaukee shops, under 
the direction of Messrs. A. E. Manchester, S. M. P., J. J. 
Hennessey, M. C. B., and J. F. De Voy, M. E., a special 
car which is illustrated herewith. 

Four low Barber trucks are placed under the car with 
a cradle resting on the center plates of each pair. This 
cradle in turn supports the car. The sills are formen bv 
four 13 inch I beams, two of which are used as center 
and two as side sills. Channel bars riveted 3 feet 7 inches 
apart in between the I beams act as supports for the floor- 
ing. The corners are braced with flat pieces 1 foot 6 
inches wide while another brace 1 inch by 8 inches is riv- 
eted from the center sill to the end sill. 

The length of the car is 40 feet 2 inches over end sills 
while, the width over side sills is 8 feet 9 inches. The 
height of the floor above the rail is 4 feet 4^ inches. 
The wheel base is 36 feet 2 inches, while standard 53^x10 
journal bearings are used. 

The details of the truck, body bolster, cradle, cradle 
equalizer, cradle center bearing, cradle truck bearing and 
body center plate are clearly shown in the illustrations. 

The necessity of keeping a car of this capacity at uni- 
form height on the side bearings is well taken care of 
with an adjustable side bearing. This bearing, which is 
shown in an illustration, has the wearing block resting in 
a pocket, and the wear is taken care-Of by putting shins 
in the pocket under the block. . 

Great ingenuity is evident on the part of the designers 
in getting out this car and not deviating from common 

standards in design. 

» ♦ ■ 

Fuel Tests at the University of Illinois 

A SERIES of investigations of unusual interest to 
Illinois manufacturers and other coal operators is 
about to be undertaken at the State Engineering Experi- 
ment Station recently established at the University of 
Illinois. An extensive and somewhat elaborate series of 
experiments with the different Illinois coals is contem- 
plated for the purpose of determining the most economi- 
cal methods for their utilization. Tests of fuels will be 
made: (a) under power plant boilers; (b) in residence 
heating boilers; (c) in gas producers; (d) to determine 
their chemical composition and heating values. 

The fact that Illinois is the second coal-producing state 
in the Union, and also the fact that in the period from 
1850 to the present year Illinois has advanced in rank 
among the manufacturing states from fifteenth to third 
render these investigations of peculiar importance to our 
industries. This phenomenal advancement has been due 
largely to the development of our great coal resources 

and transportation facilities. The interdependence be- 
tween these industries therefore demands the most care- 
ful consideration of the problems relating to the consump- 
tion of our coals in order to obtain the greatest economic 

A feature of special significance in connection with 
these tests is the organization of a special conference com- 
mittee. In- order that these tests should be so conducted 
as to meet with the approval of the great manufacturing 
and coal interests and that they should produce results of 
real value, co-operation was desired with the leading en- 
gineers, coal operators, railroad officials and manufac- 
turers from whom advice and suggestions would be avail- 
able. The co-operation of the State Geological Survey 
and the University departments of applied chemistry and 
mechanical engineering was already assured. Accordingly 
several of the leading engineering societies of the state 
were invited to appoint representatives to form a confer- 
ence committee to meet from time to time for the discus- 
sion of matters relating to these problems. The Station 
has been most fortunate in the personnel of the committee 
chosen for the first year, the members of which are as 
follows : 

H. Foster Bain, Director State Geological Survey, Ur- 
bana, 111., representing the State Geological Survey. 

A. Bement, Consulting Engineer, Chicago, the Western 
Society of Engineers. 

Edwin H. Cheney, President Fuel Engineering Co., 
Chicago, the Building Managers' Association of. Chicago. 

F. H. Clark, Gen. Supt. Motive Power Burlington 
Road, C. B. & Q. Ry., Chicago, the Western Railway 

Adolph Mueller, President H. Mueller Mfg. Co., Deca- 
tur, 111., the Illinois Manufacturers' Association. 

Carl Scholz, President Coal Valley Mining Co., Chi- 
cago, the Illinois Coal Operators' Association. 

A. V. Schroeder, Gen. Supt. Electric Light & Heat Co., 
Springfield, 111., the State Electric Light Association. 

Wm. L. Abbott, Chief Operating Engineer Chicago 
Edison Co., Chicago, the Board of Trustees University of 

L. P. Breckenridge, Director Engineering Experiment 
Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

The initial meeting of this conference committee was 
held at the University, Urbana, 111., on March 14, 1906, 
at which time the general policy of the committee was 
outlined and plans for future work discussed. It is ex- 
pected that the coals tested will be donated for this pur- 
pose. The plant in which the tests are to be made will 
not be ready for operation until some time in May. In 
the meantime the details of the plan of procedure willbe 

prepared and issued. 

* ♦ * 

Steel and Stockroom Equipment 

THE use of steel is replacing wood in its different 
forms in shop and store room practice every day. 
The old style wooden shelving has served its time and no 
plant can now be considered up-to-date without a complete, 
metal outfit. When one can walk into a factory and notice 

May, 1906 



in the foreman's office a neat sheet steel desk with a metal 
table alongside for laying out prints, with a complete sys- 
tem of steel pigeon holes aboye the desk he may feel safe 
to imply that the stock room is equipped with bins and 
shelving constructed of the same material. He would also 
expect to find the machine shop and tool room equipped 
with metal lathe pans, dope boxes, bolt boxes, die racks, 
lockers and the numerous other accentral articles of this 
kind manufactured. These not only are a safe precaution 
against fire but they are an economy in that they put 
everything of value off of the floor and in its proper place 
so that it can be found at any instant which lessens the 
cost of production. 

The first illustration herewith is of a machine shop 
which is so equipped. In this is to be noted the lathe 


pans under the lathes, steel table, the straight side boxes 
at the side of the lathes for finished and unfinished ma- 
terial. At the left in the center of the room is a steel box 
truck. In the extreme back is to be noted a steel wash 
tank which is supplied with a number of faucets, enabling 
several workmen to wash at one time. The fire pails on 
the rear wall are also a production of the same class. 

Figure 2 is a view of the Cutler-Hammer stock room 
showing the steel racks used by this company. These 
racks are constructed either single or double, each bin 
slanting, making the back 4 inches lower than the front. 
These bins are 14 inches deep, making an excellent place 
for small loose parts, such as bolts, nuts, and all kinds of 
small castings. This class of rack costs a little more 
than the wooden one for first installation, but as they save 




May, 1906 


30 per cent floor space, the price can be more than saved 
on the smaller building or the increased storage space. 

Figure 3 shows an installation of steel racks and 
drawers in the plant of the Western Electric Company's 
plant in Chicago. This company fully realized the ad- 
vantage of the steel equipment, which shows the clean and 
neat appearance it gives to a stock room. 

Figure 4 is another illustration taken from a manufac- 
turing plant showing a corner of the stock room of dies, 
etc. This rack not only gives increased carrying capacity, 
but the articles can be so arranged that the system of list- 
ing and locating them is practically perfect. There is an- 
other rack made similar to this, shown in Figure 5, which 
is equipped with steel pulls, which act as card holders and 
are also used to pull the dies out. These steel pulls are 
of No. 16 gauge steel, with a turn-down in front, which 
is used as a card holder. The pulls are numbered and 


each number is arranged in the die stock book. When a 
die is wanted the number is found in the stock book, after 
which it can be located instantly. This enables anyone 
inexperienced with the stock to find any die. 

The above illustrations are furnished through the cour- 
tesy of the Lyon Metallic Manufacturing Company, Chi- 
cago, who manufacture a full line of material as described 

» ■» 


Concerning Roundhouse Equipment 

THE report on shop practice answering the question 
"With what machine tools and hand tools should a 
roundhouse be equipped to get the best results?" pre- 
sented at a recent meeting of the Western Railway Club, 
made no reference to the necessity of jacks and but little 
was said concerning them during the ensuing discussion. 
These tools are worthy of an important place on the list 
of roundhouse equipment. 

While it is hardly probable that an attempt would be 
made to operate even the smallest engine house without 
an equipment of jacks, it is worth while calling attention 
to the essential feature of the jacks being of the most 
modern and up-to-date type and if the roundhouse force 
does not already appreciate it, they should be made to un- 
derstand the necessity of keeping them in good shape. 
With a good set of jacks the weight of an engine may be 
taken up with much less time than with a set of old jacks 
requiring a large force of main strength and ignorance 
and on occasions where an engine is wanted quickly — • 
generally the case — this feature makes itself felt. 

For instance at a roundhouse maintaining one or two 
switch engines which work night and day, in addition to 
road and passenger engines, the switch engines must be 
cared for Sundays or at such time that a road engine can 
be changed off with one of them. This being the case, 
emergency repairs to the switch engines must be made as 
quickly as possible and in the event of an accident requir- 
ing the engine to be jacked up, for a broken spring, 

May, 1906 



spring hanger, lost gib, defective equalizer connection, or 
other cause, quick, easy-working jacks are money savers 
in getting the engine out quickly — and in keeping the 
yard master off the wires. The same is true of road en- 
gines stopping at an outside roundhouse for emergency 
repairs, as well as for engines laying over for regular re- 
pairs, though the latter do not usually require such hurry 
up jobs. 

Good journal jacks should not be omitted. They bear 
an important part in truck repairs, renewals of truck 
brasses — both engine and tender — and the same argument 
holds good with these as with the larger jacks. Where the 
car repair track is in close proximity to the roundhouse, 
car repairers can supply this demand to some extent, 
but such an arrangement is a poor makeshift and the 
roundhouse should have its own, full quota of tools.' 

The roundhouse foreman generally realizes the condi- 
tions of his jacks and the weak spots caused by them — 
as well as by other old equipment — but he frequently finds 
much difficulty in bringing his superiors to a full realiza- 
tion of the same. Visiting officials have been known to 
make notes of necessary equipment and go so far as to 
promise that new material would be forwarded from the 
main shop the following week, yet the foreman received 
nothing but the promises, though the condition of the 
equipment spoke plainly of the necessity of renewals. 

A useful, home-made tool is an air hammer for knock- 
ing out rod bolts. Such a tool may be cheaply constructed 
from scrap material and is a great time saver. This tool 
will remove tight bolts that a sledge hammer in good 
hands will not loosen and where a sledge would batter 
a bolt to an extent necessary to require a renewal or at 
least have the threads run over in the bolt cutter, the air 
hammer will remove it with a few blows and without 
damage. This not only saves time in taking down rods, 
but further saves time that might be spent with a drill 
and often prevents renewals of bolts. 

Spring pullers of different design that may be used 
with the several types of frames and equalizing arrange- 
ments are important tools in the roundhouse. Frequently 
it is quicker to use a heavy bar when sufficient force may 
be had, in pulling a spring, but good spring pullers cannot 
be dispensed with. 

While hardly coming under the head of tools, portable 
benches, of strong yet light construction are very con- 
venient in the round house. The men frequently re- 
quire an elevated platform on which to stand while re- 
moving steam chests, filing valve seats, etc., and unless 
portable benches are available, they will build some sort 
of structure with blocks and planks, a performance which 
wastes no little time as the desired material is usually at 
the other side of the round house, if anywhere. 

When encouraged the men frequently advance good 
ideas for the manufacture of devices that can be con- 
structed cheaply and which can be used to good advan- 
tage as time and money savers. By following up such 
channels a number of good tools may be brought to hand 
and in* the engine houses removed from main and di- 
vision shops, ingenuity has to be used in place of ma- 
terial that is not supplied, so that they present a fruitful 
source of suggestions for good devices. 

It is not attempted here to enter an extended discourse 
on roundhouse equipment, but merely to add a little to 
the discussion of a live and interesting subject. Round- 
house foremen have to contend with unexpected and 
varying conditions, they must be ever ready for emer- 
gencies and the surroundings under which they battle 
are such that the best facilities which can be provided to 
forward their work can be none too good for them. 

Under present railroad conditions the small round- 
house needs the greatest attention. Not that the small 
point is the most important ; but because the larger houses 
by virtue of the greater number of engines handled, have 
received most attention in the past and the importance 
of the little fellow has been overlooked. The small house 
at an outlying point is not visited as often by the higher 
officials and it would seem that its existence is almost 
forgotten until it is credited with a serious delay — and 
this seeming negligence in providing for the small round- 
house has been the indirect cause of delays. Therefore, 
in considering roundhouse equipment the small house 
should receive the attention it deserves and not be en- 
tirely overshadowed by the big fellows. 

• ♦ • 

Driving Box Squares 

THE accompanying illustration shows a very handy 
device for use about the locomotive repair shop. It 
is used in squaring the spring saddle seats on the driv- 
ing boxes as shown at A Fig. 2 and 3. 

Fig. 1 is a detail drawing of the square while Figs. 2 
and 3 show it in position. The square is made of % 
inch machine steel with one leg of the square i}i inches 
wide and the other £s inch wide. The feet B and C are 


Fig. I 

F'& 3 




Fig. 2. 


also made of machine steel and turned to the proper size 
and shape. They are held in position by thumb screws 
and are prevented from slipping off of the end by a pin 

through the hole D. 

This device was originated by Mr. W. A. Roberts, 
machine shop foreman of the Santa Fe Railway at San 
Bernardino, Cal., to whom we are indebted for the draw- 
ings and description. 



May, 1906 

Car Tie Luxe— Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean 

THE universal exposition at Liege of 1905 was not- 
able for the fine and thorough exhibit of passenger 
motive power and car equipment, which several foreign 
railways had placed on view before putting same into 
commission on their respective lines. A high speed ten- 
wheel four cylinder compound locomotive for the Paris, 
Lyons & Mediterranean, which formed part of that ex- 
hibit, was shown in the March issue of the Railway 
Master Mechanic, and we now present a de luxe pas- 
senger car for the same road, which was also a part of 
the exhibit of the same road. 

This car is a beautiful example of the car builders' art, 
built on the side corridor plan, from which the four state- 
rooms and the compartment de luxe are reached, to each 

containing colored photographs. The ceilings and walls 
of the toilet rooms are finished in oil cloth in imitation of 
tile. The floors of the compartments and corridors have 
moquette carpets, while the platforms are covered with 

There are no doors between the corridor and plat- 
forms, and the latter are narrowed at the side doors, in 
order to make room for two steps, the lower of which is 
flush with the side of the car body. It will be noted that 
the screw coupling and side buffers are still existent, and 
are the only details in the car that have an ancient flavor. 
The sills are of steel plates having angles at the top and 
bottom, and the truss rods have a familiar appearance 
with their anchorage between the bolsters and their posts 
and turnbuckles all in accord with American construction. 


of which is annexed a toilet room. Each compartment The car is mounted on two four-wheeled trucks having 

is fitted with three seats which can be transformed by wheels with steel tires 41 inches in diameter and 2.75 

a simple arrangement, into most inviting beds having inches thick at the tread. The axles are of steel with 

spring mattress and other first class appointments, while journals 5.12 inches in diameter by 11.02 inches long, 

the. compartment de luxe contains a bed which is folded It is interesting to note the liberal journal dimensions in 

up against the side of the car during the day, and a sofa this case, the projected area of which is 56.33 square 

which may also be transformed into a bed at night. It i nc hes, while the area of journal carrying our heaviest 

will be observed that the manner in which the seats are 
made to do duty as berths is entirely foreign to American 
sleeping car practice in two very essential particulars, one 
of which is that the berths are folding beds and are al- 
ways made up, and the other that there are no upper 
berths. These berths are an integral part of the seats, 
the latter forming the base or support, on which the bed 
folds down, and is therefore made ready for the occupant 
by simply turning to a horizontal position, and are not 
therefore a part of the berth, as in our sleeping cars, as 
will be seen in the elevation and plan which show the 
scheme very clearly. 

The finish of the compartments is in the form of drapes 
of damask and silk, of which the lower part is a shade 
of peacock blue. The corridor is finished below the win- 
dows in panels of mahogany, and above the panels with 
damask framed in mahogany. The upper part and also 
the ceiling is finished in lincrusta. The partitions are cov- 
ered at the lower part also by mahogany panels, and 
above by embossed green velvet framed in mahogany 

equipment, much heavier than the car in question, 
is less than the above. The truck is not equalized, each 
journal carries its load independent of the other on a 
half-elliptic spring, the ends of which are secured to 
the truck frame through helical springs. The general 
dimensions are as follows : Length over buffers, 63.28 
feet; length over platforms, 59.15 feet; length, center 
to center of bolsters, 40.88 feet; width over all, 9.9 feet; 
height inside, 7.78 feet ; wheel base of truck, 8.2 feet. 
The braking system is the Westinghouse-Henry, auto- 
matic air on all wheels. The lighting system is the 
Auvert electric, actuated from the axle. The heating is 
by the P. L. & M. steam system. From the foregoing it 
is seen that this car is modern in most of the essentials 
of high-class construction, and original in the departure 
from the lines of the old side entrance vehicle to conform 
to the corridor idea. For the informaton contained here- 
in and also the drawings, we are indebted to M. "Chabal, 
Chief Engineer of the P. L. & M. Ry. 

May, 1906 



Canadian Pacific Superheater* 

THE interest of the Canadian Pacific Railway in su- 
perheaters for locomotive service has resulted in the 
development of a special design which has been worked 
out jointly by Mr. H. H. Vaughan, assistant to the vice- 
president, and who was formerly at the head of the mo- 
tive power department of that road, and Mr. A. W. 
Horsey, mechanical engineer of the Canadian Pacific. 
A brief description of the device will be of interest at 
this time because of the renewed attention being given 
to superheat on that road and abroad. 

Fig. 1 shows the general arrangement of the front 
end and the superheater tubes. Steam from the dry pipe 
enters the top or saturated steam-header shown in Fig. 

*From the proceedings of the New York Railroad Club 

2, and flows through the fingers of the header into i%- 
inch solid drawn weldless steel tubes having an inside 
diameter of 15-16 inch. These tubes are upset at one 
end and are forged and bent by a bolt-header and bending 
machine to the shape shown in Fig. 3. They are con- 
nected by bronze union nuts to special cast steel fittings 
which screw into the header, a 1-16 inch copper wire 
gasket being used in the union nut. 

As shown in Fig. 1, these small tubes extend into five- 
inch diameter fire tubes to within 30 inches of the back 
sheet, where they connect with the heavy cast steel return 
bends. The steams returns from the return bend through 
1*4 inch tubes, which connect through union nuts with 
special cast steel fittings, similar to those mentioned 
above, with the fingers of the bottom header, which is 
shown in Fig. 4. The steam pipes which connect this 



header with the cylinder casting are necessarily very 
short, but there has been no difficulty in making the 
joints tight. Each large superheater fire tube connects 
two of the small tubes from the top header, and the cor- 
responding return tubes to the low header. The return 
bend has lugs cast on it which spaces it properly from 
the sides of the large tube and the other set of small 
tubes, so that there is a uniform circulation space about 


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May, 1906 



the small tubes. The cast iron steel return bend is made 
especially heavy at that part which comes in contact 
with smoke and gases of the firebox. 

This superheater is identical with the Schmidt and 
Schenectady in all respects except in the arrangement of 
the headers and connection with the superheater pipes. 
The primary object sought in the new design was the 
separation of the joints from the heater pipes to the 
headers, the location of these joints in a position where 
they could be conveniently inspected, and an arrange- 
ment of the superheater pipes that would permit of the 
removal or application of any individual element without 
disturbance of the others. 

■» » 

Pacific Type Locomotive Southern Railway 

THE Baldwin Locomotive Works have recently built 
for the Southern Railway, twenty Pacific type pas- 
senger engines, fifteen of which have drivers 63 inches 
in diameter, and the remaining five 72 J / 2 inch wheels. In 
other respects these engines are practically identical in 
design, both lots having simple cylinders. The half-tone 
illustrates the machine with the larger wheels. 

These engines represent the latest development of a 
distinctive design for heavy passenger service, that have 
demonstrated their fitness for the exacting work of haul- 
ing loads at speed, and for that reason have crystallized 
into a type likely to be perpetuated. The cylinders are 
22 inches in diameter and 28 inches stroke, which with 
the 220 pounds boiler pressure enables the engines to 
exert a starting power of 35,000 pounds at the rail, with 
the f ]2 1 / 2 inch wheels. Having a weight of 143,000 
pounds for adhesion, the coefficient against slip is 4.00. 

The straight top boiler has radial stays and sloping 
throat sheet and boiler head. The circumferential seams 
are double riveted, and the longitudinal seams have butt 
joints with welds at each end. The dome ring has a 
welded seam on the top center line, with an inside liner. 
The waist has V& inch liners for supporting guide yoke 
and waist sheets, and wash out plugs are provided in all 
places necessary to expedite cleaning. In all respects 
these boilers are constructed on characteristic Baldwin 
lines for strength and durability. 

To provide against the development of weakness in 
the cylinder connections, there is a double row of bolts 
in the vertical flanges, front and back, and also in the 
smoke-box flanges. The cylinders are arranged for 
double front frame rails, and have exceptionally thick 
walls to provide for wear and prevent breakage. The 
frames are of cast steel, the rear sections being separated, 
with the splice under the front end of the firebox, which 
is supported at this point by a heavy vertical plate. The 
trailing truck, which is of the Rushton type, is equalized 
with the drivers through an inverted half-elliptic spring. 
The valves are of the balanced slide type actuated by an 
indirect link motion, with the rocker placed in front of 
the forward drivers and connected to the link by a trans- 
mission bar which spans the forward driving axle. An 
inspection of the following descriptive specification will 
convey a clear idea of the details not shown in the illus- 


May, 1906 



Gauge 4 ft. %V 2 in. 

Cylinder 22x28 ins. 

Valve Balanced 

Boiler, type Straight M. H. Steel 

Diameter 7° in. 

Thickness of sheets 34 in. and 13-16 in. 

Working pressure 220 lbs. 

Fuel -. Soft coal 

Staying Radial 

Firebox, material Steel 

Length io2>% in. Width, 72J/2 in. 

Depth Front, 76^4 in. Back, 66^4 in- 

Thickness of sheets 

Sides, Y% in. Back, Y% in. Crown, $i in. Tube, J / 2 in. 

Water space Front, 4V2 in. Sides, 3/ in. Back, 2 l A in. 

Tubes, material Iron Wire gauge No. 11 

Number 314 

Diameter 2% in. 

Length 20 ft. o in. 

Heating surface, firebox 195 sq. ft. 

Tubes 3683.5 sq. ft. 

Total 3878.5 sq. ft. 

Grate area 54-25 sq. ft. 

Driving wheels, diameter outside 72^2 in. 

Diameter of center 66 in. 

Journals main, 10x12 ins. others, 9x12 ins. 

Engine truck wheels (front) diameter, 33 in. 

Journals 5j4xio ins. 

Engine truck wheels (back) diameter, 42 in. 

Journals 8x12 ins. 

Wheel base, driving 12 ft. 6 in. 

Rigid 12 ft. 6 in. 

Total engine 31 ft. 4^2 in. 

Total engine and tender 64 ft. 5% in. 

Weight, on driving wheels 143,000 lbs. 

On truck, front 39,700 lbs. 

On truck, back 42,300 lbs. 

Total engine 225,000 lbs. 

Total engine and tender about 358,000 lbs. 

Tank, capacity 7-500 gallons water; 25,000 lbs. coal 

Tender, wheels, No. 8 diameter, 33 in. 

Journals 5/2x10 in. 

Service \ Passenger 

Draft Gears 


THE subject of draft gears, in my opinion, is one of 
the most important subjects of the present time, 
because there is such a wide difference of opinion among 
the mechanical men throughout the country that but 
few of them are even satisfied with any device that is on 
the market to-day. 

Some will favor a friction device, and others will favor 
a spiral spring and still others a leaf spring device. While 
all of these devices have been used for some time, none 
of them have given entire satisfaction to all. Some will 
say, too much recoil, others will say we need recoil to 
take a second blow as the slack runs up. But in my 
opinion, none of the devices used are even half sufficient 
to take care of the buffing stresses of ordinary switching 
to-day, to say nothing of hard switching or rough hand- 
ling of cars. 

In the tests made a short time ago, we find that cars 
running at the rate of eight miles per hour would strike 
a blow of from 420,000 to 430,000 pounds, which speed 
is only a little faster than a walk, and is considered ordi- 

nary switching by the yard men. The wooden car body 
does absorb such shocks, but the wooden draft timbers 
will not stand it very long. They do very well for a 
little while, but in a short time the draft timber bolts 
begin to wear the holes oblong in the timbers and sills 
and the result is broken bolts, sills and draft timbers. 
These are the weak spots of our cars. It is not so much 
the draft gear that fails, it is the parts that hold them 
to the cars. There is a remedy for this and it should be 

In steel cars it is an entirely different proposition. The 
steel cars are so rigged that they will not yield like the 
wooden cars. The draft gears must absorb the shock 
or something is going to break or bend and we' must 
devise a cushion of at least 500,000 pounds to absorb 
the shocks of ordinary switching. 

The steel cars are here to stay and the weak spot of 
these cars is the draft gear. We can build them to carry 
any load desired and we must provide a draft gear that 
will reduce the slack that now exists in the long trains 
that are now being hauled, which is the cause of more 
failures than all the other causes combined. 

The tendencies now are to increase the slack rather 
than to reduce it by making the draw bar travel 2}% 
inches in both the forward and backward movement of 
it, instead of 1^4 inches as used on the wooden cars. 
This gives each draw bar a travel of 5^ inches or 11 
inches between two cars. This in my judgment is a 
mistake and should be reduced to at least one inch of 
draw bar travel in either direction for ordinary running 
purposes and not to exceed two inches in hard buffing 
service. This can be accomplished and should be worked 
out, and when it is accomplished we will be ready to take 
up the question of a combined air hose steam and signal 
pipe connection that can be maintained with safety, and 
which will prevent men from going between the cars 
for the purpose of coupling or uncoupling them. 

Now in regard to yoke or rivet failures. I believe 
this can be almost entirely eliminated if we would use 
them for the purposes that they are intended, namely, 
for pulling only. But if we expect either of them to do 
the pulling and also the buffing, we cannot expect any- 
thing but failures. No matter whether the springs are 
inside of the yokes or in the rear of the yokes, the result 
is the same, for this reason, that the buffing stresses are so 
great that the rivets will bend forward and the pulling 
stresses will again bend them backward, and eventually 
the metal will crystalize and break. This is why we find 
so many rivets broken in the center of the draw bars. 
These are not sheared rivets, but broken rivets. 

We find in the recent tests made at West Seneca, that 
in none of these tests did the draw bar pull exceed 118,000 
pounds. We also find that a draw bar yoke 4x1 l A\ inches 
with a gib and two rivets 1% inches in diameter has an 
approximate strength of 272,000 pounds. This shows 
conclusively that we have more than double the strength 
required for pulling purposes and by making the back 
ends of the yoke round instead of square, as recommend- 
ed by the M. C. B. association. We will have few yoke 



May, 1906 

or rivet failures if we use them for pulling purposes only. 

Now in regard to recoil of springs, I don't believe it 
amounts to anything. I have satisfied myself on this by 
making some tests which were only made for my in- 
formation by running cars against a solid bumping post 
on a level track. I found that a loaded car would prac- 
tically come to a standstill, while an empty car would 
come back several feet. This showed me that the general 
impression of recoil of springs was in reality the mo- 
mentum of a running bunch of cars striking some stand- 
ing cars which forced the standing cars into running 
and retarded the movement of the cars that struck them, 
causing a sudden jerk between the two sections. This 
sometimes causes broken knuckles, or trains to part and 
is called recoil of springs. 

Now in regard to the tests that are being made from 
time to time. It looks to me that we would get nearer 
to the real results if cars were tested after having been 
in service a year or two, than to make tests of cars that 
were built new and expressly for that purpose. The 
reason I mention this is that I have noticed a great many 
of the steel cars that are now in use, have excessive draw 
bar travel and only from a single engine pull. The most 
of these were equipped with friction draft gears which 
aroused my curiosity. Not being satisfied with what 1 
saw, I decided to make some tests of gears that had been 
in service about a year with the result that the greatest 
resistance that could be obtained from the four differ- 
ent gears tested was 85,000 pounds on gears that were 
rated at 180.000 pounds and showed a loss of 95.000 
pounds in about one year's service. This is not a good 
showing and should be followed up more closely by all 
car men who are interested in maintaining their equip- 
ment to the highest standard of perfection. A good way 
to do this is to make your own tests in your wheel press if 
no other means are available. 

A. C — D. C. Locomotives for the New York, 
New Haven and. Hartford Railroad 


THE present plans of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad Company contemplate the elec- 
trical operation of their main line between New York 
City and Stamford, Conn., a distance of over thirty-three 
miles. That portion of the road which lies between the 
Grand Central Depot and Woodlawn, N. Y., utilizes 
the tracks of the New York Central Railroad and con- 
stitutes a portion of the electrical zone of that company 
within which the direct-current third-rail system is being 
installed. Between Woodlawn and Stamford the road 
will be equipped with the Westinghouse single-phase, al- 
ternating current system and the trains will be operated 
by electric locomotives which take alternating current 
from the overhead trolley line. The power station of 
the New Haven Company will be located at Riverside, 
Conn., three miles from Stamford. The power equip- 
ment will include three Westinghouse-Parsons horizontal 
steam turbines driving 25 cycle, alternating current gen- 
erators of the revolving field type, which have a rated 

continuous capacity of 3,750 Kw. each when running sin- 
gle phase and of 5,500 Kw. when supplying a three- 
phase service. The generator armatures are designed 
for both single-phase and three-phase connection. They 
are wound for 11,000 volts and are connected direct to 
the trolley system. Absolutely no transforming stations 
or reducing transformers along the line will be required 
but the entire system will be operated direct from a sin- 
gle central station without the interposition of substations 
or auxiliary apparatus of any kind between the switch- 
board and the cars. This desirable simplicity is made 
possible by the alternating current system and the high 
trolley e.m.f. which will be employed. It is probable 
that, with a service equivalent to that now given by steam 
locomotives, electrical operation can be extended a dis- 
tance of twenty miles beyond Stamford without the use 
of a higher transmission potential or the introduction 
of transforming stations. 


The overhead construction will be supported from 
steel bridges which will be located every 300 feet and 
which will normally span from four to six tracks, though 
on certain portions of the road longer bridges will be 
employed. Every two miles the bridges will be made of 
a specially heavy construction — forming an anchor- 
bridge to make the overhead structure even more secure. 
The trolley wires will be hung from steel messenger ca- 
bles which, in turn, will be supported by heavy insulators 
mounted upon the steel bridges. Each trolley wire will 
be suspended from a pair of steel messenger cables by 
triangular supports, forming a double catenary suspen- 
sion of great strength and stiffness. The triangular sup- 
ports are placed about ten feet apart. The messenger ca- 
bles will have a total sag of about six feet, while the 
trolley wire itself will be held in a practically horizontal 

The trolley system will be divided into sections approx- 
imately two miles in length, each section being separated 
from its neighbors by heavy line insulators. Adjoining 
sections will be connected through automatic oil-type cir- 
cuit breakers. If a short circuit or other trouble occur 
in any section, therefore, it can be cut out without dis- 
turbing the operation of other portions of the line. Two 
feeder wires will be carried the whole length of the al- 
ternating current line and will be so connected to the 
various sections of the trolley system by automatic 
switches that any section of four or more trolleys can 
be cut out of service and those beyond kept in opera- 

The trolley wires will be held normally at a height of 
22 feet above the track. The overhead system is designed 
with a safe margin to meet the stresses imposed by the 
most severe conditions, such as high winds or heavy coat- 
ings of ice. 


Thirty-five locomotives are to be furnished by the 
Westinghouse Company, suitable for operation on the 
direct current division between the Grand Central Depot 
and Woodlawn, and on the alternating current portion 

May, 1906 



of the line between Woodlawn and Stamford. One loco- 
motive has already been constructed and the results ob- 
tained assure* the complete success of the alternating cur- 
rent system. 

The frame, trucks and cab of the locomotive were 
built by the Baldwin Locomotive Company, according 
to designs developed with the co-operation of the New 
Haven Railroad and the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. 

The frame is of the rigid type with side pieces made 
of steel channels to which are bolted and riveted other 
steel channels placed transversely, two over each truck, 
forming transoms for the transmission of the weight to 
the center pins. These channels are placed outside the 
wheels and as close together and as low down as the 
wheels and the draw-head will permit, and are braced and 
squared by substantial steel flooring plates which are 
riveted and bolted to the top flanges. The transoms are 
further braced by gusset plates which are riveted and 
bolted to the bottom flanges of both sets of channels and 
which transmit the tractive power from the center-pin 
to the side channels. The frame is still further strength- 
ened and secured by diagonal plate braces. 

As the entire space between the wheels is occupied by 
the motors, it was impossible to transmit the draw-bar 
pull through the center line of the locomotive; so the 
entire strain is carried by the strong plate girders which 
make up the locomotive frame. A Westinghouse friction 
draft gear is mounted directly underneath the box girder 

at each end and is applied to two steel bumpers laid hori- 
zontally between vertical gusset plates on the ends of 
the side channels. 

The running gear consists of two trucks, each mounted 
on four 62-inch driving wheels. The trucks have side 
frames of forged steel to which are bolted and riveted 
pressed steel bolsters which carry the center plates. The 
weight on the journal boxes is carried by small semi- 
elliptic springs with auxiliary coiled springs under the 
ends of the equalizer bars, to assist in restoring equilib- 
rium. A very strong construction is secured without 
excessive weight by the use of bolsters 30 inches wide 
at the center plate and extended to nearly double that 
width at the ends, which are bolted to the side frames. 
Center pins 18 inches in diameter transmit the tractive 
effort to the frame. They are well lubricated to permit 
free motion on curves. The truck pedestals are provided 
with wedge and gib adjustments to take up wear, and 
the bearing brasses are easily removable by hand. The 
distance between truck centers is 14 feet 6 inches. 

The cab is formed of sheet steel mounted on a frame- 
work of Z bars which supports the walls and roof. Win- 
dows are provided at each end, giving an outlook on 
both sides and in front of the locomotive ; and the driver 
is so close to the front that he can see the track a very 
few feet ahead. This advantage is not possessed by any 
type of steam locomotive now in service. The master 
controllers, auto-transformers, instruments, grid resist- 
ances, air operating valves, compressors and other aux- 

FIG, I, — A.-C, — D.-C. LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE N. Y., N. H, & H. R. R. 



May, 1906 

iliary apparatus are mounted inside the cab upon an 
angle-iron framework which is built into the cab and 
securely anchored to floor and roof. A clear passage- 
way is left through the center. Trap doors in the floor 
furnish easy access to the motors for inspection or re- 

The equipment of the locomotive includes four gear- 
less motors, controlling apparatus and auxiliaries. 


The motors are of the compensating gearless type, de- 
signed for operation on both single-phase alternating and 
direct current. They are wound for approximately 235 
volts on alternating current and 275-300 volts when 
operated by direct current. They have normal rated 
outputs of 250 H. P. on the basis of ordinary railway 
practice, and a continuous capacity of 200 H. P. each. 
The locomotive therefore has a continuous operating ca- 
pacity of 800 H. P. 

The motor frames are made of cast steel and are of 
a circular, skeleton form. They are divided horizon- 
tally into two parts in order to give access to the inside 
of the field or to the armature. A laminated core witb 
slotted projecting poles is built up within this frame and 
wound with field coils of flat copper strap insulated be- 
tween turns with asbestos and filled with an insulating 
compound which is heat-conducting and waterproof, so 
that a sealed coil is produced which can withstand moist- 
ture and internal heat. Copper bars are placed in slots 
in the pole faces and connected to form a continuous 
neutralizing winding which forms part of the circuit 
including tbe main field coils, the armature coils and 
the auxiliary winding, all in series. This auxiliary wind- 
ing produces a magnetic field which opposes and neurtal- 
izes the reaction of the armature. It is so formed that 
it need not be disturbed in order to remove the main 
field coils. 

The armature core is built up of soft steel punchings 
which are assembled on a cast iron spider and held in 
place and keyed to prevent their turning. The surface 
is slotted and the armature winding is arranged in three 
layers. The two upper layers are composed of copper 
strap connected to form the usual direct-current type of 
winding. The third layer constitutes the preventive 
winding. It is connected between the commutator and 
the main winding. This preventive winding is so pro- 
portioned as to minimize the combined loss due to the 
normal working current and that which is produced in 
the coil under commutation, when short-circuited by the 
brush in an alternating field. The individual coiis are 
insulated along their entire length by overlapping layers 
of mica tape, and each group is further insulated from 
the core by a moulded mica cell. The completed winding 
is held firmly in position by insulating wedges. The 
ends are banded down against the coil supports. 

The commutator is formed of copper bars clamped 
between V-shaped cast steel rings and insulated by V 
rings and bushings of moulded mica. It is pressed on 
the spider which supports the armature core. The brush 
holders are of the sliding type with arms mounted on * 

rocker ring. Tension is provided with flat, phosphor 
bronze springs which have sufficient turns and are so 
mounted that friction between turns is eliminated and 
uniform pressure secured over a considerable range with- 
out adjustment. Each spring is held in a harness which 
definitely fixes the radius of movement of the spring tip. 
A pawl on the side of the spring harness allows easy 
adjustment of the tension. 

The weight of each motor is carried on a frame which 
passes over the wheels and side frames and rests on the 
journal boxes. Each frame carries four bolts which re- 
ceive the weight of the motor and each bolt is fitted with 
a heavy coil spring at its lower end through which all 
weight is transmitted to it, so that the motor is carried 
on very flexible springs and is independent of the truck 
frame. The torque of the motor and the jar caused by 
sudden starts and stops are transmitted from the motor 
to the truck through heavy tie-rods which affect the mo- 
tion of the motor only lengthwise of the locomotive. The 
armature is not placed directly on a shaft but is built 
up on a quill through which the car axle passes with 
about $4, inch clearance all around. The bearings which 
carry the field frame are mounted on this quill and from 
a flange at each end of the quill seven round pins project 
parallel to the shaft into corresponding pockets formed 
in the hub of the driving wheel. The torque of the 
motor is transmitted from these pins to the wheel through 
helical steel springs which are wound with their turns 
progressively eccentric, and which are contained between 
two steel bushings, the smaller of which slips over the 
pin and the larger fits in the pocket in the wheel. These 
springs are under compression both longitudinally and 
horizontally so that, at all times, they fill the pockets in 
the wheel but permit a vertical and a lateral motion. 
Their longitudinal compression between the quill and 
the segmental cover over the outer ends of the pockets 
in the wheel keeps the motor at all times midway between 
the hubs. The end play of the motor does not come di- 
rectly on the wheels but is taken by strong coiled springs 
inside of the driving pins, which press against the covers 
in the outer ends of the spring pockets in the wheels. 
Though normally required to transmit only the torque 

FIG. 2.- 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 

May, 1906 



of the motor and to keep the motor axis parallel to the 
axle, these springs are amply strong to cany the entire 
weight of the motor. They allow a total vertical move- 
ment of about 24 inch. The torque of the motor is taken 
by heavy parallel rods which anchor the frame to the 
truck above and below the axle and permit vertical or 
side motion of the motor but prevent excessive bumping 
strains from coming on the driving springs. If these 
springs are compressed more than Y\ inch by the heavy 
centrifugal force exerted by the motor when rounding 
curves, the force is taken up by noses on the motor which 
fit into corresponding recesses in the cross ties between 
the side frames of the locomotive. 

This suspension has the advantage of removing all 
dead weight from the axle, of driving through springs, 
and at the same time of having the motor thoroughly 
anchored to prevent undue strain on the driving spring. 
The only parts of the locomotive not spring supported 
are the driving wheels, axles and journal boxes. It is a 
great improvement on any method of mounting gearless 
motors heretofore devised. 

The motors are arranged for ventilation by a forced 
circulation of air which enters under pressure, is dis- 
tributed throughout the motor and escapes through the 
perforated covers. In the floor of the cab there is a nat- 
ural conduit formed by the side channels of the frame, 
the floor and side walls of the cab, and a lower plate, 
through which air is carried to the motors, transformers 
and resistances. This method of cooling improves the 
continuous capacity of the apparatus and is, in a large 
measure, accountable for the high continuous rating of 
the motors which almost equals that on the one-hour 
railway basis. The air furnished to the motor is taken 
from the inside of the cab and can therefore be kept rela- 
tively clean and dry. 

On the direct-current part of the line current is taken 
from the third-rail system by eight collecting shoes, four 
on each side of the locomotive, arranged in pairs of two 


FOR THE N. Y.j N. H. & H. R. R. 

each. There are two pairs on each side, one at each 
end, for the purpose of bridging such gaps as may occur 
in the third-rail system. The direct-current contact 
shoes are designed to work on two forms of third-rail — 
one in which the shoe runs under the rail, and the other 
on top of the rail. To collect alternating current from 
the high-potential overhead trolley line, the locomotive 
is equipped with two pantagraph-type, bow trolleys, each 
of which has a capacity sufficient to carry the total cur- 
rent required by the locomotive under average conditions 
— two being provided to insure reserve capacity. 


On direct current the motors are controlled in series 
parallel as in ordinary railway practice. In alternating- 
current operation no resistance is used in the regular 
run, but a small resistance, which constitutes a preventive 
device to diminish the short-circuiting effect when 
changing from one transformer tap to another, is em- 
ployed in passing from one working step to the next. 
There are six alternating-current voltages or running 
points, corresponding to six taps from the auto-trans- 
formers, and there are a small number of mid-way steps 
which are used only in passing between working notches. 
Experience has shown that the number of steps required 
in alternating-current operation to give a smooth accel- 
eration is considerably lower than in direct-current prac- 
tice. In consequence, the controller is so arranged that 
on alternating current about half as many steps are used 
as on direct current. Tests so far conducted show that 
the acceleration on both alternating and direct current is 
very smooth. 

There is one feature of the direct-current control which 
is not generally found at the present time in direct-cur- 
rent equipments, viz., the shunting of the field for higher 
speeds. In the series position in direct-current operation 
the motors have an efficient running point. It is usual 
railway practice to pass from the series to the mutiple 
position without an efficient intermediate running speed. 
With the New Haven equipments, however, the type of 
motor used permits an almost indefinite shunting of the 
field without impairment of commutation or operation 
and higher speeds are provided by shunting the fields 
before passing into multiple. In this way several ef- 
ficient running points are obtained between the series 
and multiple positions ; and tests have shown that these 
motors operate properly on direct current with their 
fields shunted down to less than half their normal 
strength. When operated on direct current, the current 
is fed directly to the motors. On alternating current, 
however, auto-transformers are required, as the alternat- 
ing-current trolley voltage is 11,000. Two such trans- 
formers form part of each equipment — one mounted on 
each side of the cab floor to balance the weight. They 
are connected in parallel across the high voltage, but on 
the low-voltage side each transformer feeds one pair of 
motors through a separate control unit. This means 
that the control system when operated on alternating cur- 
rent consists of two normally independent units. 

The main controllers are of the well known Westing- 



May, 1906 

house electro-pneumatic unit switch type. The design 
differs somewhat from that used in direct-current service, 
because of the fact that the switches, blow-outs, etc., 
must operate on both alternating and direct current, as 
many parts of the controller are common to both sys- 
tems. The reversing switches are also parts of the unit 
switch groups. The main controllers are operated from 
master controllers at each end of the cab. The control 
system is arranged for mutliple unit service, so that two 
or more locomotives can be coupled to the same train and 

handled by a single driver. 

There are six switch groups, each containing unit 
switches. The two line switches are so connected in the 
switch groups that each carries the current supply to 
each pair of motors when they are operating in parallel 
combination. When the motors are in series, one of the 
line - switches carries the current supply to all. Each line 
switch is provided with an overhead trip so connected 
that all of the switches of both switch groups as well as 
both the line switches open in case of an overload or 
short circuit on either pair of motors or in the circuit 
of either pair. The overload trip is automatically locked 
out when brought into action and cannot be reset until 
the master controller is returned to the off position. 

The external resistances used in regulating the flow of 
current to the motors are arranged in two groups which 
are connected in series when the motors are in series, and 
in series with each motor when the motors are in parallel. 
The change over between the direct current third rail 
and the alternating current overhead system can be made 
easily and quickly even when the locomotive is running 
at full speed. 

An ammeter is mounted in each end of the locomotive 
in plain view of the operator when at the master con- 

The master controller is of the drum type and is op- 
erated by a lever which moves through an arc of about 
60 degrees, with notches and latch wheel to define the 
different positions. Reversing is accomplished by a 
separate handle which interlocks with the main lever. 
When the master controller is in the off position, con- 
nections are so established that all circuit breaker trips 
which may be open are closed by the simple closing of 
a small switch conveniently located in the locomotive 
cab. Current is supplied to the control circuits by two 
sets of 7-cell storage batteries, each of which has a ca- 
pacity of 40 ampere-hours and weighs 150 pounds. 

In connection with the switch groups, cut-out switches 
are provided so that either pair of motors may be cut 
out by simply rendering, certain switches inoperative. It 
is. thus possible to cut out the motors without manipulat- 
ing the main circuit. 


The auxiliary equipment includes two air compressors 
driven by motors which can be operated on either alter- 
nating or direct current ; two blowers driven by similar 
motors and which furnish air to the transformers, mo- 
tors and direct-current rheostats ; oil circuit breakers 
for the high-tension circuits ; switches to change the 
equipment from alternating to direct current ; a steam 

generator to supply heat to the railway coaches in cold 
weather; a complete Westinghouse air brake equipment, 
signal apparatus, automatic bell ringers, whistles, sanding 
apparatus, etc. 


The New Haven locomotive measures 36 feet 4 inches 
over the bumpers and weighs approximately 85 tons. It 
is capable of handling a 200-ton train in local service on 
a schedule speed of 26 miles per hour, with stops averag- 
ing about 2 miles apart — making in such service a maxi- 
mum speed of about 45 miles per hour. It can also han- 
dle a 250-ton train on through service with a maximum 
speed of about 60 miles an hour. With heavier trains 
it is planned to couple two or more locomotives together 
and operate them in multiple. 


The tests which have been made on the first locomo- 
tive equipped show that it will, without difficulty, meet 
all the requirements for which it has been designed. 

This locomotive has, on actual test, repeatedly accele- 
rated a 200-ton train at a rate of .5 of a mile per hour 
per second, which is in excess of the rate required by the 
service conditions of the New Haven Road. The current 
and power consumption correspond very closely to the 
predetermined values. The line upon which the locomo- 
tive has been tested is not well adapted to high speed 
work on account of the numerous sharp curves which 
exist, but, in spite of these adverse conditions, the loco- 
motive has been operated at speeds above 60 miles per 
hour without difficulty. 

Combined Steam and Trolley Service 

THE procedure of President Mellen of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford, in eliciting the good 
opinions of the city authorities in a traction proposition 
looking to the combination of steam and electric Service 
in Hartford and other cities, is in striking contrast to the 
course usually pursued by corporations desirous of work- 
ing out a scheme of expansion. There is nothing vague 
about the remarks made by that gentleman in his speech 
before the citizens of Hartford, which is in part as fol- 

"We would like to make the experiment on a large 
scale to determine whether the two systems of traction — 
steam and electric— may not be worked in common, each 
supplementing the other, and we would like to electrify 
our steam tracks between here and Waterbury, and on 
the Central of New England between here and New Hart- 
ford and Springfield^ and on the east' side between here 
and Rockville, Melrose and Springfield, and upon the 
Valley line between here and Middletown. 

"Instead of running to and from our stations through 
our yards, with all the switching and delays incident 
thereto, we desire to connect at convenient points with 
the street railway tracks, and for interurban service make 
a circuit of the principal streets, collecting and delivering 
suburban shoppers at the store doors, and we believe 
both the city and the railroad will be greatly the gainers 
thereby. No city on our lines is so favorably situated 
as is Hartford for the development of this idea. Now 

May, 1906 



what we want is, that you shall permit us to use on the 
streets where this suburban service will naturally go, the 
T-rails we use in other cities — New Haven for instance — 
and waiving none of your rights under your contracts ; 
see how it will work, ascertain if the objections are real 
or imaginary, and if you find there are more objections 
than advantages after a two years' trial, we will take up 
the T-rails, restore the grooved rails and return to the 
old order of things. I shall be most seriously disap- 
pointed if you force me to go elsewhere to try the ex- 
periment. The proposition is knocking at your doors — 
such an opportunity as no other city has to-day." 

In these days of jobs, it is refreshing to find such a 
frank and plain proposition to improve municipal trans- 

Knuckle Rack—C. P. Sr St. L. R R. 

THE photograph here reproduced illustrates clearly 
the service and construction of a convenient rack 
for classifying and storing the many types of M. C. B. 
coupler knuckles, at the same time so placing them that 
a required knuckle may be easily selected from the gen- 
eral platform or rack. The large number of couplers on 
the market, which conform to M. C. B. outlines, neces- 
sarily requires a large and varied assortment of knuckles 
to be kept on hand at a repair track or car department 
storeroom, and unless some provision is made for classi- 
fying the several types much time is lost in looking for 
an individual knuckle. Further than this, some of the 
knuckles are not so well known to car repairers in dif- 
ferent sections and time is saved by storing knuckles in 
such manner that the type may be seen and determined 
at a glance. Where knuckles are merely dumped together 
in a bin or stacked at random on a platform, no order or 

KNUCKLE RACK — C. P. & ST. L. R. R. 

classification exists and the difficulty encountered by a 
car repairer may be readily appreciated — though this 
difficulty is not always provided against. 

To facilitate the quick selection of a desired knuckle, 
the rack here illustrated has many commendable features. 
There is a place for each class of knuckles ; the name 
appears above each row; the knuckles are piled so that 
they cannot fall and once placed in proper order there 
is little possibility of the classes becoming confused ; the 
car repairer is enabled to select a desired knuckle quickly 
whether he is familiar with the type or not ; the rack may 
be constructed cheaply and by using old car material the 
cost is practically nothing but the expenditure for labor. 

The rack is made of old sills and car sides. It con- 

sists practically of two racks braced together for greater 
strength and convenience. The uprights for steadying 
the knuckles are arranged at such distance as to accom- 
modate the tail of a knuckle, and the row is so arranged 
that the faces will not interfere. In stacking knuckles, 
the tails are placed through the support and the weight 
of each row is borne by the bottom knuckle. Above each 
row of knuckles the name of the coupler is stenciled 
plainly on the rack with white paint and the names are 
arranged in alphabetical order. 

This rack was designed by and built under the super- 
vision of Mr. W. T. Cousley, Road Foreman of cars of the 
C. P. & St. L. R. R., whose courtesy we acknowledge in 
presenting the illustration. 

List of Members National Advisory Board 
on Fuels and Structural Materials 

The Government through the Geological Survey and 
the Forest Service is engaged in investigating the prop- 
erties and best methods of using the fuels and structural 
materials of the United States. In order that these in- 
vestigations may be brought into closer touch with both 
the producers and users of fuels and structural materials, 
the president has invited selected members of the na- 
tional engineering societies and allied organizations to 
form, with representatives of such Government Bureaus 
as are carrying on actual construction work, a National 
Advisory Board on Fuels and Structural Materials. 

The Forest Service is now engaged in testing the 
strength of structural timbers, and expects in the near 
future to begin tests on the preservative treatment of 
timbers. In both of these lines it is desired to have all 
methods and plans of work passed upon by the advisory 

The organizations which will be represented on the 
advisory board through the members thus invited by 
the President are given in the accompanying list. 


From the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 

John Hays Hammond, Past-President, Empire Build- 
ing, New York; Robert W. Hunt (of Robert W. Hunt & 
Co., Testing Engineers, Chicago, Pittsburg and New 
York), Chicago, 111.; B. F. Bush, Manager and Vice- 
President, Western Coal and Mining Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
From the American Institute of Electrical Engineers : 

Francis B. Crocker, Professor of Electrical Engineer- 
ing, Columbia University, New York ; Henry C. Stott, 
Supt. Motive Power, Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 
New York. 
From the American Society of Civil Engineers : 

C. C. Schneider, President ; Chairman Committee on 
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, Pennsylvania Bldg., 
Philadelphia, Pa ; George S. Webster, Chairman, Com- 
mittee on Cement Specifications; City Engineer, City 
Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 
From the American Society of Mechanical Engineers : 

W. F. M. Goss, Dean of the School of Engineering, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana ; George H. Bar- 
rus, Steam Engineer, Pemberton Square, Boston, Mass. ; 



May, 1906 

P. W. Gates, 210 State Street, Chicago, 111. 

From the American Society for Testing Materials: 

Charles B. Dudley, President, Altoona, Pa. ; Robert 
W. Lesley, Vice-President, Pennsylvania Building, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 
From the American Institute of Architects : 

George B. Post, Past-President, 33 East Seventeenth 
St., New York; William S. Eames, Past-President, Lin- 
coln Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

From the American Railway Engineering and Mainte- 
nance of Way Association : 

H. G. Kelley, President, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Julius 
Kruttschnitt, Director of Maintenance and Operation, 
Union Pacific R. R., 135 Adams Street, Chicago, 111. ; 
Hunter McDonald, Past-President; Chief Engineer, 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis R'y, Nashville, Tenn. 
From the American Railway Master Mechanics Asso- 
ciation : 

J. F. Deems, General Superintendent of Motive Power, 
New York Central Lines, New York ; A. W. Gibbs, Gen- 
eral Superintendent of Motive Power, Pennsylvania R. 
R., Altoona, Pa. 
From the American Foundrymen's Association : 

Richard Holdenke, Secretary, Watchtung, N. J. 
From the Association of American Portland Cement 
Manufacturers : 

John B. Lober, President, Land Title Building, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
From the Geological Society of America : 

Samuel Calvin, Professor of Geology, University of 
Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; I. C. White, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
From the Iron and Steel Institute : 

Julian Kennedy, Metallurgical Engineer, Pittsburg, 
Pa. ; C. S. Robinson, Gen. Mgr., Colorado Fuel and Iron 
Co., Denver, Colo. 
From the National Association of Cement Users : 

Richard L. Humphrey, President, St. Louis, Mo. 
From the National Board of Fire Underwriters : 

Chas. A, Hexamer, Chairman, Board of Consulting 
Experts, Bullitt Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
From the National Brick Manufacturers' Association : 

John W. Sibley, Treasurer, Sibley-Menge Press Brick 
Co., Birmingham, Ala. ; Wm. D. Gates, American Terra 
Cotta and Ceramic Co., Chicago, 111. 
From the National Fire Protective Association : 

O. U. Crosby, Chairman, Executive Committee, j6 
William St., New York. 
From the National Lumber Manufacturers' Association: 

Nelson W. McLeod, President, Equitable Building, St. 
Louis, Mo. ; John L. Kaul, President, Yellow Pine Manu- 
facturers' Association, Birmingham, Ala. 

From the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army: 

Lieut. Col. Wm. L. Marshall, Army Building, New 


From the Isthmian Canal Commission : 
Lieut. Col. O. H. Ernst, Washington, D. C. 

From the Bureau of Yards and Docks, U. S. Navy : 

Civil Engineer, Frank T. Chambers, Washington, 
D. C. 

From the Supervising Architect's Office, U. S. Treasury 
Department : 
James K. Taylor, Supervising Architect, Washington, 
D. C. 

From the Reclamation Service, U. S. Interior Depart- 
ment : 
F. H. Newell, Chief Engineer, Washington, D. C. 


Mr. William Adams has been appointed assistant mas- 
ter mechanic of the Wabash at Bluffs, 111. 

Mr. James Bruce has been appointed fuel inspector of 
the Cincinnati Hamilton & Dayton, with office at Lima, 

Mr. S. G. Wise has been appointed assistant road fore- 
man of engines of the Pennsylvania at Hollidaysburg, Pa. 

Mr. A. S. Williamson has been appointed mechanical 
inspector of the Mexican Central, with office at Aguasca- 
lientes, Mex. 

Mr. E. J. Davis has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Washington Idaho & Montana, with headquarters 
at Palouse, Wash. 

Mr. George W. Stillwagon has been appointed master 
car builder of the Pittsburg Shawmut & Northern, with 
headquarters at Saint Marys, Pa. 

Mr. J. C. Homer has been appointed assistant master 
mechanic of the Cincinnati Hamilton & Dayton at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., in place of Mr. E. E. Chrysler, resigned. 

Mr. Frank P. Roesch, formerly master mechanic of the 
Chicago & Alton, has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Southern at Birmingham, Ala. 

Mr. W. J. Collins has resigned as general foreman of 
shops of the Chicago Burlington & Quincy at Saint Lcuis, 
Mo., to accept a similar position with the Wabash. 

Mr. C. D. Kunerth has been appointed general fore- 
man of the Chicago Rock Island & Pacific at Herington, 
Kan., vice Mr. W. M. Evans, resigned, effective on 
April r. 

Mr. E. C. Huffman, division master mechanic of the 
Great Northern at Breckenridge, Minn., has been trans- 
ferred to Sioux City, la., as master mechanic of the Sioux 
City division. 

Mr-. Miles Gibson has been appointed road foreman of 
engines on the Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago and St. 
Louis at Mount Carmel, 111., in place of Mr. Homer 
Baldwin, resigned. 

Mr. J. H. Tinker has resigned his position as general 
foreman at Mounds for the Illinois Central R. R., to ac- 
cept a position as assistant master mechanic of the L. & 
N. shops in Louisville, Ky. 

Mr. D. J. Carson, master carpenter of the Buffalo 
Rochester & Pittsburg, with headquarters at Du Bois, has 
been granted a leave of absence for a year, and will en- 
gage in general construction work. 

Mr. A. H. Hodges has been appointed general foreman 
of shops of the Baltimore & Ohio at Brunswick, Md., 
succeeding Mr. Z. T. Brandtner, who has been transferred 

May, 1906 



to the maintenance of way department at Martinsburg, 
W. Va. 

Mr. E. J. Smith, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Atlantic Coast Line at High Springs, Fla., has been ap- 
pointed assistant superintendent of motive power of the 
third division, with office at Jacksonville, Fla. 

Mr. John T. Carroll, heretofore chief draughtsman in 
the office of the mechanical engineer of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern, has been appointed assistant general 
foreman of the locomotive shops at Collinwood, O. 

Mr. C. L. Meister has been appointed mechanical en- 
gineer of the Atlantic Coast Line with headquarters at 
Wilmington, N. C. Mr. G. L. Allen has been appointed 
chief draughtsman, and Mr. Neil D. Emerson has been 
appointed electrical engineer, both with headquarters at 
Wilmington. Effective on April 1. 

Mr. E. F. Needham, division master mechanic of the 
Wabash at Fort Wayne, Ind., has been appointed division 
master mechanic at Springfield, 111., succeeding Mr. C. 
H. Doebler, resigned. Mr. George W. Smith, general 
foreman at Fort Wayne, has been appointed to succeed 
Mr. Needham as division master mechanic. 

Mr. G. W. Seidel, formerly master mechanic of the 
Chicago Rock Island & Pacific at Horton, Kansas, has 
been appointed superintendent of shops, with headquarters 
at East Moline, III, succeeding Mr. A. W. Wheatley, re- 

Mr. R. G Long, general foreman of the Missouri Pa- 
cific at Fort Scott, Kan., has been appointed division mas- 
ter mechanic of the Saint Louis Iron Mountain & South- 
ern at McGehee, Ark., succeeding Mr. A. W. Wheatley, 

Mr. N. F. Burk, formerly master mechanic of the 
Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe at Needles, Cab, has been 
appointed mechanical superintendent of the Eastern grand 
division with headquarters at Topeka, Kan., succeeding 
F. N. Risteen, deceased. 

Mr. W. T. Cousley has been appointed master car 
builder of the Chicago Peoria & St. Louis. Mr. A. L. 
Rossetter, heretofore master mechanic, has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power, with headquar- 
ters at Springfield, 111., succeeding Mr. M. D. Stewart, 
who has resigned to accept a position with the Fitz-Hugh, 
Luther Company of Chicago. 

Mr. D. M. Perine has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power of the Northern Central and the Phila- 
delphia & Erie division of the Pennsylvania, with head- 
quarters at Williamsport, Pa., in place of Mr. R. K. 
Reading, who has been transferred to Buffalo, N. Y., as 
superintendent of motive power of the Buffalo & Alle- 
gheny Valley . division, succeeding Mr. H. M. Carson, 
promoted. Mr. J. T. Wallis has been appointed master 
mechanic at West Philadelphia, Pa., to succeed Mr. Per- 
ine. Mr. J. C. Mingle has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Northern Central at Baltimore, Md., in 
place of Mr. Wallis. 

Mr. C. K. Shelby, assistant engineer of motive power 
of the Pennsylvania and the Northern Central at Wil- 
liamsport, Pa., has been appointed master mechanic of 

the latter road at Elmira, N. Y., succeeding Mr. John M. 
Henry, who has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Pennsylvania at Sunbury, Pa., in place of Mr. J. C. Min- 
gle, who has been transferred to Baltimore, Md., as master 
mechanic of the Northern Central. Mr. J. L. Cunning- 
ham has been appointed to succeed Mr. Shelby as assist- 
ant engineer of motive power at Williamsport. 

Mr. C. H. Burk has been appointed assistant superin- 
tendent of machinery of the Mexican Central with head- 
quarters at Aguascalientes, Mex. Mr. R. H. Rutherford, 
assistant master mechanic at Aguascalientes, has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Chihuahua division, with 
office at Chihuahua, Mex., vice Mr. C. H. Burk. The po- 
sition of assistant master mechanic of the Mexico division 
has been abolished. Mr. J. J. Cavanaugh has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the San Luis division, with 
office at San Luis Potosi, Mex., to succeed Mr. Thomas 
Smith, resigned. Effective on March 20. 

Robert Miller, formerly superintendent of motive 
power and equipment of the Michigan Central, died at 
his home in Detroit, Mich., on March 13, aged 66 years. 
Mr. Miller entered the service of the Michigan Central in 
June, 1876, as master car builder in charge of buildings 
and waterworks, which position he held until April, 1884, 
when he was appointed assistant general superintendent. 
In September, 1890, he was made general superintendent 
and in April, 1896, he became superintendent of motive 
power and equipment, resigning on February 1, 1900. 

Mr. J. H. Wynne, formerly mechanical engineer of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, has been appointed western man- 
ager of the Atlantic Equipment Co., who are also western 
representatives of the American Locomotive Co., with 
offices in the Railway Exchange Building, Chicago. 

The appointment of J. C. Breckenridge as consulting 
engineer of the New York Central is announced. The 
selection of Mr. Breckenridge, who has been prominent in 
engineering work, will have an important bearing on the 
change of motive power from steam to electricity on that 
road. He has been identified most prominently for many 
years with the greatest engineering works in and about 
New York City, and has served as a member on prac- 
tically every public commission as an engineering expert, 
and was for a long time general manager and chief engi- 
neer of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., and also Commis- 
sioner of Public Works of Brooklyn. At the time of his 
appointment to the New York Central, he was president 
of the Rossiter-McGovern company. 

■ » ■ 

Hotel Ponce De Leon 

The Hotel Ponce De Leon is situated on Virginia Ave., At- 
lantic City, the second house from the ocean, the Boardwalk and 
the Steel Pier. It is a new house with all the latest and up-to- 
date conveniences. It is heated by steam and has elevator to 
street level; rolling chairs and children's play rooms; card and 
amusements parlors ; rooms en suite with bath ; large broad 
piazza with sun parlor and southern exposure. In the sum- 
mer it is as cool as any house on the Atlantic Coast, being built 
with high ceilings and large air chambers. 

The table is supplied with all the best the market affords, and 
having their own farmer, are sure no other house can excel the 



May, 1906 

table in quality or quantity. The dining room is so arranged 
that a party of from two to twelve can be at the same table. 

You can get an automobile, a saddle horse, or carriage and 
driver in full livery as handsome as any private team, by giv- 
ing notice at the office, as the hotel is connected by 'phone with 
all the stables. 

The hotel is open all night, with inside and outside watchmen. 
Fire escapes are in every room. It also has a buffet, cafe, tailors, 
barbers and manicurist. 

The rates are from $2.00 per day up. Children half price, 
while the weekly rates are from $12.00 up. The capacity of the 
hotel 'is 350. 

Further information can lie obtained from Mr. S. E. Sweeny, 
the owner and proprietor, or Mr. A. B. Grindrod, the manager. 

The Johnston Automatic Wrench 

One of the simplest, strongest, and most effective wrenches oX 
the toothed jaw or adjustable alligator type on the market, is the 
"Johnston Automatic," the name stamped on each wrench. It 
consists of but three parts, a combined head and handle, a swing- 
ing jaw, and a pin. All of these parts are interchangeable and 
made of drop forged crucible steel. The jaws adjust themselves 
quickly to different sizes of pipe and are instantly released by 
simply raising the handle. This wrench firmly grips galvanized 
or iron pipe, which it is guaranteed not to crush, as well as solid 
iron bars. It cannot slip, and jamming or wedging is absolutely 
impossible. The greater the pressure exerted on the handle, the 
firmer the grip. The "Johnston" is a strictly high grade wrench 
and is warranted. It is one of the first class specialties handled 
by Fred Pfeiffer, 101 Reade St., New York. 

The Krus Chicago Lathe Dog 

With this tool the user has all sizes at hand in a single device. 
He is able to handle a piece of work without looking for a spe- 
cial size, as is the case with the old style of dog. He is also able 
to clamp on straight or tapered work without having to look for 
a wedge or other device to lay on the low side of taper work in 
order to be able to hold it. This dog is easily adjusted to any 
size. This is done by keeping the set screw in the top beam 
backed up to the limit, then turn the knurl in the driving beam 
to the left until it is free of the toothed racks. Slide the beam 
up or down, as may be required, bringing the two beams as close 
as possible to the clamp, turn the knurl this time to the right 
uritil the driving beam engages the racks. Then tighten the 
set screw just enough to drive the cut. 

When ready to change the dog. slacken the set screw, turn the 
knurl to the left, when the driving beam will be free. Slide it 
off the side racks while the work is still between the centers, 
turn the work end for end and put the dog on. These tools are 
made in two sizes, No. 1 taking from % to 3 inches, stock to 
finish 3 inches, and is provided with drill or die-holding attach- 
ment. For medium work, No. 2 takes from 1 to 4 inch stock 
for finishing to 4 inches ; the latter size of dog being especially 
adapted to heavy service. This tool is intended to make work 
easier for the workman and to save time for the purchaser. It 
is manufactured by Andrew F. Krus, 943 Elston Ave., Chicago, 

Portable Milling Machine 

This machine is the outgrowth of a temporary rig that the 
manufacturers were forced to make to do work on a large ma- 
chine in a stated time and in place. From this the idea has been 
elaborated on from time to time until it has become one of their 
special tools. 

It is designed for straight line work, with a number of surfaces 
in line, but on different planes. It being motor driven allows it 


to be taken to the work, and work of such a character that no 
machine tool built could do as required, for the work can be done 
after ail parts are assembled. The carriage has a travel of 8 feet 
with automatic feed. The cross slide has a travel of 12 miles, 
the vertical spindle a travel up and down of 10 inches. The 
spindle has a taper hole to receive taper shank mills. The cross 
slide is provided with a hand feed. The bed is mounted on a 
sub base, allowing accurate adjustment by set screws setting up 
against taper space pieces securely holding the two beds as solid 
as though in one piece. This sub base has long slots and pro- 
jections for screwing to the work by clamps or bolts. 

This machine is built by H. B. Underwood & Co., Philadel- 
phia manufacturers of portable tools for machine shops. 


Laurication Test at Purdue 

The lubricatixg efficiency of graphite has been tested very 
thoroughly at Purdue University under the direction of Dr. 
Goss, with the peculiar finding that with an increase of pressure 
the co-.efficient of friction was reduced. Kerosene was used to 
carry the load, which was increased from fifty to no pounds 
per square inch, or a gain of 120 per cent, in load by the use 
of Dixon's graphite, which corresponds to a reduction of the co- 
efficient of friction from 0.00547 to 0.00296, a reduction of prac- 
tically fifty per cent. 

In the test without graphite, all trace of graphite was re- 
moved as far as possible by wiping and rinsing all bearing 
surfaces, when the machine was started up under a load of 
ico pounds per square . inch which was carried on a film of 
kerosene. It was found that lubrication was of a higher effi- 
ciency in this case than would be possible alone by the medium 
used, and this was no doubt due to the particles of graphite 
which remained on the surfaces in contact, notwithstanding the 
extreme caution in that direction, and the belief that such 
particles if any could not exercise any influence in the reduction 
of friction, owing to the infinitesimal amount present. 

The same care was taken before proceeding with each test, 
and the machine was run through a duration of 978,000 revo- 
lutions, embracing a period of eight days, with practically the 
same results of an unchanged coefficient of friction. The belief 
of the experts in charge was confirmed by a microscopic exam- 
ination of the bearings which revealed unmistakable presence 
of graphite in the depressions of the bearings. 

It is well established that no degree of finish of a metallic 
surface, at the present state of the art, can be of such a high 
degree of excellence as not to have minute depressions which 
will receive and hold atomic particles of a substance like grap- 
hite, which is capable of an almost unlimited subdivision. There 
is no question that the presence of graphite in invisible quan- 

May, 1906 



tities was iargely responsible fur the results obtained when kero- 
sene alone was used, for it is notorious that the lubricating 
value of kerosene is of a negative value. 

The application of this lesson to locomotive operation has 
been made many times without the accompaniment of friction 
coefficients, other than the evidence provided by a cool crank 
pin or driving axle journal which has been treated with graphite. 
This appears to be another case of theory bearing out practice, 
and is a welcome addition to the sum of information on lubri- 

The New Westinghouse "K" Triple Valve 

The accompanying illustration is a central vertical section 
through the "K" triple valve which was first publicly introduced 
at the West Seneca Tests on the Lake Shore & Michigan South- 
ern Railway last October. It consists rjf an ordinary Westing- 
house quick-action freight triple valve with a small addition and 
slight modification in the parts of the valve body and slide valve. 
The principal advantages gained are, quick action in service ap- 
plications; retarded release of brakes on the forward part of the 
train, and even recharge of auxiliary reservoirs throughout the 

The changes required to convert the old standard valve into 
this type will be readily understood from the illustration. These 
changes are: a new body, 2; a new slide valve, 3; a new grad- 
uating valve, 7, of the slide valve type ; the necessary modifica- 
tions in the piston stem, 4* required by the new type of graduat- 
ing valve ; the new slide-valve bush with proper re-arrange- 
ment of ports to suit the new slide valve ; and the addition of the 
retarded-release feature, 29, which in the ordinary freight equip- 
ment protrudes into the auxiliary reservoir volume. Besides this, 
the port b, is drilled through the body and check-valve case in 
such a manner as to connect the chamber Y above the check 
valve to a port in the slide-valve seat. In the release position of 
the valve when used with the 10-inch brake equipment, this 
port b communicates through a port in the slide valve with the 
slide-valve chamber, and thus with the auxiliary reservoir, per- 
mitting air from the brake pipe to raise the check valve 15 and 
pass through port b to the auxiliary reservoir. This is in addi- 
tion to the supply that passes through the ordinary feed groove 
i around the piston, so that in full release position the auxiliary 
reservoirs will charge very rapidly. But if the valve is in the re- 
tarded-release position, port b connects with a much smaller port 
through the slide valve, while the piston fits closely against the 
ends of the slide-valve bush, cutting off any supply through feed 
groove i, thus greatly reducing the rate of recharge. This also 
applies to the valve when arranged for an 8-inch equipment 
except that communication between port b and the slide-valve 
chamber is broken during the full release, all the air for recharg- 
ing then coming through the feed groove ; while during the re- 
tarded release, the port in the slide-valve which opens b to the 
slide-valve chamber is about half the area of the feed groove. 
This difference exists because of the different volumes of air 
that have to be handled, while the feed grooves in both valves 
are the same size. 

The retarded-release feature is made possible through the 
supplementary portion 29, which consists of a brass frame casting 
open on both sides and attached to the triple-valve body by means 
of three screws 30; the stem, 31, acts as a stop for the triple- 
valve piston when moving to the release position. Since it is 
held to its position by the spring 2>2>, and collar 32, it will readily 
be seen that by properly proportioning this spring, the stem 31 
can be made to compress the spring or not, depending on the rate 
of increase of the brake-pipe pressure in chamber h. If the 
triple valve is on the. head end of the train, where the brake-pipe 
pressure builds up rapidly, spring t>2> will be somewhat com- 
pressed by the piston when going to the release position, thus al- 
lowing the slide valve 3 to pass beyond full release position 
and partly close the exhaust port. As the brake-pipe pressure 
equalizes throughout the train, and feeds through into the auxil- 

From Brake Pipe 

iary reservoirs, the difference of pressures on the two sides of 
the piston becomes less, and the slide valve is gradually forced 
back to the full exhaust opening. 

The quick-service feature is gotten through port b. When the 
slide valve goes to the service-application position, its arrange- 
ment of ports is such that the chamber Y is connected through 
port b to the brake cylinders. These ports are so restricted that 
the resulting flow of air from the brake pipe to the brake cylinder 
through port b is not sufficient to cause an emergency applica- 
tion, but will materially hasten the brake-pipe reduction through- 
out the train. It is for this reason that a much smaller reduction 
is required at the brake valve to obtain a given brake-cylinder 
pressure than would be the case with the old type of triple valve. 
This is true not only because of less air exhausted to the atmos- 
phere at the brake valve, but also because of the additional pres- 
sure derived from the air entering the brake cylinders from the 
brake pipe and thereby causing a higher brake-cylinder pressure. 

In all other respects the operation of this valve is practically 
that of the present F 36 or H 49 triple valves. Its outward ap- 
pearance, when attached to the auxiliary reservoir, is so much 
like those valves that, to distinguish it, a thin lug is cast on the 
top of the body in a position easily seen from the side of the 
valve; and its designation "K-i" or "K-2" is also cast on the 
side of the body, the former replacing the F 36 and the latter the 
H 49 standard valves. 

A large number of these valves are already in service giving 
good results that are in every way satisfactory. The serious 
problems brought forward by the rapidly changing conditions 
of freight service have made it absolutely necessary to increase 
the power and flexibility of the air brake. Yet the adoption of 
any new device would entail such an immense amount of ex- 
pense and inconvenience, that the arrangement above outlined 
whereby "the valves now in service can be utilized and trans- 
formed to give the required results with only a slight addition, 
to the number of parts and with little expense, will prove to be 
one of the most important improvements yet brought out in 
connection with air-brake equipments. 

• ♦ ■ 

Uses of Steel Versus Wrought Iron* 

Prejudice on the part of many interested persons, lack of 
knowledge in the manufacture or properties of steel, with also 
reference to some of its failures such as occurred when used 
at first in the manufacture of boilers, defects in flanging, and 
in shafting for steam vessels gave good reason for this, also the 
difficulty encountered in making complicated forgings an idea 

*Thomas Lace before Pittsburg Railway Club, March 23, 1906. 



May, 1906 

was prevalent that steel was more difficult to machine than iron. 
This may be true as regards railroad tires, where the metal has 
been in rolling contact and has been compressed, but is not the 
case with ordinary metal, it is in fact much cleaner and a broom 
is not required to clean the dirt from a machine that is doing 
heavy cutting. Forgings that are to be machined do not re- 
quire the close margin of finish formerly demanded in ancient 
times by the use of carbon steel tools of ordinary quality. The 
advent of high speed steel has rung the knell of all close forg- 
ing, and what with milling machines, heavy lathes and planers, 
saws, twist drills, etc., steel is cut as readily if not as rapidly as 

Malleable cast iron served in many instances to take the place 
of iron forgings of a complicated shape, but will be superseded 
by steel castings for heavy work. Complicated forgings, will and 
are obsolete for braces, frame pads, rockers and other purposes. 
As to engine frames, we believe that many of the failures have 
arisen through a lack of consideration as to expansion and con- 
traction in the manufacture. This is laid down upon well known 
lines up to a red heat, but above this and up to a fluid state, it 
is not easily defined, on account of the gases which permeate the 
molten metal. 

Now at the moment of consolidation or setting the metal in 
the spaces of the top or back of the frame and the lower rails 
must draw from the pedestals causing the atoms to be in the very 
reverse of what would take place in a forging or in a casing 
made by the Whitworth process, in other words the atoms are 
moved to the limit of their attraction for each other. 

To bear out this statement notice the porosity of an ingot, be- 
fore it is hammered or rolled a certain amount is cut off by speci- 
fication for certain classes of work, such as ordinance, etc. We 
have noticed one frame that was broken before the engine was 
placed in service, and in the center of the break a cavity V2X9 in. 
in length, now to overcome the initial weakness of the casting, 
pressure must be resorted to, either by the Whitworth process, 
rolling pressure, or the last and worst the steam hammer. By 
the foregoing conclusions it is obvious that the closer the atoms 
that enter into the composition of steel approach to each other, 
so will be its resistance to all strains, this is subject to composi- 
tion and heat treatment. 

One more observation as regards the loose state of certain 
parts of the ingot, should this be rolled into billets for the manu- 
facture of tubes or plates, the cavities are brought together by 
pressure but make themselves known as laminations or pits or 
blisters when placed in service as boiler tubes or fire box plates. 
As regards the latter the general consensus of opinion leans to 
open hearth steel. We have seen charcoal iron and copper in 
this service, but believe that mild crucible steel would be worth 
a trial for this purpose, reasons as given. 

Steel as regards its application to the construction of loco- 
motives, is making rapid strides as applied to castings, but the 
limit has not been reached in forgings. All of the spring rigging 
consisting of equalizers, swords and spring hangers could be 
made from steel and would give better service than iron, the 
driver brake work and engine truck also. 

For passenger cars the swing hangers and equalizer beams, 
truss rods, bolsters, side bearings and truss irons, we may re- 
mark that the present forging machines are made quick in action 
for the purpose of welding the iron as it is forced into the matrix 
or die. This will not answer for steel as the high heat required 
for iron brings the steel back to its original ingot grain, and con- 
sequent weakness, the work on the bar is therefore lost. A 
steady even pressure will cause the metal to take any shape, pro- 
vided the machinery is rigid, and bears about the same relation 
to the machinery used for iron, as the moderate lathe adapted to 
the use of high speed steel bears to its prototype used in the 
cutting of iron. 

In the construction of freight cars we will take the wooden or 
composite car, and in passing, would say that with a few ex- 
ceptions the work in steel can be bent cold by suitable appliances, 

and in relation to its lasting or wearing qualities, speaking from 
experience, steel brake hangers, bolts, truss rods, fulcrurns, brake 
levers and bolts from $i up to ij4 in. give much better service 
than their equivalent in puddled bar iron. Even in wreckage, 
arch bars and truss rods are seldom broken and straighten read- 
ily at a low red heat, while ordinary bar iron under like condi- 
tions is much in evidence as being irreparable. 

As to welding many hold out that steel cannot be welded, we 
refer you to the specimens ranging from low carbon to tool steel 
for your inspection. The writer is at present in the employ of a 
corporation who use nothing but open hearth mild steel, having 
found through experience that it is far the best for general pur- 

» ♦ » 

Railway Association and Club Meetings for 


Canadian Railway Club, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Ont, May 

Car Foreman's Club of Chicago, 26 Van Buren St., Chicago, 
May 8. 

Central Railway Club, Hotel Iroquois, Buffalo, N. Y., May 11. 

International Railway General Foremen's Association, St. 
Louis, Mo., May 8. 

New England Railway Club, Pierce Hall, Copley Sq., Boston, 
May 8. 

New York Railway Club, 154 W. 57th St., New York, May 18. 

North-West Railway Club, West Hotel, Minneapolis, May 15. 

Railway Club of Pittsburg, Monongahela Hotel, Pittsburg, May 

Railway Storekeepers' Association, Chicago, May 21. 
St. Louis Railway Club, Southern Hotel, St. Louis, May 11. 
Richmond Railroad Club, Richmond, May 10. 
Pacific Coast Railway Club, San Francisco, May 19. 
Western Railway Club, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, May 15. 

« ■» ■ 

Notes of the Month 

The T. H. Symington Co. have moved their Chicago office 

from Room 315, Railway Exchange Building, to Rooms 616-618 

of the same building. 

■ ♦ » 

The Railway Club of Pittsburg is sending out to its members 

a reprint of the talk given by Mr. George A. Post before the 

club last October. The "talk" referred to is entitled "The Man 

Who Sells Things is Entitled to a Degree" and the club is to be 

complimented on sending this out to its members in souvenir 


On May first the well known firm of Geo. P. Nichols & Bro., 
manufacturers of electric drawbridge machinery, electric turn- 
table tractors, electric traveling cranes, and electric transfer 
tables, will move their office to 1090 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago. 
This change was necessitated on account of the increase of 
their business which has outgrown their former space. 

The Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., of Jersey City, N. J., have 
just issued a pamphlet called Spring Painting. This deals with 
the destructive powers of the heat of the sun, the moisture of 
rains and snow, combined with the gases of combustion. It 
also gives as a preservative against these destructive powers, the 
use of graphite paint. 

« ♦ ■ 

John F. Allen, manufacturer of the "Allen" pneumatic rive- 
ters, reports recent sales abroad to Charles G. Eckstein, Berlin, 
Germany one jaw riveter; John Turnbull, Jr., & Sons, Glasgow, 
one jaw riveter and one 72 in. boiler riveter, also to the At- 
lantic, Gulf & Pacific Company for contract in Manila, P. I., four 
jaw riveters of 72 in. reach, capacity y% in. and I in. rivets. The 
machines for Manila are to be shipped next month. 

The Vacuum Cleaner Company, 427 Fifth Avenue, New York 

May, 1906 



City, has established another cleaning plant in the south, having 
recently made a connection with the Louisville & Nashville at 
Louisville, for the cleaning of the passenger car equipment of that 
road, and also take care of the offices of the company at that 
point. This installation was made under the personal supervis- 
ion of Mr. R. C. Hallett, who has charge of the department of 
Railroads and Marine service. 

The expansion of the business of the Flannery Bolt Company, 
of Pittsburg', manufacturers of the Tate Flexible Staybolt, has 
assumed such proportions as to make necessary another increase 
of the force. Mr. W. M. Wilson has been appointed western 
representative with headquarters in Chicago, and Mr. T. R. 
Davis has been appointed mechanical expert and traveling repre- 
sentative. With the addition to the staff of these well known 
names in the supply and mechanical world the Flannery Bolt Co. 

is better equipped than at any time since its organization. 

• ^ • ■ 

The experiments of the Admiralty in England on the calorific 
effect of coal stored under water have convinced that body that 
deterioration is not only prevented but the calorific value is en- 
hanced, while as is well known exposure to the air decreases it. 
The reason advanced for this, is that submersion prevents the 
escape of the combustible gases and preserves the original fuel 
value of the coal, which cannot be the case when stored in the 
open. The Admiralty is about to conduct experiments on an 
•extended scale with the view of overcoming the difficulty of 
drying the coal for ready use after long submersion. 

■ ♦ 

The' Derry-Collard Company, late of 256 Broadway, N. Y., 
have again been obliged to seek more extensive quarters, and are 
now located at 109 Liberty street, where the entire floor is devoted 
to their rapidly expanding business. This enterprise started in 
one room, quickly overflowed into two, then three, and now into 
the new place where there will be no "pent up Utica" for several 
years. The progress of this publishing company has been a 
phenomenal one for the reason that friends predicted -failure due 
to their method of sending out books on approval. An inspection 
of their present quarters shows one prediction gone wrong. 

» ♦ ■ 

In accordance with its usual wont, of limning the shadows 
of coming events, the Railway Age has sent out a neat little 
brochure telling all about the M. M. and M. C. B. conventions at 
Atlantic City in June. Of special interest to the members of 
these bodies, and others contemplating attendance on that occa- 
sion, is the list of hotels, thirty-six in number, together with 
the prices for entertainment, and also a map of the hotel loca- 
tions with reference to the steel pier on which the meetings 
will be held and the exhibits installed. The growing popu- 
larity of Atlantic City as a convention point is shown by the 
booking of six such meetings there this year, so far. It is 
an ideal place for conventions, as all agree who have been there, 
and there is no doubt that the place will be considered favorably 
for more meetings of these railroad bodies after they once ex- 
perience the hospitality those landlords know how to hand 
out. If by any chance you have not received a copy of the 
descriptive matter from the "Age," send for it, and note their 
enterprise, in paving the way for the twentieth annual publica- 
tion of the proceedings of the conventions in the daily issues. 
> ^ • 

Consul-General Schuyler, of Bangkok, writes under date of 
February 23, that the Government of Siam has issued specifica- 
tions and drawings of tenders for the supply of 67 passenger 
cars, 7 guards and luggage vans, and 265 goods and ballast cars 
for the Royal Siamese Railway department. The consul-general 
says : It is to be noted that the sealed tenders will be opened in 
Bangkok on September 4, 1906, and that therefore the time 
allowed is very short. It is sincerely to be hoped that American 
enterprise will try to obtain at least a portion of the present con- 
tract, as the principle of open tender is just becoming firmly es- 
tablished in Siam after repeated efforts and largely through ef- 
forts of the Hon. Hamilton King, American minister here. It 

would produce an excellent impression in Siamese government 
and financial circles to have America interest itself in this mat- 
ter. On the three occasions in which there has been an open 
tender in Siam since the principle became established, only once 
has there been an American tender received, and that one ar- 
rived two days too late to be considered. There is no reason 
why American manufacturers can not compete in this class of 
contracts with Siam, and closer commercial relationship will be 

of advantage to both countries. 

. * + » 

The interest in the gasoline powered cars in the east is further 
evidenced by the recent acquisition of this type of motor car 
by the Pennsylvania road, and now engaged in trial runs on 
the Long Island R. R. This car was designed for use on either 
steam or trolley lines, thus doing away with trolley or third 
rail connections, and is equipped with a six cylinder engine of 
150 horse power, .and a storage tank of about 100 gallons of 
gasoline. It is operated by one man, and has a seating capacity 
for forty passengers. A speed of over forty miles an hour 
has been attained on the straight level stretch on which it has 
been operated, at a cost of about three cents per mile, a cost 

that is expected to be materially lowered in regular service. 

■ ^ ■ 

The illustrations in the new pamphlet of the Homestead 
Valve Manufacturing Company of Pittsburg, represent one of 
the most complete collections of valves for use under steam, 
air or hydraulic pressure, yet put out for the purpose. These 
valves are constructed on the principle that the closing forces 
it to the seat, through the operation of a traveling cam, which 
insures a tight valve under all pressures, without undue friction 
on the parts. It is this principle that has made these valves 
famous and that gives them an unlimited life under all cir- 
cumstances of service. They are absolutely unlike any other 
valves made, and are especially safe and efficient when under 
pressures that mean failure to other valves — and they cannot 

■ ■» • 

Consul Norton, of Smyrna, responding to a New York in- 
quiry desiring names of reliable houses that could handle ma- 
chine-shop tools, gives the following : Edward Clarke, Paul 
J. Bahadur, and Zuruksoglou Freres, all of Smyrna. The consul 
says : The supply of machine tools for working iron comes al- 
most exclusively from Great Britain and includes drill presses 
(mostly blacksmith presses), planers, shapers, and lathes (all 
with gap bed). No milling machines have yet been introduced 
in Smyrna. There is no house carrying a stock of machine 
tools. They are ususally ordered from catalogues, through com- 
mission merchants who generally know little of the business. 
The result is frequently much trouble and dissatisfaction on both 
sides. A permanent stock of samples of representative modern 
American machine tools exhibited at the store of a responsible, 
well-posted and energetic party would gradually monopolize the 
trade and lead to profitable results. The firms above mentioned 
would scarcely agree to pay outright for such samples, although 
they would probably bear all expenses connected with the cus- 
toms and landing of same (amounting to about 15 per cent). 
Orders could be taken on the terms of one-third cash and the 
balance against shipping documents. The manufacturing inter- 
ests of Smyrna are steadily growing. The demand for hand 
tools and machine tools in increasing. It would be well worth 
while to make some sacrifices at the present moment in order 
to lay the foundations for what may be a prosperous trade at an 
early date. 

Consul Norton reports from Smyrna that the purchase of the 
Mersina-Adana Railway by the Anatolian Railroad Company 
means the increasing importance of Mersina as a seaport, through 
which will flow the trade of Mesopotamia and the upper Euph- 
rates Valley. The Anatolian line is now in operation from the 
docks at Haidar Pasha, opposite Constantinople, via Afioun Kara 
Hissari, Konieh, and Eregii to Bulgurlu, a distance of nearly 
500 miles, and within 75 miles of Adana, where it will connect 



May, 1906 

with the newly acquired line to Mersina. From Adana the rail- 
road will push on toward Bagdad. Trade now finding an outlet 
at Alexandretta will naturally be diverted to the railroad port 
of Mersina, or hurried by rail to Haidar Pasha, ferried across 
the Bosphorous, thence to the Oriental railway running north- 
ward to Vienna, etc. Smyrna may also come in for a larger 
share of this Asiatic trade, as railroad connection exists between 
Smyrna and Afioun Kara Hissari on the Anatolian railway. 
The new dock construction of Smyrna, rapidly nearly comple- 
tion, will provide for an enormous volume of traffic. Consul 
Norton also states that the new French railway from the 
port of Beirut to Aleppo will be finished within a year. The 
Anatolian Company will also build a branch south to Aleppo 
from their main railway to Bagdad. Beirut is also the terminus • 
of the present line to Damascus, which is extending to Mecca. 
Great progress is being made in the construction of the Hedjas 
Railway, which is now open to traffic as far as Minlavere, a 
point 150 kilometers beyond Ma'an, reports the Levant Herald. 
The Dera-Haifa branch is in full working order, and this, to- 
gether with the main line, makes 733 kilometers over which 
the trains now run. The earthworks have been pushed beyond 
Mundavere, and the survey has been completed as far as Me- 
dain Salih, 950 kilometers from Damascus, or considerably 
over halfway to Mecca. The Herald adds that the Imperial 
Government intends to establish big engineering works, prob- 
ably at Damascus, in connection with the railway, and has 
ordered the necessary plant. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, held Tuesday, April 10th, 
Mr. L. A. Osborne, formerly Third Vice President of that 
Company, was elected Second Vice President to succeed Mr. 
Frank H. Taylor, resigned. Mr. Taylor, who is also a director 
of the Company, will retain his seat on the Board. Mr. Osborne 
as Third Vice President had the direction of the engineering 
and manufacturing activities of the Company. As Second Vice 
President he will assume the direction of the commercial activ- 
ities of the Company while retaining those of the Engineering 
Department. The new Second Vice President is a graduate of 
Cornell University. He entered the employ of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company in 1891 and has suc- 
cessfully held the position of Assistant Superintendent, Assist- 
ant to the Vice President, Manager of Works, Fourth Vice 
President and Third Vice President. On account of the rapid 
expansion of the business of The Westinghouse Machine Com- 
pany, the Board of Directors has decided to enlarge the ex- 
ecutive organization by increasing the number of Vice Presi- 
dents from two to four, and has elected Mr. E. H. Sniffin and 
Mr. Arthur West to fill the new offices of Third and Fourth 
Vice President respectively. Mr. Sniffin will be in charge of 
the Sales Department as heretofore, his field of work not being 
altered in assuming the new title. Mr. West, who has been 
Chief Engineer of the Company, still retains that title and 
position. Mr. William A. Bole, in consequence of his election 
to the Vice Presidency of the Westinghouse Foundry Com- 
pany, has resigned his position as Manager of the Works of 
The Westinghouse Machine Company in order that he may 
better serve the interests of the Foundry Company, of which 
he assumes the entire management. The Westinghouse Ma- 
chine Company, however, retains Mr. Boles as. Consulting En- 
gineer, availing itself of his services and counsel on important 
work, which his ripe experience has made peculiarly valuable. 
Mr. Henry L. Barton, formerly General Superintendent of the 
East Pittsburg Works of The Westinghouse Machine Company, 
has been appointed Manager of Works. 

. . » ■ 

Special Agent Hutchinson has made an investigation of trade 
conditions in Bolivia of which the following is a partial report: 

"The great obstacle, however, to the development of the rich 
natural resources is the lack of transportation facilities in the 
forest region and the lack of both transportation facilities and 

power in the mining regions. The first steps to be taken must 
be to secure these accessories to development or the development 
cannot take place. These two needs then, for transportation 
facilities and for power, will create the greatest demand for 
foreign capital in the near future. The Bolivian Government 
has, within the past few years, turned its attention especially 
to the development of transportation facilities. By the Ace 
treaty with Brazil Bolivia secured an indemnity of between 
$10,000,000 and $n,ooo,cco United States gold, which is to be 
devoted to the building of railroads. The preliminary surveys 
were begun by a large party of American engineers a year or 
two ago and are still being pushed rapidly in spite of interrup- 
tions caused recently by certain most unfortunate misunder- 
standings and quarrels among the members of the engineering 
commission. It is too early as yet to state with perfect de- 
finiteness what roads are to be constructed, but the following 
is an approximate outline of the plan : 

It is proposed to build about 1,000 miles in all, consisting 
of five "main lines" with branches. The main lines and approx- 
imate lengths are : 

From Viacha (a station near La Paz on the existing line 
from La Paz to Guaqui) to Oruro (present terminus of 
the line which runs from Bolivia to the coast at Anto- 

fagasta.) 135 

From Ororu to Potosi 200 

From Potosi southward to Tupiza (this line will eventually 
connect with the Argentine line, which has already 

reached a point north of Jujuy.) 150 

Yungas line (from La Paz eastward into the Department 

of Yungas.) 200 

Cochabamba line ( from Oruro to Cochabamba.) 130 

The "branch lines" are : 

To connect the Yungas line with La Paz 10 

To connect the Viacha-Oruro line with Corocoro • 45 

To connect the Oruro-Potosi line with Colquechaca 20 

To connect the Oruro-Potosi line with Sucre 70 

To connect the Potosi-Tupiza line with Porco 20 

To connect the Potosi-Tupiza line with Chorolque 20 

Total . . . . . 1,000 

Considerable modifications have already been made in the 
original proposals, and more are likely to be made as the work 
of the preliminary survey progresses, but the foregoing list 
gives a sufficiently clear idea of the general nature of the plan, 
which is to connect the mining centers with already existing 
lines, to join the railway system of Bolivia with that of Argen- 
tina, which is advancing from the south, and to get an outlet 
to the eastward to the great Amazon waterways, through the 
Territory of Yungas. The total cost of the work has been 
estimated at a little less than $40,000,000. Of this amount Bo- 
livia already has between ten and eleven millions, received from 
Brazil. Various proposals have been made for borrowing the 
remaining or such portions of it as can be negotiated on reason- 
able terms. , ^ . , 

A solid train of twenty-five carloads of white lead containing 
almost 1,000,000 pounds to be distributed among several hundred 
different towns of the New England states, has been shipped 
from the firm of Hammar Brothers White Lead Company of 
St. Louis, via the Lackawanna Line. Taken in connection with 
the similar trainload shipped-by the same firm last month to the 
Brooklyn navy yard, which was also routed by Hammar Brothers 
over the Lackawanna Line, this New England consignment 
represents the largest sale of white lead ever made in an equal 
space of time, amounting to about 1,500,000 pounds. The present 
shipment is being handled the entire way by daylight in order 
that its banners and decorations may call attention to the aggres- 
sive way in which this St. Louis firm is entering into competition 
in the east. The shipment will be sold through the New England 
dealers, Messrs. Carpenter & Morton, Boston, Mass. 

May, 1906 



Technical Publications 

Tests of High Speed Tool Steels on Cast Iron. By L. P. 
Breckenridge and Henry B. Dirks. Published by the University 
of Illinois Experimental Station, Urbana, 111. This bulletin 
on high speed steels is one of the most valuable expositions, on 
the subject yet put out. It is the second paper on high speed 
steel sent from the University, and gives information of the most 
valuable character on the durability of various well known high 
speed steels. This bulletin will be sent to those interested on 

Gooch, and Allfree-Hubbell valve motions are illustrated and told 
about interestingly. For the student of valve motion, whether 
advanced or otherwise, there is no better treatise on the subject. 

"Machine Shop Arithmetic," by Fred H. Colvin and Walter 
Lee Cheney, is now in its fourth edition, and has 144 pages 4x6 
inches. It is published by the Derry-Collard Co., New York. 
Price, 50 cents. The fact that this little educator has reached 
another edition indicates the estimation in which it is held by 
shopmen. It is not only a necessity to those whose knowledge 
of arithemtic was curtailed for various reasons, but also a means 
of brushing up long forgotten formulas, which, while simple, 
yet are necessary in shop practice. The new matter comprises 
metric screw threads and allowances for running shrink and 
forced fits. The value of the book lies in its clear explanation 
of principles, which makes it easy of comprehension to the reader. 

• ♦ « 

Link' Motion. By Fred H. Colvin. Published by the Derry- 
Collard Company, 256 Broadway, N. Y. Flexible covers, 4x6 
inches, 82 pages. Price, 50 cents. 

This little work fills a place that has remained void for some 
time, giving a history of the locomotive link motion, and showing 
in twelve charts complete movements of valves under various 
conditions of travel, lap and lead. It tells in plam terms how to 
"set" a valve, giving all the operations in detail, besides explain- 
ing the many peculiarities of the link motion with every kind of 
valve in use. In addition to the link, the Joy, Allen, Walschaert, 

Eminent Engineers. By Dwight Goddard. Published by the 
Derry-Collard Co., 256 Broadway, New York. 5'/2x8 inches, 280 
pages. Cloth. Price, $1.50. 

The author of the biographies contained in this book is an 
engineer of standing, being manager of the Wyman & Gordon 
Co., of Cleveland, and member of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers. The work has no useless verbiage, each 
case being treated with the view of presenting only the interest- 
ing facts, the author having used much care in the selection of 
the points of interest of the notable engineers of this and the past 
century. The portraits, many of which are rare, are of the most 
authentic character available and make the work a most valu- 
able acquisition to an engineer's library. The press is of the 

handsome type usual with these publishers. 

■ ■ ^1 ■ • 

Valve Gears for Steam Engines by Cecil H. Peabody. Sec- 
ond edition thoroughly revised. Cloth, 142 pages 6x9. Price, 
$2.50. John Wiley & Sons, New York. The author's aim is 
rather to give a firm grasp of the principles and some facility in 
their application than an exhaustive treatment. Graphical meth- 
ods are used throughout, in the body of the book both for dem- 
onstration of principles and for design of gear. In an appendix 
analytical demonstrations are given of certain principles that 
cannot be treated in a complete and satisfactory manner by 
construction only. In the discussion of radial valve gears the 
underlying .principles found in all such gears are pointed out 
and a few prominent forms are illustrated. Drop cut-off gears 
are represented by a few examples chosen to illustrate the prin- 
ciples and show a variety of treatment. The changes that have 
been made from an earlier edition, it is hoped, will make the 
book simple and more easily understood. 

Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by 
M. C. Painter, M. (St O. R». R. 

Official Organ of the Master Car 

Colors Kill Germs 

(Philadelphia Record.) 

The use of colors as germicides is advocated by a French 
scientist, Dr. A. Cartez, who says that we may rid ourselves of 
microbes by painting our walls with particular colors. An ac- 
count of this process is given by La Nature, from which we glean 
the following facts : 

Deycke was the man to make investigations in refepence to 
wall coloring as a microbicide. He found that the pathogenic 
germs deposited On walls painted with size, or with amphiboline, 
at the end of a certain time either disappeared or lost their 
toxic properties. He multiplied his experiments, and this in a 
very simple manner. On pieces of board, or glass, or cement, 
paint was spread, and when this had dried a culture of microbes 
was placed on the surface. These were then kept at the temper- 
ature of an ordinary room, and at the end of a certain time a 
portion of the paint was removed and placed in a bouillon tube. 

Vito Lo Bosco made similar experiments on walls covered 
with stucco, paints and the like. Lydia Rabinowitch studied 
particularly the tuberculosis microbe, and, as did another ex- 
perimenter, Jocabitz, she found that the action of the colors 
was clearlj a bacterial one, the intensity and rapidity of the 
action depending in large measure on the color used. The best 
results were obtained with enameling colors, after four days not 
a single trace of cholera vibrio or diptheritic bacillus being 
found ; although they had previously been placed upon the enamel. 
The typhoid bacillus, the golden staphlococcus and the microbe 
of suppuration disappeared the fourth day. With the oil colors, 

Devoted to the Interests ot 

Master Car and 

Locomotive Painters 

and Locomotive Painters' Association, 

those with a lead base or one of oxide of zinc, the effects are 
less rapid, but none the less sure. 

A young doctor of the Faculty of Paris, M. Beaufils, Dr. 
Cartez says, "recently performed a series of experiments for the 
purpose of determining the mode of action of the colors. He 
studied the effects on the procpanic bacillus and on the lactic 
bacillus. For his experiments he used red and green colors, 
ordinary maroon and gray paint, and paints prepared by himself. 

"He found that all the paints did not have the same power. 
Ultramarine blue, for example, neutralize in twenty-four hours 
the effect of the pyocpanic bacillus, and after nine days this 
microbe had no power. The gray paint was almost negative in 
its effects, and the maroon only gave results at the end of 
fourteen days. The ceruse acted much more quickly than the 
zinc white." 

« ♦ • 

Brass Finish 

Are we soon to record the passing of Brass Finish? Recent 
changes in the method of maintaining the brass fixtures including 
lamps, racks, &c, by some of the leading railroads and car 
factories seem to indicate that as if by common consent, the 
usual method of burnishing and dipping brass fixtures every time 
a car is shopped, is a useless expenditure of time and money. 
The change alluded to is not confined to railroads, but has now 
become very conspicuous in residences and elsewhere. It was 
one of the leading railroads to first make the departure from 
the old style of brass burnishing by oxidizing all the brass 



May, 1906 

fixtures. This gave to the brass a sort of gun metal effect, 
and did not require frequent repetition. 

Now a substitute for this we learn has been adopted by the 
Pullman people and others by simply bronzing all brass fixtures 
with a bronze that produces this gun metal effect, without remov- 
ing any of the fixtures from their places. 

In a new dining car of the latest up-to-date finish, purchased 
by our company, the Mobile & Ohio, of the St. Charles Car 
Company, the brass fixtures were thus treated, and the effect was 
pleasant to behold. 

This change in the treatment of brass which has not come in 
the gradual form of evolution, but by such a sudden reversion, 
that to many of the advocates of the old method, it very much 
resembles the application of the emergency brake on a locomotive. 

Whether it was fad or common sense that induced the change 
we can only surmise, but it is very probable that it was the 
latter cause, especially so when it is considered what a long 
and tedious routine was involved in the old method. Let us 
consider for a moment what that is. First the fixtures must all 
be removed from the car by a carpenter, next they must be 
subjected to a lye bath to remove the old lacquer, which is usu- 
ally yet in a good state of preservation, notwithstanding the 
brass has tarnished beneath it. Next they must be dipped in 
acid, and thence to the burnishing wheel, and next to the lacquer 
vat, and then to the bake oven, and then back again to its place 
in the car. Seven times must it be handled. And for what? 
To receive a polishing that is only temporary at best, and the 
entire process to be repeated as often as the car is shopped. 

It has long since b^en demonstrated that lacquer does not 
insure brass against tarnishing. 

Whether if is the light or the lacquer that causes tarnishing 
is not ciearly demonstrated, but whatever the cause, the process 
for reviving brass is so lengthy and costly that it is out of all 
proportion to the customary method of maintaining the body and 
other parts of a passenger car. It has often occurred to the 
writer that it was contrary to the fitness of things to endeavor 
to maintain the natural brass finish- of the lamps and other lamp 
fixtures of a car for the reason that there is always more or less 
smoke escaping to tarnish them. This is like painting a chimney 
white, when in reality it ought to be of a color that does not 
contrast so strongly with smoke.- This theory is practiced in the 
coloring of our cars on the exterior; it would be equally appli- 
cable in the treatment of lamps where there is always more or 
less smoke to produce on them a grimy appearance. Therefore, 
the gun metal colored bronze now coming into use would be 
very appropriate in offsetting the effect of smoke. 

Interior Finishing 

The method of interior finishing as practiced at one of the 
large shops is as follows: 

All interior finish is received in first class condition at paint 
department from the cabinet shop. 

The first stage of the work is to protect all marquetry with 
shellac, then apply the wood filler which is composed of silax 
ground to a semi-paste in raw linseed oil, thinned with 5^ gallon 
coach Japam, V2 gallon raw linseed oil, one gallon turpentine, 
and V2 gallon benzine. For mahogany the filler is strained with 5 
lbs. of burnt sienna and 2 lbs. of Vandyke brown (ground in 
Japan) to 100 lbs. of silax. If a darker shade is desired, add 
more sienna. Allow twenty-four hours for drying. All oak 
is given two coats of filler. After the filler is dry the marquetry 
is rubbed with sandpaper and oil to remove the shellac, then the 
entire surface is lightly sandpapered and given a thin coat of 
shellac to counteract absorption of the varnish that is to follow, 
but no shellac is used in saloons, neither around window or door 
openings because of its liability to :rack at such places. 

The shellac it next sandpapered and all parts are then placed 
in position in the car and a coat of interior car rubbing varnish 
is applied ; after forty-eight hours the work is sandpapered closely 
and then carefully puttied. The putty is made several shades 

darker than the mahogany in anticipation of the darkening of 
the wood as it gets older. The putty is composed of whiting and 
dry lead in equal proportions, colored with burnt sienna. All 
nail holes are puttied full and sandpapered the following day. 

The second and third coats of interior rubbing varnish are next 
applied, allowing forty-eight hours for each coat to dry. The 
third coat is rubbed with pulverized pumice stone and water. 

The fourth and last coat is a polishing varnish, and is given 
from forty-eight to sixty hours to dry, and is then rubbed 

The second and third coats of interior rubbing varnish are next 
re-rubbed with rotten stone and water and then polished. 

» ♦ « 


Railway Coach Painting for Southern Climates 

The writer of this, after numerous experiments, extending over 
ten years in India, came to the conclusion that the whole system 
of painting for southern climates needs complete revolution. 
The system of piling coat upon coat of filling and flat turpentiny 
mixtures, superimposing upon this structure a coating of varn- 
ish, is but an expensive bastard attempt to overcome tropical 
conditions with European practice. 

If a varnished surface, after exposure for a few months, be 
examined with a good glass, it will be found to resemble the 
volcanic regions of the moon, as seen through a telescope. 

The varnish has already lost its homogeneity; instead of it 
transmitting light to the undercoats it is reflected from numer- 
ous points of a broken surface. The difference being as between 
a whole sheet of glass and the same powdered. 

Varnish consists of nearly half its volume of volatile consti- 
tuents, the remainder being oil and gum combined with the 
chemical dryers. After the evaporation of the turps, the oil 
and gum is left- in a gelatinous consistency on the surface of 
the paint. The more liquid of this penetrates the porous under- 
coating leaving the thicker oil and gum on the surface. 

Oxidation sets in and completes the drying and for a time the 
work looks all to be desired. But such is the nature of this 
superimposed gloss that oxidation is accelerated by the intense 
light and heat, and in a few -months it is oxidised to a veritable 

To remedy this and get the best possible results from oil and 
gum was the aim of the writer. Contraction and expansion of 
wood and iron is much more marked here. That of iron is daily, 
and with a variation rising to 100 degs. F. needs a good elastic 
paint to follow it. Timber has an annual- expansion, and I 
have known panels 18 ins. across vary 3^ in. between monsoon 
and dry weather. Hard brittle paints under such conditions 
soon loosen and begin to fall away. 

Instead of priming work with hard drying lead paints,- and 
following this up with filling, the bulk of which is turps and very 
little binding medium, and completing the coloring with sharp 
flat mixtures, the writer makes a medium fully elastic and capa- 
ble of being checked in its course of oxidation. 

New Paint Medium. — Melt say one pound of best Zanzibar 
copal gum, melting point 700 degs. F., add one gallon pure cold- 
drawn linseed oil, blend till clear on glass, cool down to about 
300 degs. F. keeping the mixture as thin as possible. (It is 
here where a difference is made from the ordinary varnish 
maker.) In the ordinary course the heat is kept up to 500 degs. 
F. or 600 degs. F., until the blend can be drawn out in strings. 
This artificial thickening is incipient oxidation and should be 

The blend is then boiled at the lower temperature with dryers. 
For this purpose use linoleates instead of oxides and borates. 
Two blends should be made of the medium, one with two ounces 
of lin of lead and two ounces of lin of manganese. The best 
way to add these is to fuse them in a separate pot with their 
weight of oil, allow to stand over night and use only the super- 
natent liquid. 

*Extracts from paper by J. Wilson Hall, M. S. C. L., in India 
Railway Conference Association Competition. 

May, 1906 



Boil the blend at the temperature named for one hour, store it 
for a week or two for maturing. 

The second blend should be made with lin of manganese only 
5 to 6 ounces to the gallon and in the manner described. 

The first should dry on glass in six hours, while the second 
blend may take 12 hours. Temperature say 80 — 90 degs. F. 
These two mediums, which may be called "A" and "B," are 
used in the following manner: — "A" (lead) for blacks, browns 
(Indian red) ana other bad drying pigments. "B" is used only 
for light color and vermilion. A mixture of the two for colors 
partaking of good and bad drying pigments, as, for instance, an 
amber color containing sienna. Umbers are good dryers. 

Take the medium and make up the color required, adding suffi- 
cient pigments to make a good solid paint. It will be rather 
thick, but the temptation to add turps should be avoided, if pos- 
sible, and the paint laid on with a good stiff brush. 

After applying it to a portion of the work, take a piece of 
pumice-stone, or one of the blocks of artificial stone (fine) and 
rub well into the grain or other open parts. A few strokes with 
a brush afterwards will then straighten the work up. 

Should the work be rough or open grain, teak for instance, 
in addition to the color required, add a little of the best filling 
powder. Allow this coat to dry hard and apply another in the 
same manner. Screw holes, joints, etc., to be filled with stiff 
oil putty. On no account should gold size stopping be used. 

According to the roughness of the work, more coats will be 
required, but for most work four of the filling compo will suffice. 

Let stand until perfectly hard, rub down with cuttle fish, tak- 
ing care not to rub through on edges, sharp angles, etc. 
Editor Railroad Paint Shop. 

Referring to Mr. W. T. Hogan's article in the March number 
of Railway Master Mechanic on the preparation and painting 
of steel structures, I am inclined to agree with him in several 
points of his argument, mainly on the iron oxide as a protective 
coating and the conversion of rust, in the pores of the iron, into 
a protective paint. In commenting on his article in another part 
of the magazine you say, "Experience teaches that when rust, 
has once begun in the least, it cannot be entirely and permanently 
checked." To this assertion, I beg to take exceptions, as my 
experience is directly opposite. Take for instance a car roof 
of galvanized iron or steel, has there yet been invented a paint 
that will not scale and peel off from such a roof within twelve 
months of its first application, and after the peeling off and rust- 
ing of the exposed surface, it is repainted without any precau- 
tionary measure for removal of rust there is no further complaint 
of scaling, unless where some of the old paint was not re- 
moved by scraping before repainting. But you may reply the 
scaling was due to the galvanized metal and when scaling took 
place the cause was removed with the paint. Very true to an 
extent, but no special effort is ever made to remove the rust, 
caused by exposure, from the paint scaling. Again take an 
engine tank; great care is usually taken to remove rust before 
painting, except around the rivit heads, which, for various rea- 
sons, are usually slighted, and yet from my personal observa- 
tion, there will be found less deterioration of paint there than on 
any other part of the tank. I do not mean to imply that paint 
applied over a coating of rust an eighth or quarter inch thick, 
will prevent it from scaling off, but I agree with Mr. Hogan that 
rust in the pores of the iron may be converted into a preserva- 
tive paint by the use of a proper vehicle. 

Altoona, Pa. Fred S. Ball, 

Master Car Painter Pennsylvania Ry. 
■ ■ ♦ « 

The Sand Blast 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop. 

What has the Sand Blast to do with painting? Such a ques- 
tion is not impertinent and we shall be glad to show you the 
relation between the two. 

When you desire to put a protective coating of any kind upon 
a metal surface, your first cc ncern is to have that surface clean 

and you want it not partially clean but absolutely so. There are 
several ways of attaining this result. But where economy of 
time and labor and material are primary considerations there is 
only one rational way and that is by the Sand Blast. The rapid 
improvement within recent years in machinery for compressing 
air has revolutionized the methods in the foundry, machine and 
repair shops. The older methods and the primitive types of tools 
have fallen into disuse for the same causes that have relegated 
the hand loom and the flail to the garret and the museum. The 
Sand Blast Process is the logical result of the ever increasing 
use of compressed air. It is a process which needs nothing more 
than a thorough practical test to insure to it the preference over 
all other methods of cleaning metal surfaces. Its wide use in 
the large manufacturing establishments of this country and the 
rapid conquest it is making of this particular field, affords ample 
proof of the assured place it has acquired in the estimation of 
all well informed engineers and superintendents of factories. 

We believe the painter is quite as ready as any of his fellow 
craftsmen in other industrial lines to avail himself of the best 
means of accomplishing his work. And the only reason why the 
use of the Sand Blast is not general in the paint shop is because 
the master, painters are not generally aware of its immense value 
in giving effectiveness and durability to his work. Every prac- 
tical painter knows that much of his work is rendered worthless, 
especially in cases of repainting, by the fact that the old paint, 
rust and scale are not completely removed from the surface to 
be painted. The joints and angles whose complete protection is 
vital to the strength and durability of the structure are the very 
points where the most rust and scale are left to continue their 
destructive action where the ordinary methods of cleaning are 
employed. Whereas, the Sand Blast searches every point 
whether exposed or obscure and leaves it as clean as a surface 
freshly planed or polished. And the painter does not need to be 
informed of the importance of having the surface in this condi- 
tion in order to secure the perfect adhesion of the protective 
coating and the consequent preservation of the metal. 

If you have any doubt about the Sand Blast being adapted to 
your uses or about its economic value, write us and we shall be 
pleased to demonstrate these facts to you. 

Very truly yours, 
Tilghman-Brooksbank Sand Blast Co., 

Philadelphia. Pa. 


Comments on the Advisory Committee Meeting 

At the meeting of the advisory committee in New York on the 
22nd, ult., an excellent programme was arranged. The list of 
subjects chosen is somewhat out of the beaten path, which fact 
makes them all the more interesting. 

Subject No. 1 aims at a defect of long standing, and a costly 
one, which if solved will effect a great saving to all railroad 
companies in the cost of maintaining their pas^SMvav equipment. 
It is to be hoped that the committee will delve deeply into the 
mysteries of this trouble, so that if any one should miss it, an- 
other may haply find a fitting and practical solution. 

Subject No. 2 is also a most important one. Since the change 
from tin to canvas coverings for passenger cars, which is now 
seemingly the order of the day, it is possible that there is yet 
much to be learned as to the best means of applying and main- 
taining canvas roofs. The annual painting of canvas roofs does 
not seem to be advisable, for the reason that when a thick crust 
of paint has formed, the canvas is robbed of its elasticity and 
cracking and splitting of the canvas is the result. It should be 
painted in such a manner, and with such material that will enable 
the canvas to retain its elasticity indefinitely, and the recoatings 
should not occur oftener than is actually necessary to preserve 
the canvas and prevent leaking. 

The Sand Blast is a subject that affords a wide field for the 
range of one's views, both practical and imaginary. While it 
already fills a very important place in the paint shop list of facili- 

1 66 


May, 1906 

ties, it is possible that there are yet other ways in which it can 
be utilized. 

Subject No. 3, The painting of freight equipment, deserves 
special attention. This class of railroad equipment multiplies so 
rapidly under the increasing demands of commerce, and unlike 
the passenger coach is not shopped for repairs at regular inter- 
vals, but on the contrary is retained in service as long as it is 
serviceable. On this account it appears to be impossible to es- 
tablish a practical system for painting and stenciling them, that 
will insure a uniform appearance and protection, therefore the 
painting of the freight cars in the first instance should be the 
best that science and experience can devise. The stenciling 
should receive special attention, as it is too often the case that 
many cars are observed in transit with the name of the road 
to which they belong entirely obliterated, thus creating the im- 
pression that they had lost their owner, and were simply chasing 
up and down the land if haply they might find him. 

Something more durable than white lead and oil seems to be 
necessary for stenciling freight cars, and it is to be hoped that 
the committee on this subject will find and point out what that 
something is. The paint sprayer, and Sand Blast should also 
come in for its proper share of consideration in the treatment 
of this subject. 

Subject No. 4 regarding the manufacture of paint and varnish 
by the various railroad companies for their own consumption, is 
worthy of earnest consideration. There are at present one or 
two roads manufacturing their own paint whose experience 
would possibly furnish data that would be a criterion in the 
consideration of this subject. It is possible that where the 'coil- 
sumption of paint or varnish is of sufficient quantity to justify 
a plant, equal in efficiency to that of the average paint manufact- 
urer, that a saving might be effected, but is rather questionable. 
Furthermore the subject presents other phases of interest to 
railroads If all railroads were to manufacture their own paints, 
cars and engines, produce their own fuel and in fact everything 
that they consume, and establish commissaries for supplying food 
and clothing to their employes, it would restrict commerce to 
such an extent that it would be seriously felt by the railroads. 

Subject No. S regarding the apprenticeship system, is a sub- 
ject of vital interest not only to the railroads, but to the welfare 
of the entire country. Commerce, or rather industrial work has 
increased to such an extent in recent years that the supply of 
finished mechanics is not equal to the demand, and in the ab- 
sence of a regular indentured apprenticeship system by which a 
boy can be forced to remain until he completes his trade, there 
arc many worthless, so called mechanics infesting the country. 
This is a weak spot in the body politic, and detracts from our 
national greatness. What is true of the paint shop in this parti- 
cular is true of all other branches of industrial art. Our national 
greatness depends in a large measure upon our constructive abil- 
ity, and our constructive ability depends upon the quality and 
the industrial ability of our native mechanics. It is to the in- 
terest of railroads to foster a well defined system of training 

■ ■» « 


Elsewhere in this issue is an article from our esteemed asso- 
ciate member, Mr. Fred S. Ball, in which he takes issue with the 
editor concerning the views which we expressed in our comments 
on Mr. Hogan's article in the March issue of the Official Organ, 
entitled, "The Preparation and Painting of Steel Structures." 
The point on which Mr. Ball differs with us, were these words. 
"Experience teaches that when rust has once begun in the least, 
it cannot be entirely and permanently checked." In support of 
his argument Mr. Ball cites the case of a roof composed of gal- 
vanized iron or steel, and states that the painting of such roofs 
in the first instance invariably flake off in twelve months, and 
that after the metal has rusted and then repainted, that there 
is no further complaint. Omitting the consideration of galvan- 
ized iron in this connection on account of its different composi- 

tion from steel, and further for the reason that it is not em- 
braced within the views of Mr. Hogan's article, we will deal 
only with the question of the preparation and painting of steel 
as contemplated in the original article by Mr. Hogan. 

As regards the flaking of paint from a new steel roof within 
twelve months, we must admit that this has not been our exper 
ience, although we are ready to concede that such is liable tc 
happen if the paint is not properly mixed and applied. All 
steel or iron is more or less porous and if this fact or condition 
is not taken advantage of by mixing the priming coat sufficiently 
thin by the addition of a certain proportion of turpentine to en- 
able it to penetrate the invisible pores, and thus secure a firm 
hold upon the metal, flaking is not only possible but probable. 
A thick oily paint used as a first coat or primer will bridge over 
the pores without entering them, in which case the paint would 
have no more adhesion than it would upon a piece of smooth 
glass. Although metal is porous, the pores are very fine, hardly 
perceptible, therefore it is very important that the first coat be 
sufficiently reduced with turpentine as to enable it to penetrate 
the pores and thus acquire sufficient adhesion to prevent flaking 
or scaling. Furthermore there should be a certain amount of 
porosity in the first coat so that the second coat will unite with 
it firmly, the turpentine will produce this condition. Many- 
painters of the past and possibly some of the present day held 
to the theory that all metal including tin should first be allowed 
to rust before painting to insure adhesion, believing as they did 
that it was due to the virtue of the rust. When in reality it was 
due to the roughened condition of the metal caused by the rust, 
thus affording the paint better adhesion, (notwithstanding the 
presence of a very thin layer of rust), than it would have on a 
perfectly smooth surface free of rust. But in such cases, if, after 
the rust had roughened the surface, the rust could be entirely 
removed before painting, the work would prove to be more dur- 

Paint will not adhere well to smooth glass, but if the glass be 
subjected to a sand blast, and then painted, its adhesiveness is 
greatly increased. The sand blast can also be substituted for 
rust for roughening the face of new metal or tin without hav- 
ing the future deviltries of the latter to deal with. 

If, as Mr. Ball contends that rust in the pores of metal is a 
good thing, why, we ask would it not be a good thing on the face 
of the metal as well? or in other words why is it good in one 
place and not good in another? 

The nature of rust is generally understood by the painting 
fraternity, by them it is well known that rust has but a feeble 
hold 011 the solid part of the metal, and therefore paint when ap- 
plied over rust, necessarily has but a feeble hold and will soon 
flake off. As regards the conversion of rust in the pores of 
metal into a paint as Mr. Ball suggests, it has been demonstrated 
that rust (oxide iron) does not make good paint until its affin- 
ity for oxygen has been destroyed, which can only be done by 
calcining, thus changing its nature. When metal having a clean 
face but rusty pores, has been painted over, the rust may be 
held in check so far as its reappearance on the surface is con- 
cerned, as long possibly as the paint is kept in an impervious 
condition, but the rust "is active notwithstanding, as may be prov- 
en by instances where the iron hulls of vessels have been eaten 
entirely through by rust that begun on the outer surface, but 
which betrayed no evidence of its ravages because of the thick 
crust of the paint covering the exterior. 

Here we rest the case for the present, hoping to hear again 
from Bro. Ball or others on this interesting subject. 

The Variable Effect of Climatic Conditions on 
Paint and Varnish 

Elsewhere in this issue is an abstract of a paper by J. Wilson 
Hall, M. S. C. L., in India Railway Conference Association Com- 
petition. Under title of Railway Coach Painting for Southern 
Climates, which we publish net only for some very good points 
that it contains, but for the purpose of making some comments 

May, 1906 



thereon. It will be seen that the system suggested by the author 
of the article, in question is a radicle departure from customary 
methods, and theoretically the plan appears feasible. 

We infer from the article that it is a theory that the author has 
not yet reduced to practice, if so he neglected to state what were 
the results. The point aimed at by the author is to acquire more 
elasticity for his coatings in order that it may not become hard 
and brittle under the extreme heat of the tropical sun. This he 
proposes to affect by preventing incipient oxidation in his binder 
materials, and by omitting the use of turpentine or other volatile 
vehicles entirely, as the author seems to think that such vehicles 
produce brittleness. The author also claims that oxidation or 
drying of his mixture can be checked even after it is applied, or 
in other words that it can be made to dry to a certain degree of 
hardness and there stop. 

Can the author substantiate his claims by means which he 
proposes? Let us see. It must be admitted that the effect of 
extreme heat causes brittleness of paint, or almost anything else. 
When paint reaches that stage, when it has become as hard as it 
is possible to get, it begins almost immediately to deteriorate, 
very much in the same way that a man's vigor begins to wane 
after he passes middle life. Now if it were possible to mix paint 
or varnish so that its drying could be controlled, and prevented 
from reaching the hardening stage its durability would be pro- 
longed indefinitely. It will be observed that the mixture of which 
the author speaks as one that can be checked in the process of 
oxidation, is composed of practically the same ingredients of 
which ordinary coach varnish is composed, minus the turps, that 
is gum and linseed oil, the only difference in the process of man- 
ufacture being that in cooking, only about half the usual degree 
of heat is used. It is a well known fact that linseed oil pos- 
sesses a strong affinity for oxygen, which cannot be destroyed by 
cooking, neither is it lessened by not cooking. Now to add to 
it a varnish gum is simply for the purpose of hardening it, which 
is the point that the author desires to obviate. In addition to the 
gum for hardening the oil, the author .also adds lin- 
oleates for dryers. Here, then are two agents added to 
the mixture which conduce especially to its brittleness, 
on account of their tendency to cause the mixture to 
dry, but which the author intimates will reach a cer- 
tain degree of hardness and there stop. Is this plausible? Lin- 
seed oil without dryers on account of its affinity for oxygen will 
harden in from thirty-six to fifty-four hours according to cli- 
matic conditions. It is possibly true that the addition of gum to 
oil causes the mixture to harden on its face very soon after it is 
applied to a surface thus excluding the oxygen from the under 
part of the coating, and thus partially retarding its drying, until 
the surface film becomes sufficiently porous to admit oxygen, then 
the process of hardening is soon completed, and brittleness soon 

To attempt to make a composition that will remain elastic in- 
definitely by the use of material or ingredients that have a 

natural affinity for oxygen does not appear to be feasible. It is 
possible that this affinity can in a measure be neutralized with 
chemicals, but in so doing the virtue of the material is also de- 
stroyed to a large extent. In the semi tropics where the writer 
resides, the temperature often reaches 100 degrees in the shade, 
and its effect on paint and varnish has been carefully noted, and 
comparisons made with the painting in temperate climates. There 
is a very marked difference in favor of the latter. We have made 
experiments with a view to effecting a composition, that would 
withstand the effect of extreme heat, and we believed like the 
author referred to, that elasticity was the proper thing, but ex- 
perience soon revealed the fact that elastic under coats blistered 
when coated over with varnish, the reason of which we attribute 
to the fact that the extreme heat caused the under coats to gasify, 
and the gas in its efforts to escape caused blistering. 

We also experimented with mixtures of a resinous nature 
for priming and found that they blistered also under extreme 
heat, while composition of linseed oil and white lead, slightly 
reduced with turpentine used as a primer, invariably gave the 
best results. We also find from experience that if the sAperim- 
posed coatings are of medium elasticity that the best results are 

As regards to the author's statement concerning expansion, 
(he says nothing of contraction) in which he cites instances of 
54 in. variation in 18 in. panels or the equivalent of an inch to 
*.he foot. This statement does not seem plausible where sea- 
soned wood was used to begin with. The facts concerning the 
expansion and contraction of wood are that wood when green will 
expand under extreme heat, and gradually contract as the moist- 
ure dries out, and thereafter varies but very little under varying 

But in the case of iron it is almost in continual motion ex- 
panding through the heat of the day, and contracting under the 
cooling temperature of the night. 

But so far as this contraction and expansion affects the dur- 
ability of paint and varnish, it is not as destructive as one might 
suppose as long as the paint and varnish have life enough to 
expand and contract, for while the excessive heat is heating the 
wood or metal, it is at the same time softening the paint, and 
thus rendering it pliable, which prevents cracking, under expan- 
sion, and vice versa as to cooling, while contracting. It is only 
after the paint has lost its life entirely under these repeated 
heatings that it cannot longer expand and contract, then crack- 
ing is the result, and next flaking. In discussing this subject, 
we have not assumed the negative side from prejudice, but rather 
from the fact that the author bases his proposition on his abil- 
ity to check the drying of paint at a certain point, which to the 
practical mind seems absurd, for the reason that the same forces 
or agency that started the paint to drying, will continue its work 
until the paint reaches the ultimate degree of hardness, espec- 
ially when the ordinary drying oils and gums are used in the 
composition. But had he mentioned some of the non-drying oils, 
such as niger seed oil, cress seed oil, grape seed oil, or cotton 






1 68 


May, 1906 

seed oil, or those possessing weak drying properties as compos- 
ing his mixture it would have appealed more to reason. But 
judging from our view point, it is just about as possible to check 
a projectile from a canon in the midst of its flight, as to check 
the drying of a paint indefinitely that is composed of ingredients 
that have a natural affinity for oxygen. 

Red Lead: Something of its Properties and 


Red Lead is a heavy bright red powder of an orange hue, its 
specific gravity being 8.53. Heat turns it to a dark brownish 
red, but the color is restored on cooling. Certain acids act on 
red lead. Nitric acid and glacial acetic acid first dissolve out 
the monoxide, leaving the dark puce oxide; on further boiling, 
this gradually dissolves and colorless solutions of the nitrate or 
acetate are formed. 

Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) when heated with red lead 
decomposes it with the evolution of chlorine, and the formation 
of the chloride, which settles as the solution cools in the form 
of transparent needles, a very characteristic reaction of lead. 
Sulphuric acid boiled with red lead forms the sulphate, with the 
evolution of oxygen. 

Red lead is a combination of the two oxides of lead, the mon- 
oxide Pb. O. and the puce of dioxide, Pb. 2 ; it is generally 
considered that they are present in the proposition of two equiv- 
alents of the first, two one of the second, red lead, therefore, 
having the formula Pb 3 4 , the percentage composition being: 

Lead monoxide, Pb. 64.5 

Lead dioxide, Pb. 2 35.5 100.0 

There is reason for believing that Pb 3 4 does not accurately 
represent the true composition of red lead; but that some of it 
is in the free condition; this free oxide is not distinguishable 
from the combined oxides by treatment with acids, but, by treat- 
ing with a 10 to 12 per cent solution of lead nitrate, it is quite 
possible to extract 16 to 31 per cent of free oxide, while the 
purified red lead thus obtained contains 25 -.4 to 25 :j per cent of 

The formula of red lead would then be Pb 4 5 , which is that 
assigned to it by Phillips and other authorities. Percy gives the 
following analysis of red lead: 

Lead monoxide 80.54 per cent 

Lead dioxide 18.89 per cent 

Fervic oxide 1.9 per cent 

Copper and silver trace. 


■ ♦ ■ 

Test for Linseed Oil 

To determine the proportion of mineral or rosin oil in adul- 
terated linseed oils, place 20 grammes in a beaker with a little 
water and alcohol, then add some caustic soda and boil for 
sometime, stirring at intervals, the linseed oil becomes saponified 
while the adulterants are acted on, after about an hour's boil, 
the mass is allowed to cool a little, then it is poured into a sep- 
arating funnel and some petroleum ether is added, which will 
take up the mineral oil and form ? layer on top of the aqueous 
layer. After allowing the two layers to separate completely, the 
bottom layer is run off and the top layer is washed quite free 
from all traces of the soap formed by the action of the alkali 
on the linseed oil, by several treatments with warm water. The 
ethereal layer is then run into a weighed glass, the ether evapo- 
rated off, and the residue of mineral oil weighed. Whether the 
residue is mineral or rosin oil must be judged from the nature 
of the residual oil after evaporating off the ether. If this is 
heavy and viscid, and smells of rosin oil when heated, then rosin 
oil is present. If the residual oil is light, then mineral oil is 

We were most agreeably surprised by a visit recently from our 
fellow member of the association, Mr. Geo. Schump, master car 

painter of the Ellen N. at Louisville, Ky. Mr. Schump is making 
a tour of the system inspecting the passenger equipment, he re- 
ports things in a flourishing condition, and to judge from his 
looks, he is also on the same string. 

» ♦ » 

White Wash 

Not a very significant term from the painters standpoint. The 
mention of it usually suggests a "nigger" and a long handle 
brush, and it sometimes recalls the moral uses to which it is 
made to apply upon some of our public officials, but while it is 
regarded as an excellent panacea in the latter case in some in- 
stances, it also has its industrial uses of no little value. 

Lime or lime stone from which white wash is made, is the 
basic nonoxide of metal calcium. It is not only an excellent pro- 
tection for metal against rust in some instances. If a boiler when 
not in use be filled with lime water rusting will be arrested. If 
polished metal of iron or steel be immersed in a solution of lime 
water it will not rust. 

As a germ destroyer and preventive of decay, its usefulness 
may be inferred from the fact that rough board fences or other 
lumber that is regularly white washed, seldom ever decays, this 
is due not to an impervious coating, but to the fact that it de- 
stroys fungi germs which produce decay. 

The following formula for a white wash will be found to give 
excellent results : — 

1 bushel unslaked lime, 

2 lbs. sulphate of zinc, 
2 lbs. common salt. 

Slake the lime in a covered barrel, dissolve the other ingredi- 
ents separately in hot water, after the lime has cooled, add the 
salt, stir well, and then add the zinc. Thin with water to the de- 
sired consistency. 

« ♦ » 

Mr. R. B. Kadish has been appointed salesman of the Chas. R. 
Long, Jr., Co., manufacturers of railway paints, Louisville, Ky., 
with headquarters in the Great Northern Bldg., Chicago. 

■ » » 

From Mr. B. T. Wynn, of Pitcairn, Pa., we learn of the death 
of Mr. W. B. Wolfe, president of the Wolfe Brush Co., -of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Mr. Wolfe had many friends among the members 
of our association who will doubtless be saddened by the news 
of his death. 

■ ♦ » 

The New York & Pittsburgh Air Line Railroad Company, hav- 
ing purchased the property and franchises of the The Altoona & 
Philipsburg Connecting Railroad Company, has cancelled lease 
of its railroad property to the Pittsburg, Johnstown, Ebensburg 
& Eastern Railroad Company. 

The Westinghouse Machine Company, of East Pittsburg, Pa., 
has recently contracted with the Olean Street Railway Com- 
pany to install in their power house at Ceres, N. Y., two gas 
engines for supplying current to the Olean Street Railway, 
serving Olean, Ceres, Bolivia, etc. In the near future power 
will also be supplied to an interurban railway system between 
Olean and Salamanca, N. Y., a distance of 15 miles. 

» ♦ » 

Elsewhere in this issue is an article on the merits of the Sand 
Blast by the Tilghman-Brooksbank Sand Blast Co., of Philadel- 
phia. This is in response to our previous invitation to all manu- 
facturers of paint shop specialties or others to contribute to our 
columns anything that is of general interest to our readers. It 
is possible that some of our readers may regard such articles as 
merely an advertisement which ought not to be permitted in 
these columns. To such an assumption we reply that no useful 
information, regardless of its source should be rejected. Articles 
of the character in question which contain no useful informa- 
tion, but are evidently intended only as an advertisement of the 
author's products will not be accepted for publication. 

June, 1906 



Established 1878 


Published by the 

BRUCE V. CRANDALL, President CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-President 

O. H. REYNOLDS, Editor O. W. BODLER.Secretary 

WARREN EDWARDS, Manager CHARLES A. BLAKE, Ass't Secretary 

MAHAM H. HAIG, Mechanical Engineer 

Office of Publication Room 510 Security Building, Corner 
Madison Street and Fifth Ave., Chicago 

Telephone - - Main 31S5. 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City 

Telephone - - 3524 John. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price, $1.00 a year; to foreign countries, $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies, 10 cents. Advertising 
- rates given on application to the office, by mail or in 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Papers should reach subscribers- by the first of the month 
at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or 
failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 
gladly sent. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter. 

Vol. XXX 

Chicago, June, 1906 

No. 6 


Volume of Firebox Water Spaces .' 169 

Large Electric and Steam Locomotives ..170 

From a View Point of a Practical Mechanic 171 

Drop Grates 172 

A Standard Brake Staff 172 

Large Locomotive Boilers 173* 

The Telephone and the Railroads 183 

New York Central Cast Steel Cylinders 184* 

The Walschaert Valve Gear for American Locomotives 185 

Grate Area and Fuel Consumption 185 

C. R. I. & P. Simple Consolidation Locomotive 186* 

Pacific Type Passenger Locomotives 187* 

Railway Storekeepers' Association Convention 180 

Inspection of Car:-; at Interchange Points 190 

Machine Shop Practice of Today ..192 

Copper Staybolts 191 

New Lake Shore Prairie Type Locomotive 193* 

Pittsburg Railway Club Meeting 194 

Gasoline Propulsion 195 

High Plane of American Machine Tools 196 

Comparative Test of Large Locomotive Air Pumps 196* 

The Bull Dog Lock Nut 198* 

Cary Automatic Car and Train Pipe Coupling 199* 

Cardwell Friction Draft Gear 200* 

Cardwell Rocker Side Bearing 200* 

Uses of Steel vs. Wrought Iron 201 

Standard Arch Bar Drill 201* 

Twenty-Inch Crank Shaper 201* 

Power Hack Saw 202* 

New Blount Wet Tool Grinder 203 

New Garvin Milling Machine 203 

New Power Rammer, Tabor Mfg. Co 204* 

Globe Ventilator 205 

Notes of the Month 205 

Railroad Paint Shop 206 

Electricity vs. Steam as a Motive Power 210 

NEITHER the number of cross locomotive pits in 
a tranverse shop nor the number of locomotives 
which may be placed in a longitudinally arranged shop 
is a criterion of the shop output. Nor will the number 
of machines per locomotive pit determine entirely the 
efficiency of operation and rapidity of output. 

The shop management, methods of operation, shop 
kinks and unity of action among the sub-departments, 
are prime factors. Location of machine tools and ar- 
rangement of facilities for simplifying the movement of 
material and providing for the convenience of the work- 
men are absolutely essential, with good light on all sides 

as one of the leading features. 

■ ♦ » 

THE introduction into railroad shop plants of a 
"midway" — or main thoroughfare — served by a 
traveling crane has many commendable features and it is 
believed that such an element is destined to constitute a 
characteristic of future large shop installations. 

The centralization of main buildings around, or adja- 
cent to, an open space of such nature facilitates the 
handling of heavy material and thereby establishes a 
closer relation among the shops so served, by providing 
rapid movement of parts from the points of distribution 
to the shops where finished parts are assembled. 

By placing the storehouse, blacksmith shop, foundry, 
truck shop, planing mill, locomotive and freight car 
erecting shops, so that they may be served by an outdoor 
crane and thereby establishing intimate relations among 
these several departments, the efficiency of the plant 
as a whole may be increased materially. 

A system of push car trucks leading to the remote 
parts of the plant and coining within the scope of the 
main thoroughfare further facilitates delivery through- 

Volume of Firebox Water Spaces 

WIDE water spaces have been the foundation on 
which the advocates of improved circulation in 
locomotive boilers have reared the fabric of their argu- 
ments, and they are few at this time that take issue with 
them, as the widening of water spaces will bear witness. 
There are, however, some other reasons for widening 
water spaces, aside from the aid they give to circulation. 
One of these is the greater length of staybolts permis- 
sible and the reduced stress on same, which is a most 
important point in considering the weakness of stay- 
bolts. Another, and equally vital advantage coming 
with the wide water space, is the fact that it carries 
with it a greater volume of water. 

As the locomotive boiler has practically reached the 
limit of its size, there is evidently but one recourse left 
in which to obtain a larger water volume, and that is to 
increase the width of water spaces around the firebox. 
The advantage of such an increased volume of water 
heated to the pressure temperature is recognized from 
an economic viewpoint, but it is equally important as 
a safety measure in having a reserve to draw on when 
the drain on the boiler is at its maximum. The evap- 
oration under these conditions is rapid, and of course 

1 70' 


June, 1906 

the ability >o£ .the machine to do work is contingent on 
that of the boiler to perform its functions. 

An- example of the rate of evaporation on a simple 
consolidation engine having cylinders 23 by 32 inches, 
wheels 63 dnches • diameter, boiler 80 inches diameter, 
flues 16 feet long and a firebox 9 feet long by 6 feet 
wide, will ■ furnish an idea of such work. Assuming a 
liberal amount of water over the crown, say, ten inches, 
there will be about 6,700 lbs. of water to draw on. Cal- 
culation shows that at the speed of 35 miles an hour, 
with a cut-off at 40 per cent, of the stroke, this water 
would be evaporated in six and one-half minutes. These 
, figures are closely corroborated by values found in test 
work, and near enough for our purpose to point a moral, 
and show that scoop and injector manipulation must be 
of a high order to keep an engine up to her work, since 
the incoming water is cold (about 60 degrees) and must 
be raised to the temperature due to the pressure in too 
short a time to consider fine economy. A greater vol- 
ume ; of water would aid materially in equalizing this heat 
proposition, and with less evil effect on the boiler — and 
fireman. ' 

A' reference to the proceedings of the Railway Master 
Mechanics' Association for the year 1897, will show that 
Mr. John Mackenzie, then Supt. of Motive Power of the 
N.''Y:'Cy'-& St.. L. road had been experimenting oh wide 
water spaces. The information thereon is so interesting 
at this' time that' the remarks of Mr. Mackenzie are 
quoted' in full as follows: 

"Some three years ago (1894) we built four boilers 
and gave them 8^ ' inch water spaces, taking out ten 
flues, and utilizing that part for water space and making 
the staybolts 8% inches long between sheets. Up to 
this time (1897) we have not had a broken staybolt ; 
the first engine sent out has made something like 260,- 
000 miles." 

While the above was' simply testimony on the ques- 
tion of staybolt practice, it is also of the greatest interest 
to those who followed later in the development of the 
wide water space idea which has been worked out with 
the'' view, primarily, of aiding circulation. The case 
cited will, it is believed, have a wider significance when 
the matter of firebox water spaces is worked out to a 
logical conclusion, as is now being considered by a 
prominent trunk line, and in no half-hearted way, for 
water spaces 103/2 inches wide are on paper at this 
time. ■ 

In' order to get such a width of space, the grate area 
must' be encroached upon to that amount, and there are 
few who will say nay to a reasonable reduction in that 
direction, at least on roads where the grate is now 
blocked off, which are not a few, and where the econ- 
omy claimed for a low combustion per unit of grate area 
has not worked out in practice, as was expected with 
the adoption of the wide firebox. 

» ♦ » 

Large Electric and Steam Locomotives • 

DATA of the most interesting kind referring to the 
relative value of steam and electricity in heavy 
haulage, which is information that has been needed since 
the advent of electricity on steam roads, has been fur- 

nished by Mr. J. E. Muhlfeld, general superintendent of 
motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, in his 
paper before the New York Railroad Club. The facts 
given in that paper are deduced from tests of steam and 
electric locomotives in service, and present a comparison 
of the actual cost of work done in both cases from records 
of performance, the only reliable basis on which to 
predicate the future of either type of machine in freight 

These records are reliable in every respect and must 
be accepted as a correct exposition of the value of both 
machines under the conditions. From them, there are 
some things brought to light that were not of common 
knowledge, and one of these, which has a strong bearing- 
on the commercial aspects of the situation, is that the 
electric locomotive which receives its power from a sep- 
arate generating plant, represents an initial cost of about 
50 per cent greater per pound of tractive power under 
working load than for a steam locomotive like the Mallet 
compound, against which the electric locomotive was 
tested. To this cost must be added the greater cost for 
repairs and operation per mile run for the electric engine, 
and the installation, maintenance and operation of a cur- 
rent producing, conveying, storage, converting and dis- 
tributing system, which is not required by either a steam- 
or an internal combustion engine, and all of which in- 
crease the capital and operating expenses. 

Again, in connection with the all important point of 
cost involved in the use of electricity, Mr. Muhlfeld, 
gathered from the tests that while the construction and 
operation of electric locomotives is still in an experi- 
mental stage, their performance during the past year, 
under varying weather, rail and service conditions, when 
compared with steam locomotives, shows a cost which 
will make their present use prohibitive, when fuel must 
be used to generate power, except in case of absolute 
necessity. Also, that while electricity as a motive power 
is superseding steam in many cases, for the handling of 
suburban traffic — passenger and freight — and that it may 
displace the latter for through passenger service, it will 
be some time before electrical energy will supplant steam 
power for the handling of heavy tonnage for any consider- 
able distance. 

These findings as the result of carefully conducted in- 
vestigations are not without great value, and well worth 
weighing in consideration of the elements that make for 
success of either type of power, since they are derived 
from controlling factors for both types, and they will 
stand until refuted by facts equally responsible from 
electrical engineers. It will be noted that Mr. Muhlfeld 
makes no effort to discredit the economy or efficiency of 
the light electric units used in suburban service, his work 
having been confined exclusively to the overcoming of 
heavy resistances. To supplement this work in the 
lighter powers, as between steam and electricity, would 
be most interesting to the adherents of both systems of 
motive power. If this were done, and the cost question 
removed from the domain of generalities, a whole lot 
of uncertainties would be cleared up. 

June, 1906 




From the View Point of a Practical Mechanic 

Mr. Editor: 

My impression of your valuable paper is that it is 
edited to so cover the field of the railway mechanical 
department as to provide matter of interest to all con- 
cerned, from the head of the motive power department 
down through all stages, including foremen and not ex- 
cepting men in the ranks who wish to post themselves 
on issues of the day for the purpose of preparing them- 
selves to seek opportunities of greater responsibility. 
With this impression in mind it has occurred to me that 
a record of some of the features encountered during 
close contact with the locomotive might prove of in- 
terest, not that I have anything new to offer, but rather 
that it may recall forgotten conditions to the minds of 
those who are seeking to make improvements or pre- 
paring new plans. Further than this, I should deem 
myself fortunate if my efforts excite any discussion 
which might be prepared, either as a matter of com- 
parison or to correct any erroneous ideas which I may 
set forth. 

From the standpoint of a machinist there are a num- 
ber of points coming under my observation during 
daily association with the locomotive, suggesting certain 
changes which would appear to be worthy of considera- 
tion by the management on account of convenience and 
economy. From the fact that certain arrangements of 
parts are made and given designs put forth, one would 
naturally infer that they are intended to represent the 
best practice, inasmuch as the locomotive is a carefully 
planned machine. At the same time, however, one fre- 
quently sees parts of an engine and conditions surround- 
ing the same which do not justify the inference that all 
present arrangements are for the best. It would seem 
therefrom that those in authority overlook many vital 
points because of their being too thoroughly engrossed 
in the maze of details of their official positions, or they 
gradually forget some of the things they had to struggle 
with in the early stages of their careers while engaged 
in actual mechanic's work. 

Summer weather makes doubly arduous the task of 
caring for cab appurtenances in a hot engine. It is not 
always consistent in round house practice to pack the 
several fountain throttles, injector rams, etc., when the 
engine is cold and it is therefore no uncommon task 
to pack such valves when the boiler is under steam pres- 
sure. To pack a valve controlling live steam, the valve 
proper must of course be tightly closed, for if not so 
closed or in a leaky condition it is almost impossible 
to apply packing satisfactorily, for the reason that the 
steam pressure will blow it out as fast as applied and 
furthermore hot steam is decidedly uncomfortable to 
work in. Those familiar with valves common in lo- 
comotive cabs, know that the packing nut must be un- 
screwed and the gland and nut pushed back to such 
position on the stem as to make room for the insertion 

of packing and provide space for the manipulation of 
the packing hook. Frequently, valves are found to be 
provided with Stems so short that when the valve is 
closed the nut and gland cannot be removed sufficiently 
to apply the packing. With this experience in mind it 
would seem justifiable to require valve manufacturers 
to provide their valves with stems of sufficient length 
to permit their being carefully packed while control- 
ling steam pressure. 

This feature may seem of very little importance, and 
especially so to one railroading across a flat top desk, 
but to the man packing the valve it is a matter of do- 
ing the job and if the valve needs packing it needs to 
be done properly. 

The location of these valves, too, with regard to their 
relation to other valves and pipe affects the movement 
of a wrench ; and on a high boiler the fountain and its 
connection might be placed to one side of the center 
line where they may be conveniently reached, instead 
of at the highest point above the firebox in an inacces- 
sible location. 

And while valve packing is in mind it may not be 
amiss to refer to the effect of paint on the valve stems. 
It becomes hard and interferes with the movement of 
the stem through the packing nut, with the closing of 
the valve and with the removal of the nut when pack- 

Before getting down from the cab let me call your 
attention to the advisability of standard gaskets for 
water glasses and for lubricator glasses. Gaskets are 
seemingly of but small significance, but there are these 
little things that make up the systematic whole, and 
the small leaks that need to be stopped to save money. 
If it were possible for all gaskets used in the connection 
here mentioned to be one size the machinists work 
would be greatly facilitated, or such would be the case 
even if all of the gaskets of the same class of engines 
were identical. Under such circumstances, when a wa- 
ter glass is reported broken, a machinist would have but 
to go to his cupboard or to the local storeroom and feel 
certain that he would not waste time selecting gaskets. 
Again when the gaskets intended for a given class of 
engines are not just the proper size, a loss of time ensues. 
If the fit around the glass is too snug or the outside 
diameter is too large for the water glass cock, time 
must be taken to trim the gaskets until they make an 
easy -fit. Where the gasket is too tight the glass is li- 
able to break again on the road, either from the pres- 
sure against the glass being too severe when the rub- 
ber becomes heated or from the strain on the glass pro- 
vided by the tight fit in the event of the cocks being 
slightly out of line. 

On boilers in which the throttle rod extends through 
a gland in the back boiler head, I have noticed the wa- 
ter glass so located in relation to the throttle lever con- 
nections, that a new water glass could not be applied 



June, 1906 

without turning the top water glass cock. Such an ar- 
rangement should be guarded against. After a water 
glass cock has been in a boiler for a great length of 
time it becomes so cemented with scale that it is dif- 
ficult to turn. Where it is necessary to readjust the 
cock every time a new glass is applied, it is very likely 
that both cocks will not be absolutely in line and if one 
cock is out of line, an amount sufficient to allow the 
packing nut to rub against the glass or to allow a strain 
to be put upon the glass when pressure is applied to the 
gasket, the glass will be broken. It would therefore 
be better practice to locate the water glass cocks so 
that they need not be disturbed in applying new water 
glasses, for when the cocks are once adjusted accur- 
ately, it is best to alow them to remain unmolested. 
Furthermore the necessity of moving the cock adds 
that much more work when it is necessary to renew 
water glasses on the road, and with limited tools, an en- 
gineer on the road is less likely to readjust the cock 

Not infrequently a round house foreman approaches 
one of his men saying "Bill put a lubricator glass in 
the 571. She is out at the coal chute and going to leave 
soon." "Bill" gathers up his tools and with them a 
glass of such length that it can be cut to fit any cock of 
the lubricator, carrying with him a rat tail file to cut 
the glass. He must then carry a pocket full of gaskets 
to insure having some that will fit the lubricator, and 
if he fails to carry the proper ones, his helper must make 
a trip to the storeroom and make another guess. Dur- 
ing this time the engine and crew may be waiting. 

Yours verv truly, A. M. 

Drop Grates 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic : 

I have noted with interest your editorial in the May 
issue, discussing the location of drop grates and re- 
ferring to the location of the same in the center of the 
firebox as practiced on the Wabash Railroad. This 
appeals to me particularly at this time as drop grates 
have until recently been located immediately beneath 
the flue sheet on engines of the road with Avhich I am 
connected. This practice has recently been changed ; 
with some engines the drop grates have been entirely 
removed and in others the grates have been placed just 
beneath the fire door. 

My interest in the matte t is from the standpoint of 
the round house force on account of the work in knock- 
ing fires. As remarked in your editorial, drop grates 
in the front firebox tend to produce leaky flues and 
engines which arrive at the cinder pit with flue sheets 
dry are sometimes found to be leaking a little later on 
account of the attack of the cold air coming up through 
the drop grate when the fire is being cleaned. With the 
drop grate located immediately under the fire door con- 
siderable difficulty is experienced in knocking out clink- 
ers for the reason that it is difficult to handle a slash 
bar in the manner necessary to drop clinkers at this 
point. With no drop grates it is necessary to pull large 
clinkers through the fire door with fire ronsfs and this 

is a hot and tedious job. Therefore, from the stand- 
point of round house work, the location of the drop 
grates in the center of the box seems desirable. 

I have recently had two engines under my jurisdic- 
tion whose performances appear of interest in this con- 
nection. Drop grates had been removed from both 
engines. However, one of them was a free steamer and 
the other a poor steamer in addition to having leaky 
steam pipes. The first engine made its trip over the 
road each day in comparative comfort with the only 
additional work consequent on the removal of the drop 
grate being incurred by the round house force. With the 
poor steamer, however, the engineer and fireman suf- 
fered. This engine had to stop each day to have its 
fire cleaned in order to get over the road, this work be- 
ing done by the engine crew, and they have sometimes 
had to call in the head brakeman to help move the grate 
shaker. A drop grate would have been of material as- 
sistance in this connection as the clean fire could have 
been scraped aside and the clinker dropped through the 
grate with much less work. 

I hope you can consistently get some expressions 
from other railroads regarding the subject of drop 
grates in the center of the firebox. 

Yours Truly, 

Round House Foreman. 

A Standard Brake Staff 

THE slow processes involved in the evolution of a 
standard practice are scarcely compatible with the 
hustle that has placed our power and equipment in the 
front rank of their kind, and this is more evident in details 
of minor importance than elsewhere, that is, in parts 
that would seem to lend themselves very readily to stand- 
ardization. A case in point is the brake staff — simply a 
round piece of iron — but one of those things that has 
not yet been raised to the dignity of being exactly like its 
fellows, unless we except the diameter of the drum, or en- 
larged part at the bottom on which the brake chain winds. 
In height there is no pretense of similarity even on the 
same class of cars. Its location with reference to the 
center of the car is also a variable quantity. Its brake 
wheel may be, and is, any diameter, and as if to present 
hopeless complications, the rest which supports the shoul- 
dered brake staff is of more designs than were ever be- 
fore conceived for any detail in car construction. These 
simple little parts would be better standardized, than in 
the chaotic shape they have always been in. 

« ♦ » 

ONE of the most efficient devices for leveling up a 
boiler for applying cylinders, or for holding same 
in a given position for any purpose, is a pair of ordinary 
screw, or hydrostatic jacks which have a flat steel bar 
pivoted to the jack heads. This bar is about ]J/j inches 
thick by 8 inches deep, and has its upper edge curved to 
fit the average boiler shell. The bar being pivoted to 
each jack, no harm is done if one jack happens to lead 
the other somewhat in raising or lowering, and the whole 
scheme is safer than blocking, which is not necessary to 
use until the final setting to position. 

June, !<)<>(> 



Large Locomotive Boilers 

PAPER with the above title was read be- 

Afore the Institution of Mechanical Engin- 
eers on February 16 last, by Mr. G. J. 
Churchward, one of the most eminent 
English engineers, and one whose opinion 
stands as a synonym for accurate knowl- 
edge on locomotive design and operation. 
This paper contains much interesting data 
which in many points parallel the deduc- 
tions from experiment and practice in this country, es- 
pecially with reference to wide firebox design. There 
are, however, some particulars concerning his observa- 
tions of water circulation that are of the highest value, 
since they indicate that the direction of flow is affected 
by different methods of firing, the trend of the current 
being shown by diagrams. Much has been written 
about circulation, but no attempt has been made in this 
country to show its action graphically. 

The author of the paper has not confined himself to 
the roads of his native heath for data to draw on, but 
exploits some cf the largest boilers on the American 
roads, which fact gives an increased value to his treat- 
ment of the boiler question for our readers, and should 
awaken renewed interest in the subject by the American 
Railway Master Mechanics Association, which had the 
investigation of boiler design up for two years, and has 
alowed it to reach the languishing period. A proper 
impression of the work of Mr. Churchward in the case 
may be had from our quotation of it from "Engineer- 
ing" of London, to whom credit is also due for the il- 
lustrations. The paper is as follows : 

The modern locomotive question is principally a ques- 
tion of boiler. The great increase in the size of boilers, 
and in the pressures carried, which has taken place dur- 
ing the past few years, has necessitated the reconsider- 
ation of the principles of design which have been worked, 
out and settled during many years' experience with 
comparatively small boilers carrying low pressures. 
The higher temperatures incidental to the higher press- 
ures have required the provision of much more liberal 
water spaces and better provisions for circulation. Lo- 
comotive engineers have now apparently settled down to 
the use of one of two types of boiler for very large 
engines — the wide firebox extending over the frames 
and wheels, and the long narrow box sloping up over 
the axles behind the main drivers. 

In Great Britain the contracted loading gauge pro- 
hibits the use of the wide firebox type over wheels larg- 
er than 4 feet 6 inches diameter, so that it is not being 
used so generally as in America, where it is becoming 
practically universal. In America the great power of 
engines now employed renders the wide firebox a neces- 
sity, but in Great Britain, where the coal burnt per mile 
is very much less, few boilers of this kind have been 
built. On the Great Northern Railway, Mr. Ivatt has 
provided his fine 'Atlantic" class with wide fireboxes, 

shown by Fig. 8, and they are undoubtedly very suc- 
cessful. On the North-Eastern Railway; Mr. Worsdell 

has also designed a wide firebox for the boiler of his 
new "Atlantic" type. Mr. Holden's boiler on the heavy 
suburban engine for the Great Eastern Railway, shown 
by Fig. 3, is the largest of the type vet built in this coun- 
try. For the Great Western Railway Mr. Dean de- 
signed and built some goods engines with wide fireboxes, 
shown by Fig. 11, and the author has since designed, 
but not yet built, a modified form of the same type to 
be carried over 4 feet 6 inch wheels, as shown by Fig. 

Much more experience has been gained with the wide 
firebox in America than in this country, and, so far as 
the author has been able to ascertain, it has been found 
there that the poorer coals in large quantities can be 
burnt with much greater facility and economy in this 
type than in the narrow pattern. This advantage, is 
offset to some extent by the fact that when standing 
there is considerable waste in the wide grates as com- 
pared with the narrow, and this is, of course, serious 
when goods trains are kept standing about, as is often 
the case here. This disadvantage has been found on 
the Great Western Railway ; but no doubt careful de- 
sign and fitting of ashpans will keep this waste within 

A much more serious trouble has been found in the 
leaking of tubes in these boilers. This seems to be quite 
general, and the Master Mechanics' Association has a 
committee specially going into this question with a 
view to finding a remedy. All methods of tube expand- 
ing have been tried, and also much wider spacing, even 
up to and over one inch, without curing the trouble. 
The reduction of the depth of the firebox, in order to 
get a long box, sloping over the tailing wheels of coup- 
led engines, certainly increased the trouble from leakage 
of stays ; but the alternative of a wide firebox entails 
a much heavier engine for most of the types, and then 
apparently tube trouble is increased. The wide fire- 
box evidently requires a higher standard of skill in the 
fireman, for unless the grate is kept well and evenly 
covered, there is a tendency to have an excess of air, 
reducing the efficiency and increasing tube trouble. 
With modern high pressures the temperature of evapo- 
ration is so much increased that the, provision for 
circulation which was sufficient for the lower pressures 
formerly used, is doubtless insufficient. Boilers in which 
this provision has been made have shown a marked re- 
duction in tube and stay troubles. It will be noticed that 
in the illustrations to this paper, very liberal areas have 
been given, and this is the general tendency in Amer- 

It is probable that in the wider fireboxes, the main 
mass of the fire being so much nearer the tube-plate 
has a bad effect on the tubes, as the intensity of the tem- 
perature at the tube-plate must necessarily be much in- 



June, 1906 


13 lX< — - T.a't,- 


'Firebox... ~ VM-1 . V 

420 353S 
VaierimeArea- 32-S3 

Flu£Arecu - M3 

SteamSpacc.-- 65-ffl C£Fti\ , 

- 6'.3%- — ->j 


391Tuies U cUa, - CS8eOOSqM\ • 


Total - 479600 ., .. 

Grate Area, * 58-5 Sqf'L 

Water Une Area — 14G-&8 „ .. 

Flwe-Area* — 848., ., 

Steam, Space. - MZ-UCi't. 

, KrJusiri f'ressi- u-e -225lbs per So;. In 

10 i ss 

9 wv, - 


June, 1906 


■ '75 

■ !S 9 Vis -* 8-3Ve 



: 1 

Waterllibes - IS SOSjJl. 

3652lU/at2dia,.-278735 .. 

Firebox: - 158-80 .. 

Total, —- 2966 '25 ,. ., 
OraUrAre-as-.-L- S00 Sq\Fb. 
Wetter luieArccu-f 111-8 ,, „ 
FUwAr&a,. - 5-81,, ., 

tCeam SpCLCZc-..^ lOVGAC.Ft. 

Workinql'ressiire-'llOlbs per Sq. 

**' n~ — -t> « '»*•• 


FIG. 7. — 4-6-2 TYPE, CHICAGO & ALTON RY. 

— le lOTa- 



June, 1906 

-e's'/tt -i 



FIG. 10. 







— h 

Z68Tiibes2'dia,."22TS-6 Ah Ft. 
Mreiox,.—...- 180 „ „ 
Iotal—~U55-8 „ „ 

Grai&Jnrtxu—.- 21-0 SqJFt\ 
WalerLmeAr-ech~U0 1 „ .. 
ItuecArea,.. - 4 4J .. ., 

JS 703 

!) O' 


June, 1906 



— - ■■;— 16 it 

193 Tubes r<tia..- 1C£9-0SqM : 
I . -Ute/wx....... 130 :, -- 

IbtaL...... -1769 .. ,. 

GratxtAi-eos = 2S-0 SqTl 

WaterLui&Arew 90-1 ,, „" 

FUucATeco. - 3 19. ., 

Steam Spaxx.__ SOSlC.Fb. 
WorhjinPrees -lOOUbsper Sqjru 

q- ,o' ~-yi 



■* 31 o" — -H 


3300ym, (I0\3 S %.) 


■*-- !2Wym, (3: II "i.) -H 

_W_atP ± r_J £ iriR 


IZGServeTuJbes 2X1^ 1273-5, 

Firebox. — 167-00 

Grace Area,. - ZS-5 

13242. f) 

WaJerLineArea.... -100-17 

Flue Area. = 3.75" ., 

Stenjrv Space, - 82-80 CwFt 

Wurkwj) Fness-ure. = 227 lbs perSqJm 

744fr 53|24g77S?f , 

-JL p 

-4.1S0™j m . 03.1W) - 4*— -3.000-Yn. (SiO'i) ■ 


—t5iS7/m. ft: ii*i) 


i 7 8 


June, 1906 


-— 10 . JO-i 



274 Tubes M-1516-5 Sq.Ft. 
Firebox, - HO-- 

Total '-1630-5 Sd Ft. 

GrcdeArew- ''21-30 Sq.Fb. 
WcUerLineArea;*73-82 - " 
Fhue Arew..'.. -4-3/ 
Stemrv Space '55-90 Cw.Ft 
WorkuufFress.'180lbsperSaJn M 




June, 1906 



FIG. 21. 


faete.H) T 

FIG. 22. 





261 Plain/Tubes Viata. = J448 Sq.Fo. 

Firebox .... = 150 , . 

To body = 1598 Salt. ' 

Flue Area,. = 3-37 Sa.Ft. 

Grate Area, =27-14 „ ., 

WaJUrLiruz Area>-= 82-10 , -. 

Steam/ Space =65-Z0Cw.Ft. 

Working Pressure = 1951bs.perSq.fw. 


H- Q-OVi 

creased. The extra width of the firebox has enabled the 
tubes to be put much too near the sides of the barrel. 
When this is done, the water to feed up the spaces be- 
tween the tubes near the back tube-plate has to be drawn 
almost entirely from the front of the barrel; and it is 
possible that in some cases the space left for this pur- 

pose is inadequate. It will probably be found that the 
neglect of this consideration is the cause of three- 
fourths of the tube trouble: In the boilers shown by 
Figs. 10, 14, and 26, an effort has been made to pro- 
vide for this upward circulation near the back tube- 
plate by leaving a space between the tubes and barrel, 



June, 1906 


3' IV 

■11 o' -*- To' 


from top to bottom of a sectional area equal to the 
combined area of the vertical spaces between the tubes 
at all points, with a balance to provide for the water 
coming back from the front of the barrel to feed the 
water spaces of the firebox. There is no doubt that the 
upward draft of water through the spaces between the 
tubes for, say, 2 feet from the back tube-plate is very 
strong indeed, and in all probability this is enough to 
prevent the necessary feed of water down the spaces of 
the firebox, unless ample area is given, so causing stay 
as well as tube trouble. 

By putting the clack-box (injector check) for both 
injectors under the barrel, as shown by Figs. 10, 14, 
and 26, and providing an internal nozzle directing the 
feed back toward the firebox, considerable assistance is 
probably given in feeding "solid" water back to the fire- 
box and hottest part of the tubes. It is generally sup- 
posed that the circulation in a locomotive boiler pro- 
ceeds along the bottom of the barrel from the front end. 
down the firebox front, and up the sides and back 
of the firebox. The author, two or three years ago, 
fitted a number of vanes in a boiler, with spindles 

June, 1906 



;-« .'i 1 


passing- through lightly-packed glands to the outside, 
with indicators to show the direction of the flow of wat- 
er. Observations showed that the circulation was gen- 
erally as stated above, but a little alteration of the fir- 
ing had the effect of materially changing the direction 1 
of the currents, and even of completely reversing them. 
Fig. 28 is submitted to enable the results of the experi- 
ments to be appreciated. The arrows show the different 
directions of the currents in the various experiments. 

These experiments suggested the desirability of 
bringing the circulating pipe from the front of the bar- 
rel, bifurcated to each side of the firebox at the founda- 
tion ring ; but the consideration of possible danger from 
an outside pipe open to the boiler caused the. experiment 
to be abandoned. The experiment has since been made 
in America, and it is reported that great reduction of 
trouble with side sheets resulted. The extended length 
of tubes seen in some designs of wide firebox boil- 
ers is due to the use of six-coupled wheels in front 
of the firebox. Experience of long tubes appears to be 
quite satisfactory, and they certainly keep up the econ- 
omical efficiency of the boiler when it is being forced to 
the limit of its capacity. In this respect the long tube 
fulfils the same function as the Serve tube (which is 
favored so much on the Continent) performs in boilers 
with shorter barrels. 

The ratio of diameter to length of the tube undoubt- 
edly has a most important bearing upon the steaming 
qualities of the boiler, and upon the efficiency of the 
heat absorption. This is more particularly noticeable 
when the boilers are being worked to the limit of their 
capacity. If 2 inch tubes, say, are employed in barrels, 
11 feet to 12 feet long, when the boiler is forced, the 
length is not sufficient to absorb the heat from the 
amount of gases that a 2 inch tube will pass, and over- 
heating and waste result. - The amount of tube-leaking 
which is experienced with modern wide fireboxes in 
America, has brought up again the idea that the spacing 
should be wider — say, one inch instead of three-quar- 
ters ■ but from the investigations of a Master Mechan- 
ics' Committee, it appears that the wider spacing does 
not cure the trouble. It is clearly of no use to provide 

wider spaces for the upward current unless equivalent 
area is provided for the downcoming water. 

The gradual extension of the practice of making 
the top of the firebox and casing flat, instead of round, 
is noticeable. On the Great Western Railway less trou- 
ble has been experienced with the flat top firebox than 
with the round top, although no sling stays of any kind 
are used. The flat top has the important advantage of 
increasing the area of the water-line at the hottest part 
of the boiler, and so materially contributes to the re- 
duction of foaming. This combined with the coned 
connection to the barrel, has enabled the dome, always 
a source of weakness, to be entirely dispensed with and. 
drier steam obtained. The author some years ago made 
an experiment to settle this much-disputed point. Two 
identical engines and boilers were taken, one boiler hav- 
ing a dome in the usual position on the barrel, the 
other having no dome, the steam, being taken by a pipe 
from the top of the flat firebox casing. The engine 
without the dome proved to be decidedly freer from 
priming than the other. The liberal dimensions of two 
feet between the top of the firebox and the inside of the 
casing no doubt contributed to this satisfactory result. 
The coned barrel connection, in addition to providing 
a greater area of water line, also gives a larger steam 
capacity, and, by the larger diameter being arranged tG 
coincide with the line of the firebox tube-plate, much 
more water space at the sides of the tubes is possible. 
On consideration of the great intensity of temperature 
at the firebox plate, as compared with that at the smoke- 
box plate, the advantage of the arrangement is obvious. 

There is really little to be said as to firebox stays. 
The stay question is in very much the same position in 
which it has always been. For the present high pres- 
sures, copper is still being used below the fire-line, with 
closer spacing down to 3*4 inches pitch. Bronze is 
often used above the fire, and the boilers of the De- 
Glehn compounds are so fitted. In America, York- 
shire iron is still used, and recently Professor Ffib- 
bard, experimenting there on some iron stays, arrived 
at the astonishing fact that the ductility of iron stays 
increased instead of diminished, with the higher pres- 

1 82 


June, 1906 


sures now common. The author is using a few Taylor 
iron stays experimentally with a view of ascertaining 
whether this material is more durable than copper, un- 
der the conditions brought about by the increased tem- 
peratures in modern boilers. Experiments are being 
made by many engineers with water-tubes in fireboxes 
— notably by Mr. Drummond, of the London and South- 
Western Railway, shown by Fig. 27, who is so satis- 
fied with the results that he is building this type entirely. 
Unfortunately, it is a necessity to have a deep firebox 
in order to employ water tubes effectively, or it is prob- 
able that many engineers would be following Mr. 
Drummond's example. 

The employment of a superheater is having an ex- 
tended trial in Germany and also in Canada. This af- 
fords the prospect of obtaining the same steam efficiency 
by the use of, say, 175 pounds pressure as by employ- 
ing the pressure of, say 200 lbs. to 225 lbs. This, no 
doubt offers some prospect of success, and is attractive 
from the fact that the alternative of compounding neces- 
sitates the use of the higher pressures, and consequent- 
ly presents no hope of relief from boiler troubles. The 
Great Western Railway are fitting up one of their stan- 
dard No. 1. boilers, shown by Fig. 14, with the Schmidt 
arrangement, with a view to see what advantage can 
be gained with the simple engine. Formerly the power 
of a locomotive was estimated largely from the ca- 
pacity of its cylinders, and this led occasionally to the 
use of cylinders of such dimensions that the boilers pro- 
vided were not capable of generating sufficient steam to 

enable them to be worked at their maximum economical 
power for any length of run. To-day this is changed, 
and the first consideration is the capacity of the boiler. 
A table is presented showing the dimensions of cyl- 
inders and diameter of driving wheels used in connec- 
tion with the various boilers illustrated ; and an exam- 
ination of the ratios will show how much more heating 
surface is now provided for a given area of cylinder 
than used to be considered necessary. The higher pres- 
sures now common have undoubtedly produced much 




Total Heating 










ft.' in. 

tns cwt. 

tns cwt. 

sq. ft. 


Mallet compound— Baltimore 1 
and Ohio | 

0-12-0 "I 
Artieu- } 
lated J 

2 \™ 

4 8 

144 6 

144 5 


Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 


201 x 28 

6 8 


77 18 


Great Eastern 


181 X24 

4 6 





Baldwin compound — Atchison- 1 
Topeka and Sante F6 f 

19 1 x32 
32 f xii 

4 9 

104 15 




Cole four-cylinder compound — 1 
New York Central and Hud- ]- 
son River I 

4-4-2 { 

26" } ** 

6 7 




/ Compound — Colorado and \ 
\ Southern / 

2-8-0 | 

28 / x32 

4 9 

79 8 

90 8 


Chicago and Alton 


22 X28 


60 6 



Great Northern * . . 

4-4 2 

19 X24 

6 7£ 


65 10 



Baldwin four- cylinder com-A 

4-4 2 / 

25 }* 26 

pound — Chicago, Burliog- J- 

6 6 

41 8 

87 14 


ton, and (Juincy . - . . J 

Great Western . . .. . .. 


19 X28 

4 7} 

61 16 

60 8 

f 1518 distributing. 

Great Western 


20 X24 

4 n 

47 4 

59 10 

I 2388absorbing(Serve 
!_ tubes). 



20 X28 

6 10 



North- Eastern 


20 X20 

6 i)J 

34 17 

67 2 




IS , X30 

6 84 


70 10 

Great Western '■* . . -: 

4 6-0 

18 X30 

6 8A 

54, 4 

70 4 




18 x30 

6 8J 


68 6 



New De Clehn compound -') 
Great Western . . / 

4-4-2 | 

14 'Hx25* 
23§ / *~« 

13 » \x25> 

6 8i 


73 6 

("1617 distributing. 
\ 2756 absorbing (Serve 
\ tubes). 
/1446 distributing. 

" La France," Great Western . . 


6 8i 

33 7 

64 13 

-I 2456absorbing^Serve 

Chicago, Burlington and Quincv 


Illinois Central 


Canadian Pacific 


20 X2U 

5 9 

56 12 

73 8 


Great Eastern 

/ 4-4-0 
1 0-6-0 

19 X 26 
19 X26 

4 11 

33 19 
43 14 

51 13i 

43 14 


London and North-Weateru 


201 } X2i 

18 X26 



57 12 




5 3 

43 16 

43 16 


Compound— Midland 


» }X26 


38 3 

58 9 

M598 outside plain 
\ tubes. 

North- Eastern 


19 x26 

6 10 

35 5 

51 14 


Great Western 


18 x26 

6 8i 

35 10 

56 14 


Great Western I 


18 X30 
18 x86 

6 8} 
6 8J 

34 6 
36 2 

55 6 
55 6 


Water-tube— London and South- 

19 X26 
4 (16x24) 

6 7 

37 2 

51 10 

53 19 


Ditto Ditto 




more efficient locomotives, both in respect of hauling 
power and coal consumption. This improvement has 
been very marked with every increment of pressure, 
right up to the 227 lbs. .carried by the DeGlehn com- 
pounds. These have been most successful compounds, 
and the higher pressure carried is, no doubt an import- 
ant factor. By employing 225 lbs. per square inch in 
the simple engine, and making the necessary improve- 
ments in the steam distribution, enabling higher cut- 
off to be used, corresponding improvements in effi- 
ciency and economy of fuel have been obtained. Great 
increase of draw-bar pulls at high speeds have also re- 
sulted. Of course the price for these improvements 
has to be paid in the matter of firebox repairs and re- 
newals, but it is probably better to submit to this ex- 


June, 1906 



pense, than to employ the very much heavier and more 
costly machines which would be necessary to give the 
same hauling power at speed. 

An interesting pair of combined curves are shown 
in this connection, comprising draw-bar horse power 
and speed, plotted on a time base for a 4-6-0 engine, 
the boiler of which, shown by Fig. 14, carried a pres- 
sure of 225 lbs. per square inch. 

The Telephone and the 1{ailroads 


THE first recognition of the telephone by the rail- 
roads was the use of a telephone at the depots, for 
the accommodation of the public. By its use, the trav- 
eler, knowing the exact hour of departure, can use his 
time to good advantage, instead of tramping up and 
down the depot platform. This item alone foots up a 
great sum of money. It is estimated that a telephone 
saves each user at least fifty dollars a year. It certainly 
saves employers of traveling men that much. Also, 
by the use of the depot telephone, the incoming guest 
is sure that his or her delayed train has not utterly 
destroyed the patience of the host. 

In the last few years, the increase of passenger and 
freight traffic has been marvelous. This handling of 
numerous trains involves a most complicated system of 
despatching, which must not only be done with quick- 
ness, but with safety. And it has been fully recogni-zed 
that the telephone, above all other devices, has reduced 
the danger of accident to a minimum. 

In earlier days, the railroad telephones were 
handled by the local telephone people. Railroad action 
is always quick and decisive, and as a consequence, 
could not wait on the commercial telephone operator. 
This led to the private branch telephone exchange sys- 
tem. By this means, all railroad business goes to an 
exchange devoted to that purpose. The operator is 
skilled in her work from the railroad standpoint, and 
can do wonders toward facilitating connections. This 
private branch system gives privacy, so that danger of 
leak of information is confined to the one operator 'who 
handles the work. And arrangements can be made, 
whereby the talkers can be absolutely assured that not 
even their own railroad operator is listening. 

The New York Central road has gone further. They 
are installing electrical equipment for their suburban 
service. The various power houses are connected by 
an exchange system, whereby each substation is in di- 
rect telephone communication with a central point, sim- 
ply on the problems of load distribution. By having a 
telephone system confined to load distribution problems, 
the officials may rest assured that nothing else will in- 
terfere to lower the efficiency of the telephone adjunct. 

A private branch system is connected to the regular 
city telephone system by trunk lines, so that the public 
may have